In the year 1667. October the 7th amongst our poultry we had one white game Cock of the French kind, a bird of high price, when he was three years old he drooped and his spirit was quite gone; one of our Negro maids finding him in the yard dead brought him into the house and acquainted me with it. I caused her to draw him, when his guts were all drawn out she put in her hand again and felt a lump in his body as big as a half-peny loaf, strongly fastned to his back, and much ado she had to pull it out; I found it to be a tuff bag, containing stuff like liver, and very heavie, at one end of the bag, another little bag filled with a fatty matter, his gizard, liver, and heart wasted. The Pipe or Roupe is a common disease amongst their poultry infecting one another with it. I conceive it cometh of a cold moisture of the brain, they will be very sleepie with it, the best cure for it is Garlick, and smoaking of them with dryed Hysope.

In September following my Arrivage in the Massachusets about the twelfth hour of the eight day, I shipt my self and goods in a Bark bound to the East-ward, meeting as we sailed out the Dutch Governour of New-Netherlands, who was received and entertained at Boston by the Governour and Magistrates with great solemnity. About nine of the clock at night we came to Salem and lay aboard all night.

The Ninth day we went ashore to view the Town which is a mile long, and lay that night at a Merchants house.

The Tenth day we came from Salem about twelve of the clock back to Marble-head: here we went ashore and recreated our selves with Musick and a cup of Sack and saw the Town, about ten at night we returned to our Bark and lay aboard.

The Eleventh being Saturday, and the wind contrary, we came to Charles-town again about twelve of the clock we took store of Mackarel.

The Thirteenth being Monday, we went aboard again about nine of the clock in the morning and out to Sea, about Sun going down we took store of Mackarel. The wind was scanty all along, and in the night time we durst not bear much sail, because of the Rocks and foaming breakers that lay in our way.

The Fourteenth day we came up with Pascataway, or Pascafique, where there is a large River and a fair harbour, within here is seated a Colony, properly belonging to the Heirs of Captain Mason sometime since of London; but taken into the Colony of Massachusets, by what right I will not here discuss.

The chiefest places of note are the Bay or Harbour North from Boston, on the West-side of the Harbour are built many fair houses, and so in another part called Strawberry-bank.

By the Harbour is an Island which of late days is filled with buildings, besides there are two Towns more seated up higher upon the River, the one called Dover; the River-banks are clothed with stately Timber, and here are two miles meadow land and arable enough; the other town is called Excester.

At the River Pascataway begins the Province of Main: having pleased our selves with the fight of Pascataway at a distance we sailed on, and came to Blackpoint.

The Fifteenth day, about eight of the clock at night, where the next day I was shrewdly pinched with a great frost, but having two or three bottles of excellent Passada, and good cheer bestowed upon me I made a shift to bear it out, and now we are in the Province of Main.

The Province of Main, (or the Countrey of the Traquoes) heretofore called Laconia or New-Summersetshire is a Colony belonging to the Grandson of Sir Ferdinando Gorges of Ashton Phillips in the County of Sommerset, the said Sir Ferdinando Gorges did expend in planting several parts of New-England above Twenty thousand pounds sterling; and when he was between three and four score years of age did personally engage in our Royal Martyrs service; and particularly in the Seige of Bristow, and was plundered and imprisoned several times, by reason whereof he was discountenanced by the pretended Commissioners for forraign plantations, and his Province incroached upon by the Massachusets Colony, who assumed the Government thereof. His Majestie that now Reigneth sent over his Commissioners to reduce them within their bounds, and to put Mr. Gorges again into possession. But there falling out a contest about it, the Commissioners settled it in the Kings name (until the bussiness should be determined before his Majestie) and gave Commissions to the Judge of their Courts, and the Justices to Govern and Act according to the Laws of England, & by such Laws of their own as were not repugnant to them. But as soon as the Commissioners were returned for England, the Massachusets enter the province in a hostile manner with a Troop of Horse and Foot and turn'd the Judge and his Assistants off the Bench, Imprisoned the Major or Commander of the Militia, threatned the Judge, and some others that were faithful to Mr. Gorges interests I could discover many other foul proceedings, but for some reasons which might be given, I conceive it not convenient to make report thereof to vulgar ears; & quæ supra nos nihil ad nos. Onely this I could wish, that there might be some consideration of the great losses, charge and labour which hath been sustained by the Judge, and some others for above thirty years in upholding the rights of Mr. Gorge and his Sacred Majesties Dominion against a many stubborn and elusive people.

