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Made in the Americas: The New World Discovers Asia (DE)
Embroidery: The Language of Art (DE)
Rainbow in a Pot: Making Dye with Natural Materials (MA)
Aprons, Robes, and Thrones: Fraternal Regalia Catalogs in the Library & Archives Collection (MA)
Keeping Time - Clockmakers and Collectors (MA)
Into the Woods: Crafting Early American Furniture (MA)
Engraved Powder Horns from the French and Indian War and the American Revolution (MA)
The Currency of Colonial America - the Struggle for Economic Independence (NH)
“The American Revolution on the Northern Frontier: Fort Ticonderoga and the Road to Saratoga” (NY)
Time Traveler Camp (PA)
Architectural Clues to 18th-Century Williamsburg (VA)

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A mechanism representing the motions of the planets about the sun. Invented about 1700 by George Graham, made by the instrument-maker J. Rowley, it was named (by Dean Swift) after a purchaser, Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery. Young in NIGHT THOUGHTS (1742) said of something belittling, it dwarfs the whole, and makes an universe an orrery. Lowell in his ITALIAN JOURNAL (1854) said; When that is once done, events will move with the quiet of an orrery. Sir John Herschel in his ASTRONOMY (18S3) said, speaking of the magnitudes and distances of the planets: As to getting correct notions on the subject by drawing circles on paper or, still worse, from those very childish toys called orreries, it is out of the question.

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Daily Colonial Quote

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
More permanent and genuine happiness is to be found in the sequestered walks of connubial life than in the giddy rounds of promiscuous pleasure.
— George Washington
Letter to the Marquis de la Rourie, August 10, 1786

Latest Activity

Today5 Census People added/edited
42 Census Links added/edited
1 Census Notes Item added/edited
07/27/1624 Census People added/edited
21 Census Links added/edited
86 Census Notes Items added/edited
07/26/1627 Census People added/edited
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07/25/162 Broadsheets added
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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

New England Weather: 1799 Hail StormSociety-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times07/18/16
June, 2016Antiques: Auction Results07/06/16
John Woolman's Journal: Chapter 10Regional History: Journals06/26/16
New England Weather: The Cold Summer of 1816Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times06/16/16
May, 2016Antiques: Auction Results06/04/16
New England Weather: The Tornado in 1814Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times05/23/16
April, 2016Antiques: Auction Results05/13/16
Stenciling: Download PatternsHow-To Guides: Interior04/29/16
New England Weather: The Freshet of 1814Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times04/16/16
March, 2016Antiques: Auction Results04/05/16

This Day in Early Modern History -- July 28th

click on      for links to additional information; or go to the Timeline for more events
 •  1540-English King Henry VIII marries Catharine Howard, his fifth wife 
 •  1579-Cardinal Granvelle returns to Madrid 
  -King Philip II arrests plotters Antonio Pérez and princess van Eboli
 •  1586-Sir Thomas Harriot introduces potatoes to Europe 
 •  1588-Spanish Armada sails to overthrow England's Queen Elizabeth I 
 •  1609-Admiral George Somers settles in Bermuda 
 •  1635-Spanish marshal Piccolomini conquerors Schenkenschans 
 •  1683-Anne Stuart marries prince Georges of Denmark 
 •  1696-De Croissy succeeds Le Plectia as French minister of Finance 
 •  1708-Monarch Amengkurat II [Sunan Mas] of Mataram gives himself up to VOC 
 •  1717-Prussian king Frederik Willem I gives compulsory education to 5-12 yrs 
 •  1742-Prussia and Austria sign peace treaty 
 •  1776-Sargent and Hutchinson arrive at Horn's Hook, New York
 •  1808-Mahmud II succeeds Mustafa IV as sultan of Turkey 
 •  1814-Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin elope to France
 •  1821-Peru declares independence from Spain (National Day) 
 •  1830-Revolution in France replaces Charles X with Louis Philippe 
 •  1849-Memmon is first clipper to reach San Francisco, 120 days out of New York 
 •  1851-Total solar eclipse captured on a daguerreotype photograph 
 •  1858-Nadar takes first airborne photo, in a balloon 
  -William James Herschel of the Indian Civil Service begins using fingerprints on contracts in India 
  -A British colonial magistrate in India starts using fingerprints as a means of identifying people

