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Palm Beach Jewelry, Art and Antique Show(FL)
The 2018 Cathedral Antiques Show(GA)
Discovery Online - Skinner Auctions(MA)
John Page Estate - William Smith Auctions(NH)
American History: Timed Online Auction - Cowan's Auction(OH)
Among His Troops: Washington’s War Tent in a Newly Discovered Watercolor(PA)
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Featured Citizen [More]

Agostino Carracci
an Italian painter and printmaker. He was the brother of the more famous Annibale and cousin of Lodovico Carracci. He posited the ideal in nature, and was the founder of the competing school to the more gritty view of nature as expressed by Caravaggio. He was one of the founders of the Accademia degli Incamminati along with his brother, Annibale Carracci, and cousin, Ludovico Carracci. The academy helped propel painters of the School of Bologna to prominence.

Word of the Day [More]

Lightning. Originally thunderlait, -layt, -leit, -leyt. From Old English ley, flame, came lait, a flash of fire, as in Malory's MORTE D'ARTHUR (1485): Ther felle a sodeyne tempest and thonder layte and rayne. Chaucer uses thunderlight (in one manuscript thonderleit) several times; after him, the picturesque term was neglected until Leigh Hunt caught it up in his FEAST OF POETS (1815): What shall move his placid might? Not the headlong thunderlight.

Daily Trivia [More]

In 1564, Fort Caroline was established. It lasted only a year before being destroyed by the Spanish from St. Augustine. What is the present day location?
  1. Tampa, FL

  2. Savannah, GA

  3. Jacksonville, FL

  4. Charleston, SC

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
Don't talk about what you have done or what you are going to do.
— Thomas Jefferson

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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

January, 2018
Antiques: Auction Results02/11/18
Travels in the American Colonies: Captain Fitch's Journal
to the Creeks
Regional History: Journals01/31/18
The White Pine Series: Connecticut
Architecture: Houses01/21/18
The White Pine Series: New York
Architecture: Houses01/21/18
New England Weather: The Cold Friday of 1810
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times01/12/18
A Washington Irving Christmas
Society-Lifestyle: Holidays12/23/17
New England Weather: Winter of 1835-36
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times12/20/17
Barring Out
Society-Lifestyle: Holidays12/16/17 [update]
November, 2017
Antiques: Auction Results12/15/17
New England Weather: The Comet of 1680
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times11/24/17

This Day in Early Modern History -- February 19th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1512-French troops under Gaston de Foix occupy Brescia 
 •  1537-Weavers of Leiden Netherlands strike 
 •  1539-Jews of Tyrnau Hungary (then Trnava, Czechoslovakia), expelled 
 •  1574-Spanish troops plunder Krommenie, Wormerveer and Jisp Netherlands 
 •  1582-Francis of Valois becomes duke of Brabant 
 •  1619-Trial against Johan van Oldenbarnevelt begins in The Hague 
 •  1634-Battle at Smolensk: Polish king Wladyslaw IV Vasa beats Russians 
 •  1674-Netherlands and England sign Peace of Westminster (New York City becomes English)
 •  1700-Last day of Julian calendar in Denmark 
 •  1736-George Frideric Handel's Alexander's Feast premieres in London
 •  1743-Luigi Boccherini is born
 •  1771-Charles Messier adds M46-M49 to his catalog (galactic clusters in Puppis and Hydra and galaxy in Virgo) 
 •  1777-Congress overlooks Benedict Arnold for promotion
 •  1797-1/3 of papal domain ceded to France 
 •  1803-Congress accepts Ohio's constitution, statehood not ratified till 1953 
 •  1807-British squadron under Admiral Duckworth forces passage of Dardanelle 
  -VP Aaron Burr arrested in Alabama for treason; later found innocent
 •  1821-Future Yankee General Francis Preston Blair Jr. is born in Kentucky
 •  1825-Franz Grillparzer's König Ottokars Glück und Ende premieres in Vienna
 •  1831-First practical U.S. coal-burning locomotive makes first trial run, Pennsylvania 
 •  1840-Housatonic Railroad opens
 •  1846-Texas state government formally installed in Austin 
 •  1847-The first rescuers reached the Donner Party in Northern California
 •  1851-An angry mob in San Francisco's business district "tries" two Australian suspects in the robbery and assault of C. J. Jansen
 •  1856-Tin-type camera patented by Hamilton Lanphere Smith, Gambier, Ohio


