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Today's Events [More]

Holidays at Hagley (DE)
Holidays at the Amstel and Dutch Houses (DE)
Yuletide at Winterthur (DE)
6th Annual Tour of Lights Festival (GA)
Celebrating the Fiber Arts: The Helen Geier Flynt Textile Gallery (MA)
Engraved Powder Horns from the French and Indian War and the American Revolution: The William H. Guthman Collection (MA)
Importing Splendor: Luxuries from China (MA)
Into the Woods: Crafting Early American Furniture (MA)
Raven's Many Gifts: Native Art of the Northwest Coast (MA)
Why We Collect: Recent Acquisitions at Historic Deerfield, 2010-2017 (MA)
Holiday Tours at Tryon Palace (NC)
The Last Argument of Kings: The Art and Science of 18th-century Artillery (NY)
Decorative Arts Online Only - Pook and Pook (PA)
2017 Heritage Holidays Tours at Baker Mansion (PA)
29th Annual Mifflinburg Christkindl Market (PA)
A Longwood Christmas (PA)
Centuries Of Childhood: An American Story (PA)
Christmas at Fort Hunter (PA)
Curator’s Tour of Needlework & Textiles (PA)
East Hills Moravian Church Christmas Putz (PA)
Fine Crafts & Art Sale (PA)
Holiday Caroling at Johnson House (PA)
Making Christmas ~ Thanksgiving - New Year's (PA)
Twelfth Night Tours at Pottsgrove Manor (PA)
Under The Tree: A Century Of Holiday Trees And Toys (PA)
Winter Wonderland Holiday Decoration Tours Of Fonthill (PA)
Christmas at the Newport Mansions (RI)
A Colonial Christmas (VA)
A Colonial Christmas (VA)
A Rich and Varied Culture: The Material World of the Early South (VA)
America's Folk Art (VA)
American Furniture: From Virginia to Vermont (VA)
Architectural Clues to 18th-Century Williamsburg (VA)
Centuries of Christmas at Berkeley Plantation (VA)
Changing Keys: Keyboard Instruments for America, 1700–1830 (VA)
China of the Most Fashionable Sort: Chinese Export Porcelain in Colonial America (VA)
Christmas at Mount Vernon (VA)
Christmas at Oatlands Historic House and Gardens (VA)
Color and Shape: The Art of the American Theorem (VA)
From Forge and Furnace: A Celebration of Early American Iron (VA)
German Toys in America (VA)
Holiday Candlelight Tour - Poplar Forest (VA)
Revolution in Taste (VA)
Silver from Mine to Masterpiece (VA)
The World Made Small (VA)
We the People: American Folk Portraits (VA)

Featured Citizen [More]

Francis II of France
a monarch of the House of Valois-Angoulême who was King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his willing marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death in 1560. He ascended the throne of France at the age of fifteen after the accidental death of his father, Henry II, in 1559. His short reign was dominated by the first stirrings of the French Wars of Religion.

Word of the Day [More]

Alas! As an exclamation of sorrow, this dates back at least to Alfred (9th century) and was heard in many forms for a thousand years. Its earliest form was probably wellawo (wail a woe), Old English wa la wa, woe, lo!, woe. It was used as a refrain, Sing wellaway; my song is wellaway. Chaucer in THE BOOK OF THE DUCHESS (1369) tells: Phyllis also for Demophon Henge [hanged] hirselfe, so weylaway. Spenser in THE FAERIE QUEENE (1596) echoing Gower (1390) has: Ah woe is me and wellaway, quoth hee . . . that ever I this dismall day did see. Other similar exclamations of sorrow -- formed as variants of these -- were welladay, wellanear; in Scotland wellawins. All of these had many spelling variants; wellaway has 70 listed in O.E.D. They might be spelled with one l, or with hyphens, or as three words, e.g., well y weye. The word was sometimes used to mean a lament, as in Shakespeare's PERICLES (1608): His daughter's woe and heavie welladay. If this went on, I might echo Samuel Taylor Coleridge's ANCIENT MARINER (1798): Ah wel-a-day! what evil looks Had I from old and young!

