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Estate of Howard & Nancy Wagner (CT)
Winter Associates Auction (CT)
Renninger's Extravaganza (FL)
The Venice Antique Show (FL)
Lakewood 400 Antiques Market (GA)
New Year's Signature Estates Auction (GA)
44th Anniversary Antique & Collectible Auction Weekend #1 (IN)
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The Carl Crossman Collection Online (MA)
Important Americana: Furniture and Folk Art (NY)
Important Americana: Silver, Chinese Export and American Prints (NY)
Majestic America: Property from an Important Western Collector (NY)
Vineyard Dreams: Property from a Martha’s Vineyard Collection (NY)
Rare & Antique Books From the Collection of Dr. Lee Gurga (OH)
The 8th Annual Gentleman's Auction (OH)
The Berwyn Indoor/Outdoor Vintage Flea Market (PA)
When Women Lost the Vote: A Revolutionary Story, 1776 – 1807 (PA)

Featured Citizen [More]

John Hebden
a composer and musician in 18th century Great Britain. Hebden was principally an orchestral player and as such his social status and his income would have been low. He might, had he chosen, have supplemented his income considerably by composing popular songs, as did a number of his fellow musicians. Hebden was a professional bassoonist, gamba (viol) player and cellist and, in the 1730s, composed music for a small local professional orchestra containing "all the best Hands in Town."

Word of the Day [More]

Xenia
Gifts, says Nathan Bailey (1751) "bestowed upon friends, guests, and strangers, for the renewing of friendship." The singular is xenium, such a gift. Also, one made by subjects to their prince when he passes through their estates (usually traditional, often compulsory). Greek xenos, guest, stranger. Also xenagogue, one who conducts strangers, a guide; xenagogy, a guide-book; xenelasy, the expulsion of foreigners; historically, a law that could be invoked at Sparta to achieve that end. Hence xenial, of the relation of host and guest; used of such a friendly relation between two persons of different countries. The xenian Zeus, the god Zeus as protector of the rights of hospitality. A xenophile is one friendly to foreigners or foreign things; the opposite, a xenophobe. Thus xenodochy means the entertainment of strangers; xenodochium (xenodochy), a house of reception for strangers (pilgrims) , a guest-house; in the Dark Ages, often attached to a monastery.

Daily Trivia [More]

(1775-1783)
American Revolution
The Tea Act (which led to the Boston Tea Party) was repealed with the Taxation of Colonies Act in what year?
  1. 1792

  2. 1776

  3. 1778

  4. 1781


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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
The dons, the bashaws, the grandees, the patricians, the sachems, the nabobs, call them by what names you please, sigh and groan and fret, and sometimes stamp and foam and curse, but all in vain. The decree is gone forth, and it cannot be recalled, that a more equal liberty than has prevailed in other parts of the earth must be established in America.
— John Adams
Letter to Patrick Henry, June 3, 1776

Latest Activity

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01/15/212 Census People added/edited
01/14/211 Census Person added/edited
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This Day in Early Modern History -- January 16th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events

Events

 •  1492-The first grammar of a modern language, in Spanish, is presented to Queen Isabella I. 
 •  1493-Christopher Columbus returns to Spain on his first trip 
 •  1531-English Reformation parliament's second sitting 
 •  1547-Ivan IV Vasilyevich (17) crowns himself first tsar of Moscow 
 •  1556-Emperor Charles V appoints his son Philip II as king of Spain
 •  1581-English parliament passes laws against Catholicism 
 •  1756-England and Prussia sign Treaty of Westminster
 •  1765-Charles Messier catalogs M41 (galactic cluster in Canis Major)
 •  1776-Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks 
 •  1777-Vermont declares independence from NY
 •  1780-Battle of Cape St Vincent (aka the Moonlight Battle): British Admiral George Brydges Rodney beats Spanish fleet
 •  1795-French army under Jean-Charles Pichegru occupies Utrecht, Netherlands 
 •  1819-Baron Godert van der Capellen becomes governor of Dutch-Indies 
 •  1832-Charles Darwin lands at Santiago, Cape Verde
 •  1847-John C. Fremont briefly becomes governor of California

Births

 •  1675-  Louis de Rouvroy -- Writers
 •  1725-  Johann Anton de Peters -- Artists
 •  1757-  Samuel McIntire -- ArchitectsSculptors
 •  1764-  Benjamin Meggot Forster -- WritersScientists
 •  1816-  Frances Browne -- Writers
 •  1821-  John C. Breckinridge -- MilitaryGovernanceLegal

Deaths

 •  1545-  George Spalatin -- Writers
 •  1598-  Feodor I -- Governance
 •  1678-  Madeleine de Souvre -- Writers
 •  1681-  Olivier Patru -- WritersLegal
 •  1710-  Higashiyama -- Governance
 •  1719-  Petar Kanavelic -- Writers
 •  1794-  Edward Gibbon -- Writers
 •  1800-  Margaret Corbin -- Military
 •  1815-  Daniel Caffe -- Artists
 •  1836-  Heinrich Christoph Kolbe -- Artists
 •  1847-  Michael Sigismund Frank -- Artists

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 12/25/2020
Krampus – The Half-Goat, Half-Demon Devil of Christmas
December 04, 2020, HeritageDaily by Staff
Around Christmastime, many European countries are celebrating Saint Nicholas Day, usually observed on the 6th December for the feast day of Nicholas of Myra.

