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Today's Events [More]

Bella Vista Arts and Crafts Festival (AR)
Lakewood 400 Antiques Market (GA)
Interiors Online Only - Leslie Hindman Auctioneers (IL)
Celebrating the Fiber Arts: The Helen Geier Flynt Textile Gallery (MA)
Engraved Powder Horns from the French and Indian War and the American Revolution: The William H. Guthman Collection (MA)
Importing Splendor: Luxuries from China (MA)
Into the Woods: Crafting Early American Furniture (MA)
Open Hearth Cooking Demonstration: Tavern Fare (MA)
Raven's Many Gifts: Native Art of the Northwest Coast (MA)
Tales and Ales (MA)
Why We Collect: Recent Acquisitions at Historic Deerfield, 2010-2017 (MA)
The Last Argument of Kings: The Art and Science of 18th-century Artillery (NY)
Fine and Decorative Arts Auction - Cowan's Auction (OH)
Garrison Ghost Walk (OH)
Centuries Of Childhood: An American Story (PA)
Colonial Times - A Day to Remember (SC)
A Rich and Varied Culture: The Material World of the Early South (VA)
America's Folk Art (VA)
American Furniture: From Virginia to Vermont (VA)
Architectural Clues to 18th-Century Williamsburg (VA)
Changing Keys: Keyboard Instruments for America, 1700–1830 (VA)
China of the Most Fashionable Sort: Chinese Export Porcelain in Colonial America (VA)
Color and Shape: The Art of the American Theorem (VA)
From Forge and Furnace: A Celebration of Early American Iron (VA)
German Toys in America (VA)
Lock, Stock, and Barrel (VA)
Revolution in Taste (VA)
Silver from Mine to Masterpiece (VA)
The World Made Small (VA)
We the People: American Folk Portraits (VA)

Featured Citizen [More]

Henric Benzelius
he was Bishop of Lund from 1744 to 1747, and Archbishop of Uppsala in the Church of Sweden from 1747 to his death. Benzelius was one of the people sent by Charles XII of Sweden to the Middle East, travelling to Egypt and Syria. After returning for a time he took up a post in Lund University. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1746. He was also a manuscript collector.

Word of the Day [More]

Nimble, quick. Shakespeare in HENRY IV, PART TWO (1597) says: There was a little quiver fellow, and a' would manage his piece thus. From the noun quiver, a case for arrows, came a verbal form, as in Milton's COMUS (1654): Like a quiver'd nymph with arrows keen. The form quiverful was often used figuratively, meaning many, echoing the BIBLE: PSALM 127: As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them.

Daily Trivia [More]

Federalist Era
What did the Residence Bill do?
  1. Fully defined state lines

  2. Separated US territories from Canada

  3. Established the District of Columbia

  4. Formally made the colonists US citizens

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
Of all the cares or concerns of government, the direction of war most peculiarly demands those qualities which distinguish the exercise of power by a single hand. The direction of war implies the direction of the common strength; and the power of directing and employing the common strength, forms a usual and essential part in the definition of the executive authority.
— Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 74, March 25, 1788

Latest Activity

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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

September, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results10/08/17
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals09/30/17
New England Weather: The Gale of 1815
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times09/20/17
August, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results09/04/17
The White Pine Series: Connecticut
Architecture: Houses08/28/17
The White Pine Series: New York
Architecture: Houses08/28/17
New England Weather: The Meteor of 1787
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times08/17/17
July, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results08/06/17
New England Weather: The Cyclone of 1787
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times07/25/17
June, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results07/07/17


This Day in Early Modern History -- October 20th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1528-Treaty of Gorinchem between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Duke Charles of Guelders
 •  1536-Danish/Norwegian king Christian III leads reform in Catholic possessions 
 •  1576-Spanish troops occupies and plunder Maastricht 
 •  1587-Battle of Coutras: Henry IV beats Catholic League
 •  1603-Chinese uprising in Philippines fails after 23,000 killed 
 •  1634-English King Charles I disbands new "Ship Money" tax 
 •  1714-Georg Ludwig of Hanover crowned as English King George I
 •  1740- Maria Theresa becomes ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia
 •  1751-Royal ship Duc de Bourgogne launches at Rochefort 
 •  1774-Congress creates the Continental Association, implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain.
 •  1786-Harvard University organizes first astronomical expedition in U.S. 
 •  1803-U.S. Senate ratifies Louisiana Purchase
 •  1813-German Kingdom of Westphalia abolished 
 •  1817-First Mississippi "Showboat," leaves Nashville on maiden voyage 
 •  1818-Treaty of 1818 (aka London Convention, Anglo-American Convention): 49th parallel forms as border between U.S. and Canada; U.S. and Britain agree to joint control of Oregon country
 •  1819-Future Union General Daniel Sickles is born
 •  1820-Spain sells part of Florida to U.S. for $5 million 
 •  1822-First edition of The Sunday Times (London)
 •  1827-Battle of Navarino: Engl/Russian/French fleet beat Turk/Egyptian fleet
 •  1833-Charles Darwin reaches river mouth of Parana 
 •  1835-HMS Beagle leaves Galapagos Archipelago/sails to Tahiti 
 •  1842-Fugitive slave George Latimer captured in Boston
 •  1843-First Chinese immigrant arrives in Suriname 
 •  1847-Little William Nelman poisons his grandpa 
 •  1853-Poet Arthur Rimbaud is born
 •  1856-Arnhem-Oberhausen railway in Netherlands opens 


