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a chief of one of the clans that made up the Lenni-Lenape nation in the Delaware Valley at the time Philadelphia was established. Tamanend is best known as a lover of peace and friendship who played a prominent role in developing amicable relations among the Lenape and the English settlers who settled Pennsylvania, led by William Penn.

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To put a protective coating on; e.g., military armor, or clay on a chemical retort (18th century) "before it is set over a naked fire." Latin loricare, loricatus, to clothe in mail; lorica, a leather cuirass or corselet of thongs; lorum (vlorum) , a leather strap or strip. Hence also in English, loric (Robert Browning, 1855) , a cuirass, more often lorica; lorum, lore, a thong, a rein. By way of Late Latin and old French, lorain came into English meaning the straps of a horse's harness, often jewelled or studded with metal. Hence (French lorenier, loremier) from the 12th to the 19th century, English lorimer, maker of mountings for horses' bridles, of bits and other small iron ware; a worker of wrought iron. Hence lorication (by error, occasionally, lorification), covering with a protective coat.

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Early Republic
What was the principle defence for the British on the Detroit frontier in 1812?
  1. The Ambassador Bridge

  2. Fort Detroit

  3. Fort Amherstburg

  4. The St. Clair River

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
Nature puts no question and answers none which we mortals ask. She has long ago taken her resolution.
— Henry David Thoreau

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An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals02/23/21
January, 2021
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This Day in Early Modern History -- March 5th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1496-English king Henry VII hires John Cabot to explore 
 •  1528-Utrecht governor Maarten van Rossum plunders The Hague 
 •  1558-Smoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes 
 •  1579-Betuwe joins Union of Utrecht 
 •  1616-Nicolaus Copernicus' de Revolutionibus placed on Catholic Forbidden index 
 •  1623-First American temperance law enacted, Virginia 
 •  1651-South Sea dike in Amsterdam breaks after storm 
 •  1684-Emperor Leopold I, Poland and Venice sign Heilig Covenant of Linz 
 •  1743-First U.S. religious journal, The Christian History, published, Boston 
 •  1746-Jakobijnse troops leave Aberdeen 
 •  1750-First American Shakespearean production-"altered" Richard III, New York City 
 •  1760-Princess Carolina marries General Charles Christian van Nassau-Weilburg 
 •  1766-Don Antonio de Ulloa takes possession of Louisiana Territory from French
 •  1770-Civilians and soldiers clash in the Boston Massacre,, British troops kill 5 in crowd. Crispus Attackus becomes first black to die for American freedom
 •  1783-King Stanislaw August Poniatowski grants rights to Jews of Kovno 
 •  1795-Amsterdam celebrates Revolution on the Dam 
  -Square of Revolution; Treaty of Basel-Prussia ends war with France 
 •  1807-First performance of Ludwig van Beethoven's 4th Symphony in B at a private concert in the home of Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz
 •  1815-Franz Mesmer, pioneer of hypnotic therapy, dies in Germany
 •  1820-Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays 
 •  1821-James Monroe is first President inaugurated on March 5th, (because the 4th was a Sunday)
 •  1836-Samuel Colt manufactures first pistol, 34-caliber "Texas" model 
 •  1839-Charlotte Bronte declines marriage from Reverend Henry Nussey
 •  1849-Zachary Taylor sworn in as 12th president
 •  1856-Covent Garden Opera House destroyed in a fire
  -Georgia becomes first state to regulate railroads 


 •  1575-  William Oughtred -- Inventors
 •  1658-  Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac -- ExplorersMilitaryGovernance
 •  1680-  Josef Munggenast -- Architects
 •  1713-  Frederick Cornwallis -- Clergy
  -  Edward Cornwallis -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1751-  Jan Krtitel Kuchar -- Composers
 •  1755-  Jozef Ignac Bajza -- Writers
 •  1756-  Antoine-Francois Delandine -- Writers
 •  1799-  Nicolas Bosret -- Composers
 •  1808-  Petrus Jacobus Kipp -- InventorsScientists
 •  1812-  Michael Echter -- Artists
 •  1817-  Austen Henry Layard -- Writers


 •  1505-  Philip of Cleves [2] -- Clergy
 •  1535-  Lorenzo Costa -- Artists
 •  1576-  Luis de Requesens y Zuniga -- Governance
 •  1717-  Francois de Callieres -- Writers
 •  1727-  Francis Nicholson -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1778-  Thomas Arne -- Composers
 •  1785-  Joseph Reed [2] -- MilitaryGovernanceLegal
 •  1788-  Guy Johnson -- Military
 •  1794-  Ramon de la Cruz -- Writers
 •  1815-  Franz Mesmer -- WritersPhysicians
 •  1827-  Pierre-Simon Laplace -- AstronomersGovernanceWritersScientists
  -  Alessandro Volta -- InventorsScientists

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 12/25/2020
Krampus – The Half-Goat, Half-Demon Devil of Christmas
December 04, 2020, HeritageDaily by Staff
Around Christmastime, many European countries are celebrating Saint Nicholas Day, usually observed on the 6th December for the feast day of Nicholas of Myra.