Saint Nicolas had many miracles attributed to his intercession, but is also known for his generous practice of gift-giving that gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus (“Saint Nick”) through Sinterklaas.

Whilst Saint Nicolas rewards the well-behaved with gifts, children who misbehaved are visited by Krampus (sometimes with Saint Nicolas), a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as a “half-goat, half-demon” on Krampus Night or Krampusnacht (December 5th).

posted on Colonial Sense: 12/24/2020
The Forgotten History of Jingle Bells
November 21, 2017, Now I Know by Dan Lewis
The first episode of the Simpsons — Season 1, Episode 1 — debuted on December 17, 1989. Homer and Marge (with Maggie in tow) make their way to Springfield Elementary School for Lisa and Bart’s Christmas concert. Bart’s grade is singing a Christmas melody featuring the iconic song “Jingle Bells.” But Bart, as seen in this clip goes with some alternative lyrics — “Jingle Bells, Batman smells, Robin laid an egg; the Batmobile broke its wheel; the Joker got awa–,” resulting in him being pulled off-stage.

Jingle Bells, the lesson we should learn, is a wholesome Christmas song, not one to be manipulated by a rascally fourth grader. But that lesson is wrong. Jingle Bells is neither a wholesome song nor about Christmas.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/15/2020
Archaeologists dig to uncover one of America's first Black churches in Colonial Williamsburg
September 17, 2020, NBC News by Jewel Wicker
A gathering in 1776 on a plantation of enslaved and free Black people in colonial Virginia established what would become one of America's first known Black Christian congregations. Although Williamsburg's First Baptist Church has long abandoned its original sites, a group of archaeologists is digging to unearth clues into this early American group of worshippers.

While worshippers met in defiance of laws barring Black people from meeting in large numbers, white landowner Jesse Cole could hear them from his home, and he often listened along with his wife. Cole offered the group a piece of property on Nassau Street to establish a physical church. By 1828, the church had a recorded 619 members.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/13/2020
Thomas Jefferson Descendant Calls For Removal Of His Famous Ancestor’s Statues
June 19, 2020, The Huffington Post by Jeremy Blum
Shannon Lanier, a ninth-generation direct descendant of President Thomas Jefferson, believes that statues of the Founding Father would be better off in museums.

Lanier, who works as a journalist and is related to Jefferson through the third president’s relationship with enslaved woman Sally Hemings, penned his thoughts in a Newsweek editorial, arguing that Jefferson was “a participant in the institution of slavery—perhaps the most notorious one among the Founding Fathers, not least because of the jarring contrast between what he practiced and what he preached.”

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/11/2020
The Forgotten American Explorer Who Discovered Huge Parts of Antarctica
March 26, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine by Gillen D’Arcy Wood
The early-1900s exploits of intrepid explorers like Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton captured the public imagination. With the benefit of cameras and deft handling of newspaper media, the Edwardian British explorers, alongside their Norwegian rival Roald Amundsen, established themselves as heroic polar pioneers. In the process, however, the south polar exploits of their American forerunner, Charles Wilkes, have been largely forgotten.

It was the round-the-world expedition by Wilkes—whose scientific collection constituted the first treasures of the infant Smithsonian—that first established the continental dimensions of Antarctica. But in a twist of 19th-century international politics, that claim to Antarctica was denied to the Americans by the pole-hungry British. Fast forward to today, and the United States finds itself in another nationalistic race to capitalize on the frozen southern continent. This time, its sparring partner is China.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/09/2020
America’s First Connoisseur
May 21, 2020, The Paris Review by Edward White
Among his many claims to distinction, Thomas Jefferson can be regarded as America’s first connoisseur. The term and the concept emerged among the philosophes of eighteenth-century Paris, where Jefferson lived between 1784 and 1789. As minister to France he gorged on French culture. In five years, he bought more than sixty oil paintings, and many more objets d’art. He attended countless operas, plays, recitals, and masquerade balls. He researched the latest discoveries in botany, zoology and horticulture, and read inveterately—poetry, history, philosophy. In every inch of Paris he found something to stir his senses and cultivate his expertise. “Were I to proceed to tell you how much I enjoy their architecture, sculpture, painting, music,” he wrote a friend back in America, “I should want words.”

Ultimately, he poured all these influences into Monticello, the plantation he inherited from his father, which Jefferson redesigned into a palace of his own refined tastes. More than in its domed ceilings, its gardens, or its galleries, it was in Monticello’s dining room that Jefferson the connoisseur reigned. Here, he shared with his guests recipes, produce, and ideas that continue to have a sizable effect on how and what Americans eat.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/07/2020
Mysterious, centuries-old rock inscription finally deciphered
February 27, 2020, LiveScience by Mindy Weisberger
A mysterious, 230-year-old rock inscription in a French harbor stumped translators for decades. But now, nearly a year after the launch of a contest to decipher the writing, experts have finally decoded its secret message.