Anno Dom. 1623. Mr. Robert Gorge, Sir Ferdinando Gorges brother had for his good service granted him by Patent from the Council of Plimouth all that part of the Land commonly called Massachusiack, situated on the North-side of the Bay of Massachusets.

Not long after this Sir Ferdinando Gorges had granted to him by Patent from the middest of Merrimack-River to the great River Sagadehock, then called Laconia.

In 1635. Capt. William Gorge, Sir Ferdinando’s Nephew, was sent over Governour of the Province of Main, then called New-Summersetshire.

Sir Ferdinando Gorge received a Charter-Royal from King Charles the first the third of April in the Fifttenth of his Raign, granting to him all that part and portion of New-England, lying and being between the River of Pascataway, that is, beginning at the entrance of Pascataway-harbour, and so to pass up the same into the River of Newichawanoe or Neqhechewanck, and through the same unto the farthest head thereof aforesaid, North-eastward along the Sea-coasts, for Sixty miles to Sagadehoc-River to Kenebeck, even as far as the head thereof, and up into the main land North-westward for the space of one hundred and twenty miles. To these Territories are adjoyned the North half-Isle of Sholes, with several other Islands, it lyeth between 44 degrees and 45 of Northerly latitude. The River Canada on the North-east the Sea coast South, amongst many large Royalties, Jurisdictions and Immunities was also granted to the said Sir Ferdinando Gorge, the same Royalties, priviledges and franchises as are, or of right ought to be enjoyed by the Bishop of Durham in the County Palatine of Durham; the planters to pay for every hundred Acres of land yearly, two shillings six pence, that is such land as is given to them and their Heirs for ever.

The Officers by Patent are a Deputy Governour, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, a Marshal for Souldiers, an Admiraltie for Sea affairs, and a Judge of the Admiraltie, a Master of Ordinance, a Secretary, &c.

Towns there are not many in this province. Kittery situated not far from Pascataway is the most populous.

Next to that Eastward is seated by a River near the Sea Gorgiana, a Majoraltie, and the Metropolitan of the province.

Further to the Eastward is the Town of Wells.

Cape-Porpus Eastward of that, where there is a Town by the Sea side of the same name, the houses scatteringly built, all these Towns have store of salt and fresh marsh with arable land, and are well flockt with Cattle.

About eight or nine mile to the East-ward of Cape-Porpus, is Winter harbour, a noted place for Fishers, here they have many stages.

Saco adjoyns to this, and both make one scattering Town of large extent, well stored with Cattle, arable land and marshes, and a Saw-mill.

Six mile to the Eastward of Saco & forty mile from Gorgiana is seated the Town of Black point, consisting of about fifty dwelling houses, and a Magazine or Doganne, scatteringly built, they have store of neat and horses, of sheep near upon Seven or Eight hundred, much arable and marsh salt and fresh, and a Corn-mill.

To the Southward of the point (upon which are stages for fishermen) lye two small Islands beyond the point, North-eastward runs the River Spurwinch.

Four miles from Black-point, one mile from Spurwinch-River Eastward lyeth Richmans-Island, whose longitude is 317 degrees 30 seconds, and latitude 43 degrees and 34 minutes, it is three mile in circumference, and hath a passable and gravelly ford on the North-side, between the main and the Sea at low-water: here are found excellent Whetstones, and here likewise are stages for fishermen.

Nine mile Eastward of Black-point lyeth scatteringly the Town of Casco upon a large Bay, stored with Cattle, Sheep, Swine, abundance of marsh and Arable land, a Corn-mill or two, with stages for fishermen.

Further East-ward is the Town oi Kenebeck seated upon the River.

Further yet East-ward is Sagadehock, where there are many houses scattering, and all along stages for fishermen, these too are stored with Cattle and Corn lands.

The mountains and hills that are to be taken notice of, are first Acomenticus hills, between Kettery and Gorgiana, the high hills of Ossapey to the West-ward of Saco River, where the princely Pilhanaw Ayries, the white mountains, to the North-ward of Black-point, the highest Terracce in New-England, you have the description of it in my Treatise of the rarities of New-England.

A Neighbour of mine rashly wandering out after some stray'd Cattle, lost his way, and coming as we conceived by his Relation near to the head spring of some of the branches of Black-point River or Saco-River, light into a Tract of land for God knowes how many miles full of delses and dingles, and dangerous precipices, Rocks and inextricable difficulties which did justly daunt, yea quite deter him from endeavouring to pass any further: many such like places are to be met with in New England.