Saint Nicolas had many miracles attributed to his intercession, but is also known for his generous practice of gift-giving that gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus (“Saint Nick”) through Sinterklaas.

Whilst Saint Nicolas rewards the well-behaved with gifts, children who misbehaved are visited by Krampus (sometimes with Saint Nicolas), a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as a “half-goat, half-demon” on Krampus Night or Krampusnacht (December 5th).

posted on Colonial Sense: 12/24/2020
The Forgotten History of Jingle Bells
November 21, 2017, Now I Know by Dan Lewis
The first episode of the Simpsons — Season 1, Episode 1 — debuted on December 17, 1989. Homer and Marge (with Maggie in tow) make their way to Springfield Elementary School for Lisa and Bart’s Christmas concert. Bart’s grade is singing a Christmas melody featuring the iconic song “Jingle Bells.” But Bart, as seen in this clip goes with some alternative lyrics — “Jingle Bells, Batman smells, Robin laid an egg; the Batmobile broke its wheel; the Joker got awa–,” resulting in him being pulled off-stage.

Jingle Bells, the lesson we should learn, is a wholesome Christmas song, not one to be manipulated by a rascally fourth grader. But that lesson is wrong. Jingle Bells is neither a wholesome song nor about Christmas.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/15/2020
Archaeologists dig to uncover one of America's first Black churches in Colonial Williamsburg
September 17, 2020, NBC News by Jewel Wicker
A gathering in 1776 on a plantation of enslaved and free Black people in colonial Virginia established what would become one of America's first known Black Christian congregations. Although Williamsburg's First Baptist Church has long abandoned its original sites, a group of archaeologists is digging to unearth clues into this early American group of worshippers.

While worshippers met in defiance of laws barring Black people from meeting in large numbers, white landowner Jesse Cole could hear them from his home, and he often listened along with his wife. Cole offered the group a piece of property on Nassau Street to establish a physical church. By 1828, the church had a recorded 619 members.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/13/2020
Thomas Jefferson Descendant Calls For Removal Of His Famous Ancestor’s Statues
June 19, 2020, The Huffington Post by Jeremy Blum
Shannon Lanier, a ninth-generation direct descendant of President Thomas Jefferson, believes that statues of the Founding Father would be better off in museums.

Lanier, who works as a journalist and is related to Jefferson through the third president’s relationship with enslaved woman Sally Hemings, penned his thoughts in a Newsweek editorial, arguing that Jefferson was “a participant in the institution of slavery—perhaps the most notorious one among the Founding Fathers, not least because of the jarring contrast between what he practiced and what he preached.”

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/11/2020
The Forgotten American Explorer Who Discovered Huge Parts of Antarctica
March 26, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine by Gillen D’Arcy Wood
The early-1900s exploits of intrepid explorers like Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton captured the public imagination. With the benefit of cameras and deft handling of newspaper media, the Edwardian British explorers, alongside their Norwegian rival Roald Amundsen, established themselves as heroic polar pioneers. In the process, however, the south polar exploits of their American forerunner, Charles Wilkes, have been largely forgotten.

It was the round-the-world expedition by Wilkes—whose scientific collection constituted the first treasures of the infant Smithsonian—that first established the continental dimensions of Antarctica. But in a twist of 19th-century international politics, that claim to Antarctica was denied to the Americans by the pole-hungry British. Fast forward to today, and the United States finds itself in another nationalistic race to capitalize on the frozen southern continent. This time, its sparring partner is China.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/09/2020
America’s First Connoisseur
May 21, 2020, The Paris Review by Edward White
Among his many claims to distinction, Thomas Jefferson can be regarded as America’s first connoisseur. The term and the concept emerged among the philosophes of eighteenth-century Paris, where Jefferson lived between 1784 and 1789. As minister to France he gorged on French culture. In five years, he bought more than sixty oil paintings, and many more objets d’art. He attended countless operas, plays, recitals, and masquerade balls. He researched the latest discoveries in botany, zoology and horticulture, and read inveterately—poetry, history, philosophy. In every inch of Paris he found something to stir his senses and cultivate his expertise. “Were I to proceed to tell you how much I enjoy their architecture, sculpture, painting, music,” he wrote a friend back in America, “I should want words.”

Ultimately, he poured all these influences into Monticello, the plantation he inherited from his father, which Jefferson redesigned into a palace of his own refined tastes. More than in its domed ceilings, its gardens, or its galleries, it was in Monticello’s dining room that Jefferson the connoisseur reigned. Here, he shared with his guests recipes, produce, and ideas that continue to have a sizable effect on how and what Americans eat.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/07/2020
Mysterious, centuries-old rock inscription finally deciphered
February 27, 2020, LiveScience by Mindy Weisberger
A mysterious, 230-year-old rock inscription in a French harbor stumped translators for decades. But now, nearly a year after the launch of a contest to decipher the writing, experts have finally decoded its secret message.

