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Fine Art and Antique Auction - Clars Auctions (CA)
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Thomas Chippendale at 300: Treasures from the Collection (DE)
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Anne of Cleves
Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared never consummated and, as a result, she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment, she was given a generous settlement by the King, and thereafter referred to as the King's Beloved Sister. She lived to see the coronation of Queen Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry's wives.

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An old man, a "grandfather." Sometimes used as a title or form of address, to a man below the rank of Master, as when Walter Scott in THE FAIR MAID OF PERTH (1828) says: You have marred my ramble. Gaffer Glover. Gaffer was probably a contraction of godfather, with the vowel changing to a because of association with grandfather. So, for the female, with gammer, q.v. Occasionally used humorously, as when Randolph in HEY FOR HONESTY (1651) says: This same gaffer Phoebus is a good mountebank and an excellent musician.

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Early Republic
Which was the bloodiest battle of the War of 1812?
  1. Châteauguay

  2. Crysler’s Farm

  3. Lundy’s Lane

  4. Stoney Creek

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An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals02/14/19
January, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results01/30/19
Travels in the American Colonies: Journal of De Beauchamps' Journey to the Choctaws
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December, 2018
Antiques: Auction Results01/07/19
New England Weather: 1839 Storms
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This Day in Early Modern History -- February 17th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1568-Holy Roman Emperor agrees to pay tribute to the Sultan for peace 
 •  1598-Russian National Assembly meets to select new czar (ultimately, Boris Godunov)
 •  1600-Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for his heretical views on the plurality of worlds
 •  1621-Myles Standish appointed first commander of Plymouth colony
 •  1634-William Prynne tried and convicted in Star Chamber for publishing Histrio-masti
 •  1653-Arcangelo Corelli is born
 •  1670-France and Bavaria sign military assistance treaty 
 •  1676-Kings Charles II of England and Louis XIV sign secret treaty 
 •  1691-Thomas Neale granted British patent for American postal service
 •  1714-Parliament of Paris accepts Pope Clement XI's Unigenitus decree
 •  1728-George Frideric Handel's opera Siroe, re di Persia premieres in London
 •  1772-First partition of Poland-Russia and Prussia, joined later by Austria 
 •  1776-First volume of Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of Roman Empire published
 •  1782-French and British battle in the Indian Ocean
 •  1791-Charles Messier catalogs M83 (spiral galaxy in Hydra) 
 •  1795-Thomas Seddal harvests 8.3-kg (17 lb) potato from his garden in Chester, England 
 •  1801-The House of Representatives decides that Thomas Jefferson should become the third president after an electoral tie with Vice Presidential nominee Aaron Burr in one of the most significant presidential elections in american history.
 •  1817-Baltimore is the first U.S. city lit by gas 
 •  1818-Karl Drais patents "draisine" (early bicycle)
 •  1820-Senate passes Missouri Compromise, regulating slavery in the western territories
 •  1836-HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin leave Tasmania 
 •  1841-Dutch ex-king William I of the Netherlands marries Henriette d'Oultremont de Wegimont
 •  1844-Aaron Montgomery Ward is born
 •  1848-Tuscany gets a liberal Constitution
 •  1854-British recognize independence of Orange Free State (South Africa)
 •  1859-Giuseppe Verdi's opera Un Ballo in maschera premieres in Naples


 •  1519-  Francis de Lorraine -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1653-  Arcangelo Corelli -- Composers
 •  1696-  Ernst Gottlieb Baron -- ComposersWriters
 •  1704-  Marie-Madeleine Hachard -- ClergyWriters
 •  1723-  Tobias Mayer -- Astronomers
 •  1752-  Friedrich Maximilian Klinger -- MilitaryWriters
 •  1754-  Nicolas Baudin -- ExplorersNavalScientistsCartographers
 •  1755-  Charles Manners-Sutton -- Clergy
  -  Thomas Truxtun -- PiratesNaval
 •  1774-  Raphaelle Peale -- Artists
 •  1775-  Heinrich Jacob Aldenrath -- Artists
 •  1776-  Elizabeth Bath -- Writers
 •  1781-  Rene Laennec -- Inventors
 •  1792-  W.W. Phelps -- Writers
 •  1803-   Lockroy -- Writers
 •  1820-  Henri Vieuxtemps -- Composers
 •  1827-  Rose Terry Cooke -- Writers
 •  1836-  Gustavo Adolfo Becquer -- Writers