 •  1497-  Matthaus Schwarz -- Writers
 •  1519-  Froben Christoph of Zimmern -- Writers
 •  1532-  Jean-Antoine de Baif -- Writers
 •  1584-  Angelo Nardi -- Artists
 •  1586-  Pieter de Carpentier -- Governance
 •  1712-  Arthur Devis -- Artists
 •  1743-  Luigi Boccherini -- Composers
 •  1755-  Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten -- Governance
 •  1766-  William Dunlap -- Writers
 •  1783-  Ambroise Louis Garneray -- ArtistsPiratesNavalWriters
 •  1800-  Yevgeny Baratynsky -- Writers
 •  1815-  Elise Waerenskjold -- Writers
 •  1817-   William III of the Netherlands -- Governance


 •  1553-  Erasmus Reinhold -- AstronomersWriters
 •  1657-  Evert van Aelst -- Artists
 •  1750-  Jan Frans van Bredael the Elder -- Artists
 •  1790-  Jean-Baptiste Krumpholz -- Composers
 •  1808-  David Emanuel -- Governance
 •  1811-  Joaquin Inza -- Artists
 •  1825-  Francisco de Eliza -- ExplorersNaval
 •  1836-  Joice Heth -- Performers
 •  1837-  Georg Buchner -- Writers
 •  1839-  Thomas Falconer -- Clergy

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 02/19/2018 -- Followup
500 years later, scientists think they've solved germ mystery that nearly wiped out Mexican population
February 16, 2018, AFP (Australia) by Staff
IN 1545, disaster struck Mexico’s Aztec nation when people started coming down with high fevers and headaches, bleeding from the eyes, mouth and nose. Death generally followed in three or four days.

Within five years, as many as 15 million people — an estimated 80 per cent of the population — were wiped out in an epidemic the locals named “cocoliztli”.

The word means “pestilence” in the Aztec Nahuatl language. Its cause, however, has been in question for nearly 500 years.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/18/2018
Man As God: 'Frankenstein' Turns 200
February 10, 2018, NPR by Marcelo Gleiser
In the 19th century, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in his essay Nature: "A man is a god in ruins."

Ever since people contemplated the existence of a divine dimension — and this belief must go back to the very early stages of Homo Sapiens or even earlier — with Neanderthals, a split occurred between the human condition and the eternal.

In 1818, Mary Shelley published the first edition of Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus, a novel that has captured our collective imagination like few others in history. The genesis of the tale is well known, a ghost-story writing competition between Mary, her husband Percy Bysshe, and Lord Byron, during a stormy night on June 1816 on Lake Geneva. There have been more than 300 editions of the novel and at least 90 films, apart from hundreds of comic books and academic books inspired by it.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/17/2018
Coastal waters threaten Florida’s historic resources
January 14, 2018, The Associated Press by Dale White
What do St. Augustine’s Castillo de San Marcos and Egmont Key near Tampa have in common? They are two of thousands of Florida’s heritage sites that are vulnerable to rising seas. “Jupiter Lighthouse, Fort Zachary Taylor in Key West, Fort Jefferson and Fort Pickens in Pensacola — all of these places are threatened,” said Clay Henderson, executive director of Stetson University’s Institute for Water and Environmental Resilience.

The Castillo de San Marcos withstood two sieges in 330 years and changed hands five times, but its latest invader — the rising Atlantic Ocean — threatens to erode the historic St. Augustine fortress.

The coquina shell walls of the oldest masonry fort in the United States once absorbed cannonballs but will be susceptible to the buffetings of the sea.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/16/2018
Salmonella May Have Caused Massive Aztec Epidemic, Study Finds
January 15, 2018, NPR by Rebecca Hersher
In 1545, people in the Mexican highlands starting dying in enormous numbers. People infected with the disease bled and vomited before they died. Many had red spots on their skin.

It was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. The 1545 outbreak, and a second wave in 1576, killed an estimated 7 million to 17 million people and contributed to the destruction of the Aztec Empire.

But identifying the pathogen responsible for the carnage has been difficult for scientists because infectious diseases leave behind very little archaeological evidence.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/15/2018
The manuscripts saved by a monk
December 24, 2017, CBS News by Staff
City by city, page by page, Father Columba Stewart is preserving history. The Benedictine monk has spent more than a decade traveling to some of the world's most dangerous regions to find and preserve ancient manuscripts before they are destroyed. The centuries-old works — historical manuscripts and antique religious books — are at risk for a few reasons. Sometimes it's moisture eroding the hand-written pages; sometimes it's a calculated attack to erase a cultural heritage.