The ponds or lakes in this province are very large and many, out of which the great Rivers have their original; we read of the lake Balsena that is thirty miles about, here are that come very near to it, stored with all forts of fresh water fish; and if you will believe report, in one of them huge fishes like Whales are to be seen, and some of them have fair Islands in them. Twelve mile from Casco-bay, and passable for men and horses, is a lake called by the Indians Sebug, on the brink thereof at one end is the famous Rock shap'd like a Moose-Deere or Helk, Diaphanous, and called the Moose-Rock. Here are found stones like Crystal, and Lapis Specularis or Muscovia glass both white and purple.

On the East-side of Black-point River, upon a plain close to the Sea-bank is a pond two mile in compass, fish it produceth, but those very small and black, and a number of Frogs and Snakes, and much frequented by wild-fowl, Ducks, Teal, and wild-Swins, and Geese, especially spring and fall when they pass along to the South-ward, and return again to the North-ward where they breed.

The principal Rivers in the province of Main, are Pascataway-River, York-River, Kenibunck-River, near to this River clay bullets were cast up by a mineral vapour, this River is by the Town of Wells. Then Saco-River on the East-side of the Town, the shore Rockie all along on both sides, where musick echoes from several places: seven miles up the River is a great fall where abundance of Salmon and Lamprons are taken at the fall; a great way up, the River runs upon the Rock, in rupibus defendendo efficit rivos, he cutteth out Rivers among the Rocks, saith Job, of the Almighty, Job 28. 10. A little above the fall is a saw-mill. Then Black-point-River divided into many branches; this as most of the Rivers in New-England, is bar'd with a bank of Sand, where the Indians take Sturgeon and Basse. Spur-winck-River is next, which by his near approach to Black-point-river maketh that neck of land almost an Island. Further East-ward is Kenebeck-river fifty leagues off of New-Plimouth East-ward, and Pechipscut famous for multitudes of mighty large Sturgeon. The last river of the province East-ward is the great river Sagadehock where Sir John Pophams Colony seated themselves.

The chief harbours are Cape-porpus, Winter harbour, in which are some small Islands, Black-point, Richmans-Island, Casco-bay the largest in the province full of Islands.

From Sagadehock to Nova-Scotia is called the Duke of Yorkes province, here Pemmaquid, Montinicus, Mohegan, Capeanawhagen, where Capt. Smith fisht for Whales; Muscataquid, all fill'd with dwelling houses and stages for fishermen, and have plenty of Cattle, arable land and marshes.

Nova Scotia was sold by the Lord Starling to the French, and is now wholly in their possession.

Now we are come to New-found-land, which is over against the gulf of St. Lawrence, an Island near as spacious as Ireland, and lyeth distant from the Continent as far as England is from the nearest part of France, and near half the way between Ireland and Virginia, its longitude is 334 degrees 20 seconds, and North latitude 46 degrees 30 minutes, or as others will 53 minutes. The longitude of places are uncertainly reported, but in latitudes most agree. Longitude is the distance of the meridian of any place from the meridian which passeth over the Isles of Azores, where the beginning of longitude is said to be. The meridian is a great circle dividing the Equinoctial at right Angles into two equal parts, passing also through both the Poles, and the Zenith, to which circle the Sun coming twice every 24 hours, maketh the middle of the day, and the middle of the night. Every place hath a several meridian, but they all meet in the poles of the world. Latitude is counted from the Equinoctial to the end of 30 degrees on each side thereof The Equinoctial is a great circle imagined in the Heavens, also dividing the heavens into two equal parts, and lying just in the middle betwixt the two poles, being in compass from West to East, 360 degrees, every degree thereof on the terrestrial Globe valuing 20 English miles, [leagues?] or 60 miles.

Into the Bay of St. Lawrence the River of St. Lawrence or Canada disimbogues it self, a River far exceeding any River in the elder world, thirty or forty mile over at the mouth, and in the Channel one hundred fathom deep; it runs on the back-side of New-England and Virginia: the French (it is said) have gone up fix weeks voyage in it, and have not yet discovered the spring-head: the longitude is 334 degrees 11 seconds, in 50 degrees 21 minutes of North latitude. This may satisfie a modest Reader, and I hope yield no offence to any. I shall onely speak a word or two of the people in the province of Main and the Dukes province, and so conclude.

The people in the province of Main may be divided into Magistrates, Husbandmen, or Planters, and fisher-men; of the Magistrates some be Royalists, the rest perverse Spirits, the like are the planters and fishers, of which some be planters and fishers both, others meer fishers.