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 07/25/2016
How Martha Washington Helped George Stop Worrying
July 08, 2016, OZY by Farah Halime
Sitting at her writing desk in Philadelphia, Martha Washington penned a letter to her beloved sister, Nancy. “Last week our boats made another attempt on the ships of the north river,” she wrote in the 1776 letter, discussing nothing of needlework but plenty about military advances along the Hudson River. The correspondence reveals that America’s founding mother was acutely aware of her husband’s work. “I thank God we shant want men,” she confidently writes. “The army at New York is very large.”

“It speaks volumes about their relationship,” says Lynn Price, assistant editor of the Washington Papers project at the University of Virginia, which has published comprehensive editions of the first president’s letters. Far from political, George Washington’s information-sharing was based on an emotional dependence on his wife. There was a tremendous amount of respect between the two, Price explains. “We now know she was acutely aware of all that was going on,” she says.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/25/2016
The Forgotten Founding Father, Benjamin Rush
July 06, 2016, Today I Found Out by Matt Blitz
56 men signed the Declaration of Independence in the summer of 1776. Among them were many of the most notable figures in American history, including John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. While there are certainly names on that list that the average American wouldn’t recognize (like Stephen Hopkins, who’s less famous than his cousin Benedict Arnold), there is at least one on there that every citizen should know, but many don’t: Benjamin Rush.

Beyond simply signing the Declaration of Independence, Rush was a war veteran, a passionate abolitionist, an advocate of public education, a controversial but extremely significant physician, a critic of George Washington and an early proponent of considerate treatment of mental illness. Here’s the story of the forgotten founding father, Benjamin Rush.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/24/2016
Radiography of drought periods in Spain from the last 318 years
June 30, 2016, Science Daily by Staff
The Mediterranean Basin has been witness to increased droughts for at least five decades, but has this always been the case? A team from the University of Zaragoza has been successful in reconstructing, for the first time, the droughts from 1694 to 2012 based on the precipitation index and the study of tree growth rings. According to the study, the twelve months leading up to July 2012 were the driest.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/24/2016
The Legend of Hercules Mulligan
June 30, 2016, Central Intelligence Agency by Staff
We’re all familiar with the legendary heroes who fought to secure our independence from the British: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Revere and his midnight ride. But there are many other influencers of the Revolutionary War whose names don’t immediately come to mind when reflecting on the birth of this great nation. Their efforts and contributions are no less significant or important to securing the freedoms we enjoy every day. The heroics of their lives and stories remain unsung, like many of those serving their country in the shadows today.