 •  1603-  Simon de Vos -- Artists
 •  1620-  Aelbert Cuyp -- Artists
 •  1624-  Jan Albertsz Rotius -- Artists
 •  1632-  Christopher Wren -- Architects
 •  1677-  Stanislaw Leszczynski -- Governance
 •  1743-  Francois Chopart -- WritersPhysicians
 •  1770-  Antoine Jay -- Writers
 •  1801-  Henry Inman -- Artists
 •  1803-  Richard L. Allen -- Writers
 •  1832-  Anton Romako -- Artists


 •  1570-  Francesco Laparelli -- Architects
 •  1626-  Francois Beroalde de Verville -- Writers
 •  1683-  Marie-Catherine de Villedieu -- Writers
 •  1737-  Caspar Neumann -- WritersScientists
 •  1740-   Charles VI -- Governance
 •  1842-  Alexandre de Laborde -- Writers
 •  1845-  Thomas Edwards -- Writers

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 10/18/2017
A Territorial Land Grab That Pushed Native Americans to the Breaking Point
October 09, 2017, Smithsonian Magazine by Alicia Ault
It was one treaty too far. William Henry Harrison, at the time, governor of Indiana territory (covering present-day Indiana and Illinois), had for years repeatedly squeezed Native Americans, shrinking their homelands and pushing them further west through treaties that gave little compensation for the concessions. In just five years—1803 to 1808—he had overseen 11 treaties that transferred some 30 million acres of tribal land to the United States.

But Harrison’s 1809 Treaty of Fort Wayne—which ceded about 2.5 million acres for two cents an acre—ignited a resistance movement.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/17/2017
How America's First Jewish Commodore Saved Monticello
October 01, 2017, The Daily Beast by Gil Troy
As the token Jew in America’s pre-Civil War Navy who rescued Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, Commodore Uriah P. Levy demonstrated how far Jews could go back then—and how deeply hatred of Jews ran back then, too.

You don’t have to be Jewish to love Uriah Phillips Levy—or to wonder why this American hero remains unknown. The first Jew to reach the top naval rank of commodore, Levy fought honorably during the War of 1812, surviving British imprisonment. A pioneer in applying his era’s reforming spirit to the military, he opposed flogging as abusive. He also emerged as perhaps America’s first historical preservationist, saving Jefferson’s architectural jewel, Monticello, from decay. Today, Jefferson’s statue adorns the Capitol Rotunda thanks to Levy—the only statue there privately donated.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/16/2017
The Science Behind Mona Lisa’s Smile
October 01, 2017, The Atlantic by Walter Isaacson
Leonardo da vinci liked to think that he was as good at engineering as he was at painting, and though this was not actually the case (nobody was as good at engineering as he was at painting), the basis for his creativity was an enthusiasm for interweaving diverse disciplines. With a passion both playful and obsessive, he pursued innovative studies of anatomy, mechanics, art, music, optics, birds, the heart, flying machines, geology, and weaponry. He wanted to know everything there was to know about everything that could be known. By standing astride the intersection of the arts and the sciences, he became history’s most creative genius.

His science informed his art. He studied human skulls, making drawings of the bones and teeth, and conveyed the skeletal agony of Saint Jerome in the Wilderness. He explored the mathematics of optics, showing how light rays enter the eye, and produced magical illusions of changing visual perspectives in The Last Supper.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/14/2017
Statue of 'America's First Composer' could come down over racism claims
October 05, 2017, Fox News by Michelle Chavez
The national debate over whether controversial statues should be removed has now put a spotlight on Pittsburgh. A statue of Stephen Foster, dubbed "America's First Composer,” faces an uncertain future after calls for its removal.

The statue features the songwriter as he sits on a perch while a barefoot slave plays the banjo below him.

Foster, a Pittsburgh native who died in 1864, is known for writing songs like "Oh! Susana,” "Old Folks At Home,” and "Old Black Joe.”

