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Redwood Country Flea Market (CT)
Lakewood 400 Antiques Market (GA)
Celebrating the Fiber Arts: The Helen Geier Flynt Textile Gallery (MA)
Engraved Powder Horns from the French and Indian War and the American Revolution: The William H. Guthman Collection (MA)
Furniture Masterworks: Tradition and Innovation in Western Massachusetts (MA)
Inspired Design: Asian Decorative Arts and Their Adaptations (MA)
Into the Woods: Crafting Early American Furniture (MA)
Jewelry & Silver Online (MA)
Tribal Art Online (MA)
Annapolis and Colonial Painters (MD)
Auction #23 (MI)
Part 5 Finch Collection (MI)
42nd Annual Cashier's Benefit Antique Show (NC)
72nd Annual Craft Fair of the Southern Highlands (NC)
A Century at Sea - A Comprehensive Maritime Auction (NY)
History Day Camp for Adults (OH)
Hex Signs: Sacred and Celestial Symbolism in Pennsylvania Dutch Barn Stars (PA)
Thrown, Fired and Glazed: The Redware Tradition from Pennsylvania and Beyond (PA)
Time Traveler’s Camp (PA)
Growing Together Summer Camp (RI)
Liberty! The Saga of Sycamore Shoals (TN)
Forgotten Soldier Special Exhibition (VA)
TENACITY: Women in Jamestown and Early Virginia (VA)

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Turgut Reis
an Ottoman Greek Admiral and privateer who also served as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey, later Pasha, of Tripoli. Under his naval command the Ottoman Empire's maritime power was extended across North Africa. When Turgut was serving as pasha, he adorned and built up the city of Tripoli, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African Coast.

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Ready to weep: readily weeping; with the eyes full of tears (as though watery from peeling onions). William Shakespeare in ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA (1606) says: Looke they weepe, And I an asse, am onyon-ey'd.

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
In a general sense, all contributions imposed by the government upon individuals for the service of the state, are called taxes, by whatever name they may be known, whether by the name of tribute, tythe, tallage, impost, duty, gabel, custom, subsidy, aid, supply, excise, or other name.
— Joseph Story
Commentaries on the Constitution, 1833

Latest Activity

Today1 Broadsheet added
1 Census Person added/edited
07/18/191 Broadsheet added
11 Census People added/edited
07/17/191 Broadsheet added
10 Calendar Events added/edited
32 Census People added/edited
18 Census Links added/edited
5 Fortifications added/edited
5 Fortification Links added/edited
1 Quote added
07/16/191 Broadsheet added
22 Census People added/edited
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12 Census People added/edited
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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

June, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results07/08/19
Travels in the American Colonies: Journal of Captain Phineas Stevens' Journey to Canada, 1752
Regional History: Journals06/22/19
May, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results06/12/19
The White Pine Series: Connecticut
Architecture: Houses06/06/19
The White Pine Series: New Hampshire
Architecture: Houses06/06/19
The White Pine Series: New York
Architecture: Houses06/06/19
April, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results05/06/19
New England Weather: Storm of April, 1852
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times04/21/19
March, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results04/09/19
New England Weather: 1851 Lighthouse Storm
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times03/28/19

This Day in Early Modern History -- July 19th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1500-A hailstorm brings down the ceilings of the Papal Palace in Rome 
 •  1510-38 Jews are burned at stake in Berlin Prussia 
 •  1524-Boer War begins in Germany's Black Forest 
 •  1525-Catholic German monarchy form Union of Dessau 
 •  1545-King Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose sinks at Portsmouth -- 73 die 
 •  1551-Treaty of Weissenburg (aka Treaty of Karlsburg): arch duke Ferdinand I of Austria recognized as king of Hungary/Transsylvania
 •  1553-15-year-old Lady Jane Grey deposed as England's Queen after 9 days
 •  1572-Battle of Saint-Ghislain: Spanish army beats the Seigneur de Genlis' mercenaries
 •  1575-Spanish viceroy Gillis van Berlaymont attacks Oudewater 
 •  1590-King Philip II's secretary Antonio Perez escapes jail 
 •  1595-Johannes Kepler inscribes geometric solids to describe the construction of universe
 •  1599-Jacob van Neck's merchant fleet leaves Java 
 •  1603-Sir Walter Raleigh arrested
 •  1639-French troops occupy Salses, at Perpignan 
 •  1674-Court of Holland bans books of Thomas Hobbes/Spinoza/Meyer 
 •  1688-Mutinous soldiers murder governor Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck in Paramaribo, Suriname
 •  1702-Swedish troops under King Charles XII occupy Crackow 
 •  1779-Massachusetts begins ill-fated Penobscot expedition
 •  1799-Rosetta Stone found
 •  1816-Survivors of French frigate Medusa rescued off Senegal after 17 days 
 •  1836-HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reach Ascension Island
 •  1848-Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the first Women's Rights convention begins in Seneca Falls, NY
  -German Parliament demands Dutch province of Limburg 
 •  1850-Airship Elizabeth leaves in storm for Fire Island, crashes (42 die) 