 •  1600-  Giordano Bruno -- ClergyWritersScientists
 •  1673-   Moliere -- Writers
 •  1680-  Denzil Holles -- Writers
  -  Frans Post -- Artists
 •  1709-  Eric Benzelius the Elder -- Clergy
 •  1710-  George Bull -- ClergyWriters
 •  1715-  Antoine Galland -- Writers
 •  1719-  Richard Worley -- Pirates
 •  1732-  Louis Marchand -- Composers
 •  1796-  James Macpherson -- Writers
 •  1830-  Marcos Portugal -- Composers
 •  1854-  John Martin -- Artists
 •  1856-  Heinrich Heine -- Writers

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 04/05/2018
The Lessons of a School Shooting -- in 1853
March 24, 2018, Politico Magazine by Saul Cornell
This weekend, thousands of people are expected to gather in cities and towns across America for the “March for Our Lives,” a national response to the horrifying school shooting in Parkland, Florida. Will it change policy? Skeptics doubt it, having watched time and again how previous shootings vanish from the headlines with no change to our national debate over guns. But there’s actually precedent, deep in American history, for school shootings to shift the gun debate.

Though little remembered now, the first high-profile school shooting in the U.S. was more than 150 years ago, in Louisville, Kentucky. The 1853 murder of William Butler by Matthews F. Ward was a news sensation, prompting national outrage over the slave South’s libertarian gun rights vision and its deadly consequences. At a time when there wasn’t yet a national media, this case prompted a legal conversation that might be worth resurrecting today.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/04/2018
The Island that Disappeared
March 20, 2018, LongReads by Tom Feiling
...On the back wall was a large, brightly colored map of the world. I found plenty of the world’s other tiny islands: Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia, and even Pitcairn, which has a population of just 50. But Providence wasn’t marked, and neither was San Andres. Perhaps it was because their distant relatives have the initials ‘U.K.’ in brackets after their names, whereas the inhabitants of el archepiélago de Providencia, San Andrés y Santa Catalina lost touch with their progenitor state long ago. Providence is a fragment chipped off an empire that no longer exists. Even if the chip were restored to the block from which it fell, it would no longer match, for its contours have been worn smooth by the passage of time. But perhaps ‘fragment’ is a misnomer. Empires are not as clearly delineated as the solid blocks of color on the old maps suggest. Alive, they are dynamic, porous, and hybrid creations, but even once dead, the colors continue to bleed. The British might have forgotten about Providence, but for the islanders, England remained as real, and as unattainable, as an absent father.

It was strange to think that the hopes of a generation of British empire builders had once rested on Providence. Those who sailed on the Seaflower in 1631 believed that their Puritan colony would in time eclipse the one that had been built by the passengers of the Mayflower ten years before. But New Westminster was abandoned just eleven years after the foundation stone of the governor’s house was put in place, while New Plymouth went on to become a beacon of righteous autonomy for the generations that succeeded the Pilgrim fathers. Cold, barren New England had trumped balmy, verdant Providence. Wasn’t that what all those tins, packets, and cartons from the United States were trying to tell me?

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/03/2018
Were the Irish Slaves in America, Too?
March 17, 2018, Snopes by David Emery
Claim: Early in America's history, white Irish slaves outnumbered black slaves and endured worse treatment at the hands of their masters.

Rating: Mixture

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/02/2018
Worried About Political Partisanship?
March 04, 2018, History News Network by Gordon S. Wood
During the first decade of our nation’s history the two presidential electoral contests of 1796 and 1800 were as clearly and coherently expressive of conservatism and liberalism as any elections in our history. The conservative and liberal parties, the Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans, were led by two distinguished patriots, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, and the partisan campaigns waged by their parties were as bitter and scurrilous as any in our history.

Adams and Jefferson had once been close friends. In 1775 they met in the Continental Congress and found that they were alike in their enthusiasm for declaring independence from Great Britain. In the 1780s the two patriots were thrown together as ministers abroad where they and their families further cemented the bonds of friendship. When they returned to the States they ended up, following George Washington’s two terms as president, as the presidential candidates of the two emerging political parties.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/01/2018
Easter Bunny, like the Belsnickle, owes its American roots to the Pennsylvania Dutch
March 30, 2018, LancasterOnline by Tom Knapp
The Easter Bunny has something in common with the Belsnickle.