Handicrafts-men there are but few, the Tumelor or Cooper, Smiths and Carpenters are best welcome amongst them, shop-keepers there are none, being supplied by the Massachusets Merchants with all things they stand in need of, keeping here and there fair Magazines stored with English goods, but they set excessive prices on them, if they do not gain Cent per Cent, they cry out that they are losers, hence English shooes are sold for Eight and Nine shillings a pair, worsted stockins of Three shillings six pence a pair, for Seven and Eight shillings a pair, Douglass that is sold in England for one or two and twenty pence an ell, for four shillings a yard, Serges of two shillings or three shillings a yard, for Six and Seven shillings a yard, and so all forts of Commodities both for planters and fishermen, as Cables, Cordage, Anchors, Lines, Hooks, Nets, Canvas for sails, &c. Bisket twenty five shillings a hundred, Salt at an excessive rate, pickled-herrin for winter bait Four and five pound a barrel (with which they speed not so well as the waggish lad at Cape-porpus, who baited his hooks with the drown'd Negro’s buttocks) so for Pork and Beef

The planters are or should be restlless pains takers, providing for their Cattle, planting and sowing of Corn, fencing their grounds, cutting and bringing home fuel, cleaving of claw-board and pipe-staves, fishing for fresh water fish and fowling takes up most of their time, if not all; the diligent hand maketh rich, but if they be of a droanish disposition as some are, they become wretchedly poor and miserable, scarce able to free themselves and family from importunate famine, especially in the winter for want of bread.

They have a custom of taking Tobacco, sleeping at noon, sitting long at meals some-times four times in a day, and now and then drinking a dram of the bottle extraordinarily: the smoaking of Tobacco, if moderately used refresheth the weary much, and so doth sleep.

A Traveller five hours doth crave
To Sleep, a Student Seven will have,
And nine sleeps every Idle knave.

The Physitian allowes but three draughts at a meal, the first for need, the second for pleasure, and the third for sleep; but little observed by them, unless they have no other liquor to drink but water. In some places where the springs are frozen up, or at least the way to their springs made unpassable by reason of the snow and the like, they dress their meat in Aqua Cælestis, i. e. melted snow, at other times it is very well cook't, and they feed upon (generally) as good flesh, Beef, Pork, Mutton, Fowl and fish as any is in the whole world besides.

Their Servants which are for the most part English, when they are out of their time, will not work under half a Crown a day, although it be for to make hay, and for less I do not see how they can, by reason of the dearness of clothing. If they hire them by the year, they pay them Fourteen or Fifteen pound, yea Twenty pound at the years end in Corn, Cattle and fish: some of these prove excellent fowlers, bringing in as many as will maintain their masters house; besides the profit that accrews by their feathers. They use (when it is to be had) a great round shot, called Barstable shot, (which is best for fowl) made of a lead blacker than our common lead, to fix pound of shot they allow one pound of powder. Cannon powder is esteemed best.

The fishermen take yearly upon the coasts many hundred kentals of Cod, hake, haddock, polluck &c. which they split, salt and dry at their stages, making three voyages in a year. When they share their fish (which is at the end of every voyage) they separate the best from the worst, the first they call Merchantable fish, being sound, full grown fish and well made up, which is known when it is clear like a Lanthorn horn and without spots; the second sort they call refuse fish, that is such as is salt burnt, spotted, rotten, and carelesly ordered: these they put off to the Massachusets Merchants; the merchantable for thirty and two and thirty ryals a kental, (a kental is an hundred and twelve pound weight) the refuse for Nine shillings and Ten shillings a kental, the Merchant sends the merchantable fish to Lisbonne, Bilbo, Burdeaux, Marsiles, Talloon, Rochel, Roan, and other Cities of France, to the Canaries with claw-board and pipe-staves which is there and at the Charibs a prime Commodity: the refuse fish they put off at the Charib-Islands, Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c. who feed their Negroes with it.

