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1858 Upper Macungie Township Printed Hand Colored Fraktur
Geburts und Tauf Schein

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Jean Francois Paul de Gondi
a French churchman, writer of memoirs, and agitator in the Fronde. He was Archbishop of Paris for almost twenty years. During the last ten years of his life, Retz wrote his Memoirs, which go up to the year 1655. They are addressed in the form of narrative to a lady who is not known, though guesses have been made at her identity, some even suggesting Madame de Sévigné herself. In the beginning there are some gaps. They are known for their narrative skill and the verbal portraits of their characters.

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Docker
Stevedore, dock worker who loads and unloads cargo.

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Daily Colonial Quote

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
The regular distribution of power into distinct departments; the introduction of legislative balances and checks; the institution of courts composed of judges holding their offices during good behavior; the representation of the people in the legislature by deputies of their own election... They are means, and powerful means, by which the excellences of republican government may be retained and its imperfections lessened or avoided.
— Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 9, 1787

Latest Activity

Today1 Broadsheet added
2 Census People added/edited
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WhatWhereWhen
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This Day in Early Modern History -- July 27th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events
 •  1501-Nicolaus Copernicus formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral 
 •  1563-French army recaptures Le Havre 
 •  1586-Sir Walter Raleigh brings first tobacco to England from Virginia 
 •  1641-Prince Frederick Henry captures castle of Gennep 
 •  1655-Jews of New Amsterdam petition for a Jewish cemetery 
  -Netherlands and Brandenburg sign military treaty 
 •  1661-British Parliament confirms the Act for the Encouragement of Trade (part of the Navigation Acts)
 •  1689-Battle of Killiecrankie, Jacobite Scottish Highlanders led by John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, defeats royal force led by Whig General Hugh Mackay
 •  1694-Bank of England granted 12 year charter by Act of Parliament 
 •  1713-Russia and Turkey sign peace treaty 
 •  1714-Battle of Gangut: Russians beat Swedish fleet
  -English Queen Anne fires premier Robert Harley 
 •  1775-First US military hospital approved
 •  1776-Silas Deane writes Congress of success in France
 •  1789-Congress establishes Department of Foreign Affairs, State Department 
 •  1794-Coup of thermidor/fall of Robespierre in Paris
 •  1795-Spain and France sign peace treaty 
 •  1806-Meriwether Lewis shoots Blackfoot Indian
 •  1809-Battle of Talavera: British/Spanish army vs French army
 •  1816-U.S. troops destroy Ft. Apalachicola, a Seminole fort, to punish Indians for harboring runaway slaves 
 •  1830-Revolution breaks out in Paris, opposing laws of Charles X 
 •  1836-Adelaide, South Australia founded
 •  1837-U.S. Mint opens in Charlotte, North Carolina 
 •  1839-Chartist riots break out in Birmingham England 
 •  1844-Fire destroys U.S. mint at Charlotte, North Carolina 

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 07/27/2017 -- Followup
New Jersey Museum Holds A Stash Of 221-Year-Old Madeira Wine
July 14, 2017, NPR by Camila Domonoske
There's young wine. There's mature wine. And then there's the wine stashed away at Liberty Hall Museum in Union, New Jersey.

The museum's wine cellar includes several cases of Madeira wine that were imported as long ago as 1796. The museum says some of the Portuguese wine was ordered to celebrate the presidency of John Adams, the second president, who took office in 1797.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/26/2017
The Plundering Politician
July 16, 2017, Today I Found Out by Staff
The Society of Saint Tammany, founded in 1789 in New York City, is named for Tamanend, a chief of the Delaware tribe. It started out as a patriotic and charitable organization, created by tradesmen who weren’t allowed to join the more exclusive clubs that the wealthy belonged to. As wave after wave of new immigrants arrived in New York City during the 1800s, Tammany gave them a helping hand with food, shelter, and jobs.

Meanwhile, the Tammany politicians were building an enormous base of support by organizing immigrants into a voting bloc. By the time Boss Tweed came along, the society had evolved into a well-oiled political machine that was known as Tammany Hall after its headquarters (aka its “wigwam”) on East 14th Street.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/25/2017
Online Map Charts Massacres of Indigenous Australians
July 11, 2017, Smithsonian Magazine by Brigit Katz
In July of 1843, a group of 20 European colonists in Australia set out on a murderous mission. Members of the Indigenous Brataualang group had killed the nephew of the Scottish pioneer Lachlan Macalister—possibly in retaliation for the deaths of several Aboriginal people—and the colonists wanted vengeance. They surrounded a waterhole at Warrigal Creek in Victoria and opened fire, killing between 60 to 150 Brataualang people. According to firsthand accounts of the incident, the pioneers shot and shot, until the water ran red with blood.

The massacre at Warrigal Creek is one of the largest and most violent killings of Aboriginal people by European settlers, but it is far from the only one. As the BBC reports, researchers at the University of Newcastle in Australia have created a comprehensive online map charting the many massacres that took place between the years of 1788— when the first British fleet arrived in Australia—and 1872. The project seeks to highlight the sheer scope of violence committed against Aboriginal people during Australia’s Frontier Wars, a long, often vicious conflict that pitted Indigenous groups against pioneers from Europe.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/24/2017
The Site of the Salem Witch Trial Hangings Finally Has a Memorial
July 13, 2017, Smithsonian by Christine Woodside
Eight years ago, when they bought their house overlooking a wooded ledge in Salem, Massachusetts, Erin O’Connor and her husband, Darren Benedict, had no idea why that parcel stood empty. The scrubby lot lay tucked between houses on Pope Street, within sight of a large Walgreen’s—nothing much to look at. So when people began to stop by and take pictures of the empty site last winter, they wondered why.