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/13/2017
Why We Will Never Hear What Mozart Heard
September 28, 2017, FStor Daily by Cynthia Green
When we play one of Mozart’s or Beethoven’s compositions, or when we hear one, we probably aren’t hearing what they heard or what they thought in their heads as they composed. Their pianos were quite different from the ones we play today. Modern pianos are the product of a 600-year evolution. The instrument has evolved from the mention of Hermann Poll’s clavicembalum in 1397, through various clavichords and harpsichords to the modern grand piano.

The piano emerged between 1760-1780, overtaking the harpsichord largely because it it could play soft and loud. By 1845, the piano had reached a sound like what we hear today. But early pianos needed constant maintenance. And the piano player needed a mechanical knowledge of how they worked—things like leather dampers, oddly-placed stops to change from forte (loud) to piano (soft), and even, in some cases, a knee pedal. Changing from forte to piano with only your fingers was a radical development.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/12/2017
500 Years After Martin Luther, Does the Protestant Reformation Still Matter?
October 01, 2017, The Daily Beast by Brandon Withrow
Five-hundred years ago, a monk named Martin Luther wrote his 95 Theses and—while he likely didn’t nail it to the Wittenberg Castle Church door, as legend has it—his words launched the Protestant Reformation, setting Europe on fire—both figuratively and literally.

This Oct. 31 is the anniversary of that decisive point in history. For many Christians, this commemoration marks a dramatic shift, as never in history have old wounds between traditions felt closer to healing.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/11/2017
Why America Needs a Slavery Museum
August 25, 2017, The Atlantic by Paul Rosenfeld
[VIDEO] The Whitney Plantation near Wallace, Louisiana, is the first and only U.S. museum and memorial to slavery. While other museums may include slavery in their exhibits, the Whitney Plantation is the first of its kind to focus primarily on the institution. John Cummings, a 78-year-old white southerner, has spent 16 years and more than $8 million of his own fortune to build the project, which opened in December of last year. Cummings, a successful trial attorney, developed the museum with the help of his full-time director of research, Ibrahima Seck. The duo hope to educate people on the realities of slavery in its time and its impact in the United States today. “The history of this country is rooted in slavery," says Seck. “If you don’t understand the source of the problem, how can you solve it?”

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/10/2017
DIGGING HISTORY: City archaeologist recalls 27 years of unearthing St. Augustine’s hidden treasures
September 25, 2017, St. Augustine Record (FL) by Sheldon Gardner
Carl Halbirt, 65, has spent much of the last 27 years in the dirt … or in a hole, or in a lab somewhere in St. Augustine.

...Many people in early St. Augustine couldn’t write their stories down, so what speaks for them are the buttons, food remains, and other thing left behind, said historian Susan Parker, who has a doctorate in colonial history and is former director of the St. Augustine Historical Society.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/09/2017
Canoe Found After Hurricane Irma Eyed As Piece Of Florida History
September 17, 2017, The Huffington Post by Nina Golgowski
Hurricane Irma left a lot of destruction in its wake, but it may have also unearthed a piece of history.

A wooden canoe that scientists say could be hundreds of years old has reportedly emerged from the bottom of the Indian River along Florida’s eastern coast following last week’s powerful storm, leading some to speculate that it could have once belonged to Native Americans.

posted on Colonial Sense: 10/08/2017
George Washington and the Real History Behind a Yom Kippur Legend
September 29, 2017, Time Magazine by Olivia B. Waxman
In many ways, Yom Kippur — the Jewish day of atonement that begins Friday evening — is a time to start anew. So it was an apt backdrop for one of the most sensational legends about an important turning point in the birth of a nation.

As the story goes, during the American Revolution, in either 1779 or 1781 depending on whom you ask, General George Washington (or a messenger sent by him) burst into a Yom Kippur service at Philadelphia's first synagogue to beg for money to feed a starving, bankrupt Continental Army. One of the synagogue's founders, Haym Salomon, interrupted the holiest service of the year to write him a check for hundreds of thousands of dollars, throwing in the contents of the collection box on top of that. That's how he became known as the "The Financier of the Revolution" in children's books, textbooks and the 1939 film The Sons of Liberty, starring Claude Rains as Haym Salomon.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 212Online Resources Links: 612Recipes: 481
Census People: 10,636 | Pix: 4,725 (44.42%) | Countries: 9,869 (92.79%) | Dates: 3,063 (28.80%) | Bio: 9,496 (89.28%) | TLs: 1,209 (11.37%)/3,494 (45.29%) | Links: 10,494 (98.66%) | Gallery: 52 (0.49%) | Notes: 1,617 (15.20%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 59 | Pix: 2 (3.39%) | Countries: 59 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 59 (100.00%) | TLs: 2 (3.39%)/8 | Links: 61 (103.39%) | Gallery: 61 (103.39%) | Notes: 61 (103.39%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,406Broadsheet Archive: 2,767Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,714    Tagged: 6,326 (82.01%)   With Links: 4,214 (54.63%)   Total Links: 5,236
Colonial Quotes: 2,242Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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