In May 2019, officials in the town of Plougastel-Daoulas in Finistère, France, challenged members of the public to interpret the 20-line carved message, Live Science previously reported. Etched into a stone in a cove that's accessible only at low tide, the writing included two dates — 1786 and 1787 — as well as letters and symbols such as a heart-topped cross and a ship.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/05/2020
Pilgrim fathers: harsh truths amid the Mayflower myths of nationhood
September 20, 2020, The Guardian (UK) by Carrie Gibson
For a ship that would sail into the pages of history, the Mayflower was not important enough to be registered in the port book of Plymouth in 1620. Pages from September of that year bear no trace of the vessel, because it was only only 102 passengers and not cargo, making it of no official interest.

The port book is one of the many surprising objects at Mayflower 400: Legend & Legacy, the inaugural exhibition of the Box in Plymouth, Devon, which will open to the public later this month, and which is part of the city’s efforts to mark the 400th anniversary of the ship’s Atlantic crossing.

“This wasn’t a huge historic voyage in 1620. If anything, it was an act of madness because they were going at the wrong time of year into an incredibly dangerous Atlantic,” said the exhibition’s curator, Jo Loosemore.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/03/2020
If Adams and Jefferson could change the number of justices, so can Biden, Schumer, and Pelosi
September 25, 2020, The Daily Kos by Ian Reifowitz
The Supreme Court didn’t always have nine justices, and that number is not set in the Constitution. The number of justices has been changed on multiple occasions throughout our nation’s history, each time for a similarly partisan reason—namely to give one party more influence over the court’s membership. And the first back and forth over the number of justices was a struggle between two of our most prominent Founding Father presidents.

Let me lay out a scenario: On Election Day, let’s say the American people defeat an incumbent president, and give control over both houses of Congress to the party of the president-elect. In a lame-duck act that completely contradicts the very recently expressed will of the people, the incumbent’s party then takes action clearly designed to limit the incoming president’s ability to shape the Supreme Court going forward. Shortly after inauguration, the new president and his party take steps to reverse that action, steps that include changing the number of seats on the Supreme Court.

This may seem like a prediction of what might happen in the coming months, but what I’ve just described happened over two centuries ago.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/01/2020
The Hunt for Catherine the Great's Shipwreck Treasure
September 06, 2020, The Daily Beast by Mara Vorhees and Gerald Easter
In October 1771, a merchant ship out of Amsterdam, the Vrouw Maria, crashed off the stormy Finnish coast, taking her historic cargo to the depths of the Baltic Sea. The vessel was delivering a dozen Dutch masterpiece paintings to Europe’s most voracious collector: Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. The Vrouw Maria became a maritime legend, confounding would-be salvagers for more than two hundred years. In 1999, the daring Finnish wreck hunter Rauno Koivusaari set out to find it with his team, the Pro Vrouw Maria Association.

Midsummer is the time of year when Finns get in touch with their inner pagan. Before the encroachment of Christianity, summer solstice was the high holiday of the northern Baltic. White night revels involved spring potato picnics, fermented beverage consumption, and naked dance parties (at least two of these rituals are still widely practiced). The solstice signaled the transition from spring sowing to summer growing, and the critical interlude for appeasing nature’s fickle spirits, whose mystic powers and mischievous penchants were enhanced during the midnight sun. Large bonfires were lit on midsummer’s eve to frighten off ill-tiding phantoms, who might otherwise spoil the harvest or burn down a barn. Young maidens, meanwhile, delicately tucked seven wild flowers, picked from seven meadows, under their pillow, in hopes of seeing their future mate revealed in a dream. Along Finland’s west coast and throughout the islands, revelers erected long-limbed maypoles, decorated with spruce garlands, flower-woven wreaths, and jangly trinkets. Looking like a boa-clad ship’s mast, archipelago maypoles protected fishermen and sailors against the Baltic’s spiteful water demons.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 71Online Resources Links: 616Recipes: 482
Census People: 11,624 | Pix: 5,410 (46.54%) | Countries: 10,829 (93.16%) | Dates: 4,064 (34.96%) | Bio: 10,397 (89.44%) | TLs: 1,424 (12.25%)/3,768 (48.72%) | Links: 19,191 (165.10%) | Gallery: 117 (1.01%) | Notes: 1,872 (16.10%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 142 | Pix: 2 (1.41%) | Countries: 142 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 88 (61.97%) | TLs: 2 (1.41%)/9 | Links: 118 (83.10%) | Gallery: 118 (83.10%) | Notes: 118 (83.10%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,409Broadsheet Archive: 3,213Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,734    Tagged: 6,399 (82.74%)   With Links: 4,509 (58.30%)   Total Links: 5,673
Colonial Quotes: 3,325Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5
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