If they’d been there in 1692, they would have known. That’s when the rocky ledge on the parcel next door turned into a site of mass execution—and when the bodies of people hanged as witches were dumped into a low spot beneath the ledge known as “the crevice.” In the night, when the hangings were over, locals heard the sounds of grieving families who snuck over to gather up their dead and secretly bury them elsewhere.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/23/2017
The Mona Lisa Caper
July 10, 2017, Today I Found Out by Staff
August 21, 1911. Louis Beroud, a painter, busily set up his easel in the Salon Carré, one of the Louvre’s more than 200 rooms, directly facing the spot where the Mona Lisa usually smiled out at her admirers. Beroud had painted copies of La Gioconda plenty of times before. But this time he planned to set up his own model next to the painting and paint the two together, with his model using the Mona Lisa’s protective glass case as a mirror. Beroud was looking back and forth between his equipment and the glass case, when suddenly he froze. There was an empty space where the Mona Lisa should have been.

When he asked a guard where the painting was, he was told that it was in the photography room, where copies were made. Beroud waited three hours for the painting’s return, but eventually, his patience gave out. He asked the guard to go and see what was taking so long. When the guard returned after a few minutes, he had to admit to Beroud that the painting was nowhere to be found.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/22/2017
Morris and Morris — the Founding Fathers time forgot
July 13, 2017, The Blaze by Leon Wolf
Given the popularity of our Independence Day tribute to the history of the Revolutionary War, we have decided to run a series of short posts about events in world history that you might not be familiar with. These posts are not intended to be exhaustive in any way, but rather merely to introduce the reader to the subject and provide resources for further study. We hope you enjoy.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/21/2017
Demolition of Prohibition-era wall reveals centuries-old wine collection
July 11, 2017, CNN by Kylee Tsuru
Museum workers in New Jersey broke through a Prohibition-era wall and a locked wooden cage to discover over 50 bottles and 42 demijohns of rare Madeira wine dating back as early as 1769.

Liberty Hall Museum at Kean University in Union, New Jersey, says the discovery yields the oldest known collection of Madeira in the United States.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/20/2017
The brig Cyprus: How an English surfer solved the mystery of an Australian pirate ship in Japan
June 25, 2017, ABC News (Australia) by Rachel Mealey
The brig Cyprus was an Australian supply ship that was hijacked in 1829 in Tasmania by a group of convicts and skippered by a man named William Swallow.

When he was eventually recaptured in China, Swallow testified that he had sailed to Japan, but no-one believed his story.

Now, almost two centuries later, English history buff Nick Russell has put together the missing pieces.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/19/2017
Portrait of 18th-Century Muslim American Proves the US Has Always Been Home to Many Faiths
July 03, 2017, Hyperallergic by Hrag Vartanian
A portrait on loan to the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery (NPG) will probably challenge many people’s understanding of early American history, particularly in regards to the presence of Muslims during that formative period. The small 1822 canvas, painted by James Alexander Simpson, is one of two known portraits of Yarrow Mamout, and his story is pretty amazing.

Born in 1736, Mamout hailed from one of the nomadic West African groups that spoke Fulani. Like many Africans during that time, he was forced into servitude and delivered to the shores of the Americas from his native Guinea through a network of slave traders.

posted on Colonial Sense: 07/18/2017
'What To The Slave Is The Fourth Of July?' Frederick Douglass, Revisited
July 05, 2017, NPR by Abigail Censky
"What to the slave is the Fourth of July?" posed Frederick Douglass to a gathering of 500-600 abolitionists in Rochester, N.Y., in 1852. Admission to the speech was 12 cents, and the crowd at the Rochester Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society was enthusiastic, voting unanimously to endorse the speech at its end. This speech would be remembered as one of the most poignant addresses by Douglass, a former slave turned statesman. Douglass gave it on July 5, refusing to celebrate the Fourth of July until all slaves were emancipated.

On July 3, 165 years later, the same question was posed on a stage in the basement of the National Archives, in Washington, D.C. This time by an actor, dressed like Frederick Douglass and wearing a wig, speaking to a 100 or so people, plus the livestream audience, in the William G. McGowan Theater. The event was put on with the help of the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site, which hosts an annual reading of the speech, entitled The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.


Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 439Online Resources Links: 612Recipes: 481
Census People: 10,368 | Pix: 4,517 (43.57%) | Countries: 9,607 (92.66%) | Dates: 3,039 (29.31%) | Bio: 9,236 (89.08%) | TLs: 1,049 (10.12%)/3,263 (42.24%) | Links: 9,336 (90.05%) | Gallery: 51 (0.49%) | Notes: 1,533 (14.79%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 59 | Pix: 2 (3.39%) | Countries: 59 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 59 (100.00%) | TLs: 2 (3.39%)/8 | Links: 61 (103.39%) | Gallery: 61 (103.39%) | Notes: 61 (103.39%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,406Broadsheet Archive: 2,737Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,725    Tagged: 6,326 (81.89%)   With Links: 4,207 (54.46%)   Total Links: 5,224
Colonial Quotes: 1,883Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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