To every Shallop belong four fishermen, a Master or Steersman, a Midship-man, and a Foremast-man, and a shore man who washes it out of the salt, and dries it upon hurdles pitcht upon stakes breast high and tends their Cookery; these often get in one voyage Eight or Nine pound a man for their shares, but it doth some of them little good, for the Merchant to increase his gains by putting off his Commodity in the midst of their voyages, and at the end thereof comes in with a walking Tavern, a Bark laden with the Legitimate bloud of the rich grape, which they bring from Phial, Madera, Canaries, with Brandy, Rhum, the Barbadoes strong-water, and Tobacco, coming ashore he gives them a taster or two, which so charms them, that for no perswasions that their imployers can use will they go out to Sea, although fair and reasonable weather, for two or three days, nay sometimes a whole week till they are wearied with drinking, taking ashore two or three Hogsheads of Wine and Rhum to drink off when the Merchant is gone. If a man of quality chance to come where they are roystering and gulling in Wine with a dear felicity, he must be sociable and Roly-poly with them, taking off their liberal cups as freely, or else be gone, which is best for him, for when Wine in their guts is at full Tide, they quarrel, fight and do one another mischief, which is the conclusion of their drunken compotations. When the day of payment comes, they may justly complain of their costly sin of drunkenness, for their shares will do no more than pay the reckoning; if they save a Kental or two to buy shooes and stockins, shirts and wastcoats with, 'tis weII, other-wayes they must enter into the Merchants books for such things as they stand in need off, becoming thereby the Merchants slaves, & when it riseth to a big sum are constrained to mortgage their plantation if they have any, the Merchant when the time is expired is sure to seize upon their plantation and stock of Cattle, turning them out of house and home, poor Creatures, to look out for a new habitation in some remote place where they begin the world again. The lavish planters have the same fate, partaking with them in the like bad husbandry, of these the Merchant buys Beef, Pork, Pease, Wheat and Indian Corn, and sells it again many times to the fishermen. Of the same nature are the people in the Dukes province, who not long before I left the Countrey petitioned the Governour and Magistrates in the Massachusets to take them into their Government, Birds of a feather will ralley together.

Anno Dom. 1671. The year being now well spent, and the Government of the province turned topsiturvy, being heartily weary and expecting the approach of winter, I took my leave of my friends at Black-point. And on the 28 of August being Monday I shipt my self and my goods aboard of a shallop bound for Boston: towards Sun-set, the wind being contrary, we put into Gibbons his Island, a small Island in Winter-harbour about two leagues from Black-point West-ward, here we stayed till the 30. day being Wednesday, about nine of the clock we set sail, and towards Sun-set came up with Gorgiana, the 31 day being Thursday we put into Cape-Ann-harbour about Sun-set. September the 1 being Saturday in the morning before day we set sail and came to Boston about three of the clock in the afternoon, where I found the Inhabitants exceedingly afflicted with griping of the guts, and Feaver, and Ague, and bloudy Flux.

The Eight day of October being Wednesday, I boarded the new-Supply of Boston 120 Tun, a ship of better sail than defence, her Guns being small, and for salutation only, the Master Capt. Fairweather, her sailers 16. and as many passengers. Towards night I returned to Boston again, the next day being Thanksgiving day, on Fryday the Tenth day we weighed Anchor and fell down to Hull.

The 12 and 13 day about 20 leagues from Cape-Sable a bitter storm took us, beginning at seven of the clock at night, which put us in terrible fear of being driven upon the Cape, or the Island of Sables where many a tall ship hath been wrackt.

November the One and twenty about two of the clock afternoon we saw within kenning before us thick clouds, which put us in hope of land, the Boson brings out his purse, into which the passengers put their good will, then presently he nails it to the main-mast, up go the boyes to the main-mast-top fitting there like so many Crowes, when after a while one of them cryes out land, which was glad tidings to the wearied passengers, the boyes descend, and the purse being taken from the mast; was distributed amongst them, the lad that first descryed land having a double share: about three of the clock Scilly was three leagues off.

The Four and twentieth day we came to Deal, from thence the 25. to Lee, the 26. being Sunday we steemed the Tide to Gravesend, about two of the clock afternoon. The 27 we came up with Wollich where I landed and refresht my self for that night, next day I footed it four or five miles to Bexley in Kent to visit a near kinsman, the next day proved rainie, the 30 day being Fryday my kinsman accommodated me with a Horse and his man to Greenwich, where I took a pair of Oars and went aboard our Ship then lying before Radcliff, here I lay that night. Next day being Saturday, and the first of December I cleared my goods, shot the bridge and landed at the Temple about seven of the clock at night, which makes my voyage homeward 7 weeks and four days, and from my first setting out from London to my returning to London again Eight years Six moneths and odd days.

Now by the merciful providence of the Almighty, having perform'd Two voyages to the North-east parts of the Western-world, I am safely arrived in my Native Countrey; having in part made good the French proverb, Travail where thou canst, but dye where thou oughtest, that is, in thine own Countrey.

FINIS.Source: Overview by Bryan Wright

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John Josselyn

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