This Fourth of July, to celebrate the anniversary of our independence, we are shining the spotlight on one such hero, a man who risked his life to save General George Washington. Twice. A man who helped convert Alexander Hamilton from a Tory to a Patriot. A man who successfully ran his own business and used that business to live among the British, befriending them and covertly acquiring information while overtly tarnishing his reputation with the Patriots. That’s right, Hercules Mulligan.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/23/2016
The Popular Oneida Silverware And The Polyamorous Religious Cult That Started It All
July 01, 2016, Today I found Out by Matt Blitz
For many Americans in the 20th century, holiday meals meant getting out the special Oneida Silverware. Stainless steel, ornamental and moderately expensive, it wasn’t a fancy dinner unless there was a Silverplate Oneida spoon on the table. Despite its traditional look, the history of Oneida Silverware is anything but. The company was originally founded by a 19th century upstate New York religious community who believed in communist ideals (while simultaneously exploiting capitalism for their own benefit), women’s and workers’ rights, parents not being overly fond of their own children, and polyamorous relationships. Here now is the story behind the forks, spoons and knives that grandma puts on the table every Thanksgiving.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/23/2016
This Old Map: Da Vinci's City Plan, 1502
April 22, 2016, CityLab by Laura Bliss
Perhaps the most common type of city map is the kind on Google Maps: a flattened out, “ichnographic” plan, where all buildings and features appear perfectly perpendicular to a single, aerial viewpoint. This unrealistic view allows newcomers to grasp a city’s entire layout, relative to its environs and the cardinal directions. In the era of GPS and aerial photography, creating an accurate ichnographic plan isn’t too difficult. But one such map, created by a famous Renaissance polymath, pre-dated airplanes and satellites by centuries.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/22/2016
What Happened To British Loyalists After The Revolutionary War?
July 03, 2016, NPR by Rachel Martin
It's July Fourth weekend — a time that many Americans dedicate to celebrating democracy and the birth of the United States. But more than two centuries ago, when the Revolutionary War ended with an American victory, not everyone was celebrating.

It's estimated that between 15 and 20 percent of the population back then still remained loyal to the British Crown. Naturally, they weren't so thrilled by the climactic British surrender at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, which effectively sealed the fate of King George's attempt to keep the colonists in line.

So what became of these loyalists who suddenly found themselves on the wrong side of history? To answer that question, NPR's Rachel Martin spoke with Maya Jasanoff, a professor of history at Harvard University.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/22/2016
Archaeologists Say They Made A 16th-Century Find At The Lost Roanoke Colony Site
June 22, 2016, The Huffington Post by Nina Golgowski
Four centuries after the colony of Roanoke vanished, archaeologists say they have unearthed what they believe to be the remnants of the New World’s first English settlement.

Two small pieces of blue-and-brown pottery, believed to be from an apothecary jar used in the 16th century, were recently uncovered during a dig at North Carolina’s Roanoke Island, archaeologists announced.

“This is really exciting,” Eric Deetz, an archaeologist with the First Colony Foundation who said he personally identified the pieces, told The Huffington Post Wednesday.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/18/2016
Infant bodies were 'prized' by 19th century anatomists, study suggests
June 30, 2016, by Staff
A new study of the University of Cambridge anatomy collection suggests that the bodies of foetuses and babies were a "prized source of knowledge" by British scientists of the 18th and 19th centuries, and were dissected more commonly than previously thought and quite differently to adult cadavers.

Historical research combined with the archaeological assessment of collection specimens shows that foetus and infant cadavers were valued for the study of growth and development, and were often kept in anatomical museums.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/18/2016
Shakespeare: Actor. Playwright. Social Climber.
June 29, 2016, The New York Times by Jennifer Schuessler
Shakespeare biography has long circled a set of tantalizing mysteries: Was he Protestant or secretly Catholic? Gay or straight? Loving toward his wife, or coldly dismissive? That the man left no surviving letters or autobiographical testimony has hardly helped, ensuring that accounts of his life have often relied on “one halfpenny worth of fact to an intolerable deal of supposition,” as the scholar C. W. Scott-Giles once lamented.

Only a few scraps of new material relating to Shakespeare in his lifetime have surfaced over the past century. But now, a researcher has uncovered nearly a dozen previously unknown records that shed clearer light on another much-discussed side of the man: the social climber.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 257Online Resources Links: 611Recipes: 480
Census People: 9,266 | Pix: 1,062 (11.46%) | Countries: 8,437 (91.05%) | Dates: 2,292 (24.74%) | Bio: 6,794 (73.32%) | TLs: 41 (0.44%) | Links: 8,140 (87.85%) | Gallery: 51 (0.55%) | Notes: 1,318 (14.22%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,402Broadsheet Archive: 2,559Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,779    Tagged: 6,272 (80.63%)   With Links: 3,787 (48.68%)   Total Links: 4,580
Colonial Quotes: 1,900Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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