In May 2019, officials in the town of Plougastel-Daoulas in Finistère, France, challenged members of the public to interpret the 20-line carved message, Live Science previously reported. Etched into a stone in a cove that's accessible only at low tide, the writing included two dates — 1786 and 1787 — as well as letters and symbols such as a heart-topped cross and a ship.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/05/2020
Pilgrim fathers: harsh truths amid the Mayflower myths of nationhood
September 20, 2020, The Guardian (UK) by Carrie Gibson
For a ship that would sail into the pages of history, the Mayflower was not important enough to be registered in the port book of Plymouth in 1620. Pages from September of that year bear no trace of the vessel, because it was only only 102 passengers and not cargo, making it of no official interest.

The port book is one of the many surprising objects at Mayflower 400: Legend & Legacy, the inaugural exhibition of the Box in Plymouth, Devon, which will open to the public later this month, and which is part of the city’s efforts to mark the 400th anniversary of the ship’s Atlantic crossing.

“This wasn’t a huge historic voyage in 1620. If anything, it was an act of madness because they were going at the wrong time of year into an incredibly dangerous Atlantic,” said the exhibition’s curator, Jo Loosemore.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/03/2020
If Adams and Jefferson could change the number of justices, so can Biden, Schumer, and Pelosi
September 25, 2020, The Daily Kos by Ian Reifowitz
The Supreme Court didn’t always have nine justices, and that number is not set in the Constitution. The number of justices has been changed on multiple occasions throughout our nation’s history, each time for a similarly partisan reason—namely to give one party more influence over the court’s membership. And the first back and forth over the number of justices was a struggle between two of our most prominent Founding Father presidents.

Let me lay out a scenario: On Election Day, let’s say the American people defeat an incumbent president, and give control over both houses of Congress to the party of the president-elect. In a lame-duck act that completely contradicts the very recently expressed will of the people, the incumbent’s party then takes action clearly designed to limit the incoming president’s ability to shape the Supreme Court going forward. Shortly after inauguration, the new president and his party take steps to reverse that action, steps that include changing the number of seats on the Supreme Court.

This may seem like a prediction of what might happen in the coming months, but what I’ve just described happened over two centuries ago.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/01/2020
The Hunt for Catherine the Great's Shipwreck Treasure
September 06, 2020, The Daily Beast by Mara Vorhees and Gerald Easter
In October 1771, a merchant ship out of Amsterdam, the Vrouw Maria, crashed off the stormy Finnish coast, taking her historic cargo to the depths of the Baltic Sea. The vessel was delivering a dozen Dutch masterpiece paintings to Europe’s most voracious collector: Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. The Vrouw Maria became a maritime legend, confounding would-be salvagers for more than two hundred years. In 1999, the daring Finnish wreck hunter Rauno Koivusaari set out to find it with his team, the Pro Vrouw Maria Association.

Midsummer is the time of year when Finns get in touch with their inner pagan. Before the encroachment of Christianity, summer solstice was the high holiday of the northern Baltic. White night revels involved spring potato picnics, fermented beverage consumption, and naked dance parties (at least two of these rituals are still widely practiced). The solstice signaled the transition from spring sowing to summer growing, and the critical interlude for appeasing nature’s fickle spirits, whose mystic powers and mischievous penchants were enhanced during the midnight sun. Large bonfires were lit on midsummer’s eve to frighten off ill-tiding phantoms, who might otherwise spoil the harvest or burn down a barn. Young maidens, meanwhile, delicately tucked seven wild flowers, picked from seven meadows, under their pillow, in hopes of seeing their future mate revealed in a dream. Along Finland’s west coast and throughout the islands, revelers erected long-limbed maypoles, decorated with spruce garlands, flower-woven wreaths, and jangly trinkets. Looking like a boa-clad ship’s mast, archipelago maypoles protected fishermen and sailors against the Baltic’s spiteful water demons.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 121Online Resources Links: 616Recipes: 482
Census People: 11,583 | Pix: 5,373 (46.39%) | Countries: 10,790 (93.15%) | Dates: 4,051 (34.97%) | Bio: 10,362 (89.46%) | TLs: 1,424 (12.29%)/3,768 (48.71%) | Links: 19,070 (164.64%) | Gallery: 112 (0.97%) | Notes: 1,861 (16.07%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 142 | Pix: 2 (1.41%) | Countries: 142 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 88 (61.97%) | TLs: 2 (1.41%)/9 | Links: 118 (83.10%) | Gallery: 118 (83.10%) | Notes: 118 (83.10%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,409Broadsheet Archive: 3,213Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,735    Tagged: 6,399 (82.73%)   With Links: 4,501 (58.19%)   Total Links: 5,665
Colonial Quotes: 3,325Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5
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