Father Columba partners with locals to photograph and digitize the documents. In Iraq, he has partnered with Father Najeeb Michaeel to rescue works, including some that originated in Mosul, the second largest city in Iraq and the center of some of the most intense battles in the fight against ISIS.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/14/2018
A new Leonardo? Scholarly show claims to reveal master’s hand
January 09, 2018, The Art Newspaper by Judith H. Dobrzynski
As Christie’s aggressively marketed Leonardo da Vinci’s Salvator Mundi before the work sold for an astonishing $450m last November, the art world raged anew with questions about the painting’s attribution—even though London’s National Gallery had largely settled the debate by including the work in its 2011-12 Leonardo show.

This spring, the Worcester Art Museum (WAM) in Massachusetts will put the complex process of identifying a Leonardo at the heart of a new exhibition. The Mystery of Worcester’s Leonardo (10 March-3 June) makes the case that a work that has been in the museum’s collection since 1940, A Miracle of Saint Donatus of Arezzo (around 1479-85), should be credited to the Renaissance master.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/13/2018
How Charles II Used Art to Bolster Britain’s Struggling Monarchy
December 26, 2017, Smithsonian Magazine by Brigit Katz
In 1660, after spending more than a decade in foreign exile, Charles II was called back to the British throne. His father, Charles I, had been executed, ushering in a short period of Republican rule, and it fell upon Charles II to cement the position of the re-installed monarchy. One way that the new king displayed his power was by amassing an impressive collection of luxurious artworks, many of which are now on display at an exhibition in London.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/12/2018
Stolen rifle, used at Battle of New Orleans, back in museum
January 08, 2018, The Associated Press by Staff
The FBI says a rifle that was used during the Battle of New Orleans is back at a museum after being stolen from there 35 years ago.

The head of the FBI's New Orleans office, Eric Rommal, says it's the only known weapon that has been traced back and documented to one of two preliminary battles in December 1814.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/11/2018
At Notre Dame, students lobby for removal of Columbus murals, call them ‘version of a Confederate monument’
January 08, 2018, The College Fix by Lauren Fox
Some students, employees and members of the Notre Dame community are calling for the removal of a series of paintings of Christopher Columbus that have adorned the walls of the university’s main building since 1884, calling the murals Notre Dame’s “own version of a Confederate monument.”

The 12 murals, hung in the same hallway as the admissions office, depict Christopher Columbus’ journey and arrival to the Americas in 1492. The founder of the university, Father Edward Sorin, commissioned Vatican painter Luigi Gregori to create murals that would inspire, uplift, educate, and be “didactically Catholic,” according to a university pamphlet.

posted on Colonial Sense: 02/10/2018
Musicians outraged after airline severely damages 17th century instrument
January 09, 2018, Fox News by Alexandra Deabler
Myrna Herzog was traveling from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Tel Aviv, Israel when she was allegedly forced to place her large 17th century viola da gamba in the hold for her Alitalia flight.

Herzog, the director of Israeli classical music group Phoenix, says she reluctantly handed it over only after she was unable to purchase a seat for the instrument, which is slightly smaller than a cello, because the flight was full. A viola da gamba, also known as a viol, is a string instrument played upright, similar to a cello.

The woman claimed the airline assured her that the instrument, valued at over $200,000, would be treated as a fragile item and handled with care by the staff.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 228Online Resources Links: 612Recipes: 481
Census People: 10,861 | Pix: 4,898 (45.10%) | Countries: 10,091 (92.91%) | Dates: 3,121 (28.74%) | Bio: 9,713 (89.43%) | TLs: 1,316 (12.12%)/3,633 (47.07%) | Links: 11,097 (102.17%) | Gallery: 52 (0.48%) | Notes: 1,668 (15.36%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 94 | Pix: 2 (2.13%) | Countries: 94 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 59 (62.77%) | TLs: 2 (2.13%)/8 | Links: 77 (81.91%) | Gallery: 77 (81.91%) | Notes: 77 (81.91%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,406Broadsheet Archive: 2,819Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,719    Tagged: 6,342 (82.16%)   With Links: 4,257 (55.15%)   Total Links: 5,295
Colonial Quotes: 2,633Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5
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