 •  1670-  Richard Leveridge -- ComposersPerformers
 •  1712-  Carl Fredrik Mennander -- Clergy
 •  1742-  Jean-Baptiste Davaux -- Composers
 •  1750-  Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna -- Writers
 •  1766-  Friedrich Fleischmann -- Composers
 •  1783-  Henriette Geertruida Knip -- Artists
 •  1789-  John Martin -- Artists
 •  1793-  Thomas Doughty -- Artists
 •  1800-  Juan Jose Flores -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1814-  Samuel Colt -- Inventors


 •  1665-  Diego de Arce y Reinoso Avila y Palomares -- Clergy
 •  1688-  Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck -- Governance
 •  1692-  Sarah Good -- Legal
 •  1723-  William Blads -- Pirates
  -  Edward Eaton -- Pirates
  -  Francis Leyton -- Pirates
  -  Stephen Mundon -- Pirates
  -  Thomas Powell -- Pirates
 •  1730-  Jean-Baptiste Loeillet of London -- Composers
 •  1734-  John Waters -- Pirates
 •  1742-  William Somervile -- Writers
 •  1814-  Matthew Flinders -- ExplorersCartographers
 •  1824-  Agustin de Iturbide -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1832-  Israel Pellew -- Naval
 •  1850-  Margaret Fuller -- Writers

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 07/19/2019
What Happened to Shakespeare’s Library?
April 05, 2019, The Daily Beast by Stuart Kells
Today, William Shakespeare is famous. Very famous. But things weren’t always so. Before the eighteenth century, he was somewhat obscure and noticeably disreputable.

More than a century after his death, people such as David Garrick and Samuel Johnson made Shakespeare fashionable, and respectable. They helped him pull off a remarkable transformation, from scrabbling playwright and scandalous poet to the Immortal Bard. The National Poet. Gentle, mellifluous Shakespeare.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/18/2019
Revolutionary War hero may have been biologically a woman: documentary
April 06, 2019, Fox News by Robert Gearty
A Revolutionary War hero celebrated in Illinois with a state holiday and in New York City with an annual parade up iconic Fifth Avenue may not have been a man, a new documentary postulates.

Instead, Polish-born general Casimir Pulaski, the “Father of the American Cavalry” who died fighting for America’s freedom, may have been born an intersex female, according to Smithsonian Channel’s “America’s Hidden Stories: The General Was Female?” that airs Monday.

Pulaski may have had an intersex condition known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which makes women produce large amounts of male hormones that can enlarge their genitals and give them traditionally “masculine-looking” features, Georgia Southern University assistant professor of anthropology Virginia Hutton Estabrook told the New York Post.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/17/2019
17th-century massacre in Connecticut was New England's 'Jamestown'
April 04, 2019, LiveScience by Tom Metcalfe
A violent conflict between English colonists and Native Americans almost 400 years ago grew into a war that ended with the near extermination of an entire Indian tribe.

Now, archaeologists in Connecticut are investigating the town at the center of the conflict — the scene of an attack by Pequot warriors concerned by the burgeoning population of English settlers in the area.

The attack on Puritan colonists in 1637 at Wethersfield, Connecticut, was smaller in scale than the Jamestown attack in Virginia in 1622 — just nine settlers were killed, while hundreds were killed in Jamestown. But the Wethersfield conflict grew into the Pequot War in New England, and it resulted in the Mystic River Massacre in May 1637; during that massacre, an army of colonists and their Native American allies killed about 500 people and effectively wiped out the Pequot tribe.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/16/2019
Search for lost sea containers leads to discovery of 16th-century Dutch shipwreck
April 04, 2019, Fox News by James Rogers
A search for shipping containers that fell off a merchant ship during a storm earlier this year led to the discovery of a historic 16th-century shipwreck.

The giant container ship MSC Zoe lost more than 270 containers in January as it sailed from Portugal to the German port of Bremerhaven. While some containers and cargo washed up on German and Dutch beaches, authorities have also been searching the ocean for the missing freight. As a result, they've uncovered the oldest shipwreck ever found in Dutch waters.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/15/2019
A Colonial-Era Cemetery Resurfaces in Philadelphia
March 25, 2019, The New York Times by Jennifer Pinkowski
In June 2017 Kimberlee Moran, a forensic scientist at Rutgers University-Camden, stood in a pit at a construction site in downtown Philadelphia, just across from the Betsy Ross House.