Daily Trivia [More]

Early Colonies
In 1690, who erected a gristmill on Quantico Creek, starting what would become the town of Dumfries?
  1. Charles Quantico

  2. George Washington

  3. Edmund Wright

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
I sent Matthew to college to make a gentleman of him, and he has turned out to be nothing but a damned painter.
— Jack Jouett
Father of {c3747}...

Latest Activity

Today1 Census Person added/edited
12/13/171 Census Person added/edited
12/12/171 Census Person added/edited
12/11/172 Census People added/edited
1 Dictionary word added/edited
12/10/178 Census People added/edited
7 Census Links added/edited
6 Timeline and/or Link entries added/edited

Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

New England Weather: The Comet of 1680
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times11/24/17
October, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results11/10/17
The House of Miller at Millbach
Architecture: Houses10/31/17
New England Weather: 1804 Storm
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times10/21/17
September, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results10/08/17
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals09/30/17
New England Weather: The Gale of 1815
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times09/20/17
August, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results09/04/17
The White Pine Series: Connecticut
Architecture: Houses08/28/17
The White Pine Series: New York
Architecture: Houses08/28/17


This Day in Early Modern History -- December 14th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1575-Polish Parliament selects Stephen Bathory as king of Poland
 •  1582-Zealand/Brabant Netherlands adopt Gregorian calendar, tomorrow is 12/25 
 •  1600-Olivier van Noort sinks Spanish galleon San Diego at Bay of Manila (350 die) but loses Fortune Island to Spanish fleet
 •  1640-Playwright and novelist, Aphra Behn is baptized at Harbledown England
 •  1656-Artificial pearls first manufactured by M Jacquin in Paris made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales
 •  1708-Prosper Jolyot de Crebillon's Electre premieres in Paris 
 •  1751-Theresian Military Academy opens in Vienna
 •  1774-First incident of American Revolution - 400 Massachusetts militiamen attack arsenal of Ft. William and Mary, NH
 •  1777-Thomas Conway is named inspector general
 •  1782-British evacuate Charleston, South Carolina
 •  1793-First state road authorized, Frankfort, Kentucky to Cincinnati 
 •  1798-David Wilkinson of Rhode Island patents a nut and bolt machine
 •  1799-George Washington dies of a throat infection at age 67
 •  1819-Alabama admitted to Union as 22nd state
 •  1849-First chamber music group in U.S. gives their first concert (Boston) 


 •  1503-  Michel de Nostradamus -- Writers
 •  1546-  Tycho Brahe -- Astronomers
 •  1640-  Aphra Behn -- Writers
 •  1681-  Giuseppe Valentini -- ArtistsComposersWriters
 •  1727-  Francois-Hubert Drouais -- Artists
 •  1730-  Capel Bond -- Composers
  -  James Bruce -- ExplorersWriters
 •  1764-  Nicasio Alvarez de Cienfuegos -- Writers
 •  1775-  Philander Chase -- ClergyEducators
 •  1777-  Juan Nicasio Gallego -- Writers
 •  1789-  Maria Agata Szymanowska -- Composers
 •  1792-  Zinaida Volkonskaya -- WritersPerformers
 •  1796-  Auguste Lorieux -- Writers
 •  1807-  Thomas William Webb -- AstronomersWriters
 •  1810-  Chauncey Ives -- Sculptors
 •  1821-  Gustav Graef -- Artists
 •  1824-  Pierre Puvis de Chavannes -- Artists


 •  1624-  Charles Howard -- Naval
 •  1679-  William Cammock -- Pirates
 •  1715-  Thomas Tenison -- Clergy
  -  Thomas Dongan -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1773-  Johann Lorenz Bach -- Composers
 •  1786-  Robert Howe -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1788-   Charles III of Spain -- Governance
  -  Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach -- Composers
 •  1797-  John Robert Cozens -- Artists
 •  1799-  George Washington -- GovernanceMilitary
 •  1843-  John Claudius Loudon -- WritersScientists
 •  1847-  Manuel Jose Arce -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1849-  Conradin Kreutzer -- Composers

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/21/2017
President Trump's Offer of $25,000 for a Fallen Soldier's Father Is a Page From George Washington's Playbook
October 18, 2017, Time Magazine by Lily Rothman
As part of an ongoing controversy over whether and how President Donald Trump has reached out to the families of fallen American troops, one anecdote stands out: the father of a soldier who died in Afghanstan told the Washington Post that the President, after hearing that the family was struggling financially, offered to write a personal check for $25,000.