Both are Pennsylvania Dutch traditions.

Many Easter traditions — including the symbolic egg and hare — predate Christianity. The notion of an egg-laying rabbit can be traced to Germany, and it came to America with the Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants who settled in and around Lancaster County.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/13/2018
Tree believed to be planted by George Washington 227 years ago is knocked down by nor'easter
March 04, 2018, Fox News by Nicole Darrah
A tree at George Washington’s Mount Vernon – said to be planted by the first president himself – was knocked down Friday by the powerful nor'easter that struck the U.S.

“Today at Mount Vernon, strong winds brought down a 227-year-old Canadian Hemlock, as well as a Virginia Cedar that stood watch over Washington’s tomb for many years,” the historical landmark posted on Facebook.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/12/2018
Wyld's Great Globe
March 02, 2018, Amusing Planet by Kaushik
The famous British cartographer and former Member of Parliament, James Wyld, had a brilliant plan to promote his mapmaking business. The Great Exhibition was slated for 1851, at Hyde Park in London, and would be visited by prominent industrialists, scientist, and artists from around the world, as well as members of the Royal family. Wyld figured if he could create a huge model of the earth with an accurate depiction of earth’s geography, for the exhibition, it could further his chances of scoring new business deals and increasing sales.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/11/2018
Archaeologist uncovers hidden history of conquistadors in American South
February 28, 2018, by Tulane University
Chris Rodning, the Paul and Debra Gibbons Professor in the Tulane School of Liberal Arts' Department of Anthropology, unravels early entanglements between Native Americans and European explorers, revealing how their interactions shaped the history of the American South.

"Native Americans' responses to Spanish explorers and colonists form an important part of the story behind the history of European colonialism in North America," said Rodning, who conducts archaeological research at Fort San Juan—the earliest known permanent European settlement in the interior United States, located near Morganton, North Carolina.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/10/2018
A golden age in the Americas when even artists were 'spoils of war'
February 26, 2018, The Art Newspaper by Victoria Stapley-Brown
“The Inca… acquired innumerable riches of gold and silver and other valuable things, such as precious stones and red shells, which these natives then esteemed more than silver or gold.” This quote, from the Spanish cartographer Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa’s 1572 history of the indigenous American civilisation, opens the exhibition Golden Kingdoms: Luxury and Legacy in the Ancient Americas, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It introduces a view of materials that baffled gold-greedy conquistadors—and will challenge visitors’ ideas of what has “inherent or universal value”, says the show’s lead curator, Joanne Pillsbury.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/09/2018
The Delicate Art of Cobweb Paintings
February 24, 2018, Amusing Planet by Kaushik
Who could have thought that the delicate, fine, silky threads of a spider’s cobweb could be woven into a canvas strong enough to withstand the abrasive strokes of an artist’s brush? But the hundred or so paintings that survive today in museums and in the hands of private collectors bear testimony to this incredibly ingenious, painstaking and time-consuming craft that the Austrian monks of the Tyrolean Alps practiced in the 16th century.

Cobweb painting, sometimes also called gossamer painting, are made on fabrics made of spider cobwebs or caterpillars' silk. The cobwebs are collected from the wild, and great care is taken to remove twigs, insect parts, spider droppings etc. that become trapped and entangled in the web. After carefully cleaning the webs, they are stretched over a cardboard to form a thin canvas. Over this canvas a coat of diluted milk is applied to add strength. The canvas is now ready to paint, but it is still extremely fragile. Even a gentle poke of a finger can completely destroy a cobweb painting.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 330Online Resources Links: 614Recipes: 481
Census People: 11,096 | Pix: 5,046 (45.48%) | Countries: 10,322 (93.02%) | Dates: 3,484 (31.40%) | Bio: 9,936 (89.55%) | TLs: 1,384 (12.47%)/3,716 (48.09%) | Links: 15,664 (141.17%) | Gallery: 53 (0.48%) | Notes: 1,738 (15.66%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 112 | Pix: 2 (1.79%) | Countries: 112 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 76 (67.86%) | TLs: 2 (1.79%)/9 | Links: 94 (83.93%) | Gallery: 94 (83.93%) | Notes: 94 (83.93%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,406Broadsheet Archive: 2,846Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,727    Tagged: 6,356 (82.26%)   With Links: 4,338 (56.14%)   Total Links: 5,403
Colonial Quotes: 2,877Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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