The walls of the pit were shored up by diagonal pillars of dirt. They bristled with coffin wood — and human bones. But what she couldn’t see bothered Ms. Moran still more.

“Where’s all the stuff in the dirt that’s now missing?” she wondered.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/14/2019
African sailors aboard Henry VIII’s warship reveal hidden diversity of Tudor England
March 14, 2019, The Independent (UK) by Josh Gabbatiss
New evidence has revealed Heny VIII’s warship was a true melting pot crewed by sailors from mainland Europe and possibly as far afield as north Africa.

The findings, based on skeletons salvaged from the wreck of the Mary Rose, are the latest to reveal the multicultural nature of Tudor England.

Analysis of eight sailors who died fighting the French reveals two came from the Mediterranean, while another two could trace their origins to Africa.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/13/2019
Thieves Steal A Famous Painting From An Italian Church — But Don't Worry, It's Fake
March 17, 2019, NPR by Lulu Garcia-Navarro and Lindsey Feingold
Art thieves stole a Flemish masterpiece valued at 3 million euros from a small Italian town church last week. Or so they thought.

To their surprise, the painting they stole was actually a fake. Town leaders and the Carabinieri, Italy's military police, had been tipped off about the planned heist and replaced the original painting, Pieter Brueghel the Younger's The Crucifixion, with a replica.

Out of around 8,500 residents of Castelnuovo Magra in Liguria, only a few knew about the switch.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/12/2019
Untold History of AI: When Charles Babbage Played Chess With the Original Mechanical Turk
March 18, 2019, IEEE Spectrum by Oscar Schwartz
In the year 1770, at the court of the Austrian empress Maria Theresa, an inventor named Wolfgang von Kempelen presented a chess-playing machine. The Turk, as Kempelen called his invention, was a life-size automaton carved out of maple wood, dressed in Ottoman robes, sitting behind a wooden cabinet with a chessboard on top.

Kempelen claimed that the machine could defeat any member of the court, and one of Maria Theresa’s advisers took up the challenge. Kempelen opened the doors of the cabinet to show a clockwork-like mechanism—an intricate network of levers and cogs—and then inserted a key into the machine and wound it up. The automaton came to life, lifting its wooden arm to move the first chess piece. Within 30 minutes, it defeated its opponent.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/11/2019
'Pocahontas And The English Boys' Bridged 2 Wildly Different Cultures
March 12, 2019, NPR by Marcela Davison Avilés
As the nation turns to elections in 2020, one person has emerged as the front-runner in the imagination of the electorate, if not in reality.

I'm speaking, of course, about Pocahontas.

Over 400 years ago, after she was captured by English conquerors in Jamestown, Pocahontas learned the art of survival by navigating her own agency between cultures. In her new book, Pocahontas and the English Boys, history professor Karen Ordahl Kupperman focuses a sharp light on the historical record, revealing the elements of Pocahontas' resilience and illuminating the narrative created about her by Colonial settlers.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/10/2019
Study of old slave quarters in Maryland leads to scientific breakthrough
March 19, 2019, WTOP (MD) by Michelle Basch
The study of a 200-year-old clay tobacco pipe discovered in the slave quarters of an old Maryland plantation, has led to a scientific breakthrough.

The object was found at Belvoir, an 18th-century manor house off Generals Highway in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

Scientists found human DNA on the pipe, and used it to determine that it was smoked by a woman. And although the DNA could not be linked to any living descendants, analysis did reveal something about the smoker’s ancestry.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 518Online Resources Links: 614Recipes: 481
Census People: 11,220 | Pix: 5,130 (45.72%) | Countries: 10,442 (93.07%) | Dates: 3,623 (32.29%) | Bio: 10,042 (89.50%) | TLs: 1,401 (12.49%)/3,729 (48.28%) | Links: 16,376 (145.95%) | Gallery: 55 (0.49%) | Notes: 1,746 (15.56%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 135 | Pix: 2 (1.48%) | Countries: 135 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 86 (63.70%) | TLs: 2 (1.48%)/9 | Links: 111 (82.22%) | Gallery: 111 (82.22%) | Notes: 111 (82.22%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,406Broadsheet Archive: 2,957Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,723    Tagged: 6,371 (82.49%)   With Links: 4,394 (56.89%)   Total Links: 5,530
Colonial Quotes: 2,991Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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