“I wish I had it recorded because the man did say this,” the soldier’s father, Chris Baldridge, said. “He said, ‘No other president has ever done something like this,’ but he said, ‘I’m going to do it.’”

...While the private nature of such a gesture does make it difficult to fact-check Trump’s statement, the idea is not quite as unprecedented as it was framed — and at least one “something like this” moment goes all the way back to the very first President of the United States. While this episode occurred before George Washington became President (he became the first to step into that role in 1789) he was the Commander-in-Chief at the time, and the record shows that he did send money to a grieving family in need.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/20/2017
Trump's praise of Columbus omits dark history
November 09, 2017, CNN by Holly Yan
Never mind the disease and slavery wrought by Christopher Columbus' voyage -- or the fact that he didn't actually "discover" the New World.

President Donald Trump's first presidential proclamation of Columbus Day gave only high praise to the 15th century explorer, a stark contrast to the proclamation made by President Barack Obama one year earlier.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/18/2017
A Territorial Land Grab That Pushed Native Americans to the Breaking Point
October 09, 2017, Smithsonian Magazine by Alicia Ault
It was one treaty too far. William Henry Harrison, at the time, governor of Indiana territory (covering present-day Indiana and Illinois), had for years repeatedly squeezed Native Americans, shrinking their homelands and pushing them further west through treaties that gave little compensation for the concessions. In just five years—1803 to 1808—he had overseen 11 treaties that transferred some 30 million acres of tribal land to the United States.

But Harrison’s 1809 Treaty of Fort Wayne—which ceded about 2.5 million acres for two cents an acre—ignited a resistance movement.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/17/2017
How America's First Jewish Commodore Saved Monticello
October 01, 2017, The Daily Beast by Gil Troy
As the token Jew in America’s pre-Civil War Navy who rescued Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, Commodore Uriah P. Levy demonstrated how far Jews could go back then—and how deeply hatred of Jews ran back then, too.

You don’t have to be Jewish to love Uriah Phillips Levy—or to wonder why this American hero remains unknown. The first Jew to reach the top naval rank of commodore, Levy fought honorably during the War of 1812, surviving British imprisonment. A pioneer in applying his era’s reforming spirit to the military, he opposed flogging as abusive. He also emerged as perhaps America’s first historical preservationist, saving Jefferson’s architectural jewel, Monticello, from decay. Today, Jefferson’s statue adorns the Capitol Rotunda thanks to Levy—the only statue there privately donated.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/16/2017
The Science Behind Mona Lisa’s Smile
October 01, 2017, The Atlantic by Walter Isaacson
Leonardo da vinci liked to think that he was as good at engineering as he was at painting, and though this was not actually the case (nobody was as good at engineering as he was at painting), the basis for his creativity was an enthusiasm for interweaving diverse disciplines. With a passion both playful and obsessive, he pursued innovative studies of anatomy, mechanics, art, music, optics, birds, the heart, flying machines, geology, and weaponry. He wanted to know everything there was to know about everything that could be known. By standing astride the intersection of the arts and the sciences, he became history’s most creative genius.

His science informed his art. He studied human skulls, making drawings of the bones and teeth, and conveyed the skeletal agony of Saint Jerome in the Wilderness. He explored the mathematics of optics, showing how light rays enter the eye, and produced magical illusions of changing visual perspectives in The Last Supper.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/14/2017
Statue of 'America's First Composer' could come down over racism claims
October 05, 2017, Fox News by Michelle Chavez
The national debate over whether controversial statues should be removed has now put a spotlight on Pittsburgh. A statue of Stephen Foster, dubbed "America's First Composer,” faces an uncertain future after calls for its removal.

The statue features the songwriter as he sits on a perch while a barefoot slave plays the banjo below him.

Foster, a Pittsburgh native who died in 1864, is known for writing songs like "Oh! Susana,” "Old Folks At Home,” and "Old Black Joe.”

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/13/2017
Why We Will Never Hear What Mozart Heard
September 28, 2017, FStor Daily by Cynthia Green
When we play one of Mozart’s or Beethoven’s compositions, or when we hear one, we probably aren’t hearing what they heard or what they thought in their heads as they composed. Their pianos were quite different from the ones we play today. Modern pianos are the product of a 600-year evolution. The instrument has evolved from the mention of Hermann Poll’s clavicembalum in 1397, through various clavichords and harpsichords to the modern grand piano.

The piano emerged between 1760-1780, overtaking the harpsichord largely because it it could play soft and loud. By 1845, the piano had reached a sound like what we hear today. But early pianos needed constant maintenance. And the piano player needed a mechanical knowledge of how they worked—things like leather dampers, oddly-placed stops to change from forte (loud) to piano (soft), and even, in some cases, a knee pedal. Changing from forte to piano with only your fingers was a radical development.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/12/2017
500 Years After Martin Luther, Does the Protestant Reformation Still Matter?
October 01, 2017, The Daily Beast by Brandon Withrow
Five-hundred years ago, a monk named Martin Luther wrote his 95 Theses and—while he likely didn’t nail it to the Wittenberg Castle Church door, as legend has it—his words launched the Protestant Reformation, setting Europe on fire—both figuratively and literally.

This Oct. 31 is the anniversary of that decisive point in history. For many Christians, this commemoration marks a dramatic shift, as never in history have old wounds between traditions felt closer to healing.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/11/2017
Why America Needs a Slavery Museum
August 25, 2017, The Atlantic by Paul Rosenfeld
[VIDEO] The Whitney Plantation near Wallace, Louisiana, is the first and only U.S. museum and memorial to slavery. While other museums may include slavery in their exhibits, the Whitney Plantation is the first of its kind to focus primarily on the institution. John Cummings, a 78-year-old white southerner, has spent 16 years and more than $8 million of his own fortune to build the project, which opened in December of last year. Cummings, a successful trial attorney, developed the museum with the help of his full-time director of research, Ibrahima Seck. The duo hope to educate people on the realities of slavery in its time and its impact in the United States today. “The history of this country is rooted in slavery," says Seck. “If you don’t understand the source of the problem, how can you solve it?”

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/10/2017
DIGGING HISTORY: City archaeologist recalls 27 years of unearthing St. Augustine’s hidden treasures
September 25, 2017, St. Augustine Record (FL) by Sheldon Gardner
Carl Halbirt, 65, has spent much of the last 27 years in the dirt … or in a hole, or in a lab somewhere in St. Augustine.

...Many people in early St. Augustine couldn’t write their stories down, so what speaks for them are the buttons, food remains, and other thing left behind, said historian Susan Parker, who has a doctorate in colonial history and is former director of the St. Augustine Historical Society.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 151Online Resources Links: 612Recipes: 481
Census People: 10,688 | Pix: 4,767 (44.60%) | Countries: 9,922 (92.83%) | Dates: 3,102 (29.02%) | Bio: 9,549 (89.34%) | TLs: 1,252 (11.71%)/3,554 (46.07%) | Links: 10,816 (101.20%) | Gallery: 52 (0.49%) | Notes: 1,617 (15.13%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 59 | Pix: 2 (3.39%) | Countries: 59 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 59 (100.00%) | TLs: 2 (3.39%)/8 | Links: 61 (103.39%) | Gallery: 61 (103.39%) | Notes: 61 (103.39%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,406Broadsheet Archive: 2,769Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,715    Tagged: 6,328 (82.02%)   With Links: 4,240 (54.96%)   Total Links: 5,263
Colonial Quotes: 2,594Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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