Journal of Captain Phineas Stevens’ Journey to Canada, 1752

Instructions to Capt: Phineas Stevens and Mr. Nathaniel Wheelwright, appointed to proceed to Canada, to negotiate the restoration of the Captives belonging to this Province, now remaining in the hands of the French or Indians there.

You are hereby directed with all convenient speed to proceed to Albany, and there furnishing yourselves with a suitable Guide and Guides and other Assistance necessary for your convenient and safe Travel, to go direct to the Fort at Crown Point, and upon your arrival there apply yourselves to the Commanding Officer of that Garrison, and after shewing him your Passport and acquainting him with your general business, request of him to give Orders for your Speedy and Safe Conveyance to the Governour or Commander in Chief of the Province of Canada.1

And upon your arrival at the place of Residence of the said Commander-in-Chief, immediately wait on him, and deliver my Letter to him shew him your Passport, and take his time for receiving his Answer to my demand of his delivering up, without Ransom, the Captives in the hands of the French or Indians; which you are to urge as far as you shall find necessary, or Convenient.

But if you find he cannot be prevailed with to release the Captives without Ransom, you must treat with him about their release upon the easiest and most reasonable Terms that may be obtained.

You must use all the advantages you may have of getting a knowledge of the several Prisoners, whether English or Indians belonging to this Province, now remaining in that Country, with their respective Circumstances and Condition, and if it should be pretended that any of them are unwilling to return you must endeavour, if it be possible to come at a Speech with them, and use your best endeavours to prevail upon them to return with you, with the leave of the Governour or Commander-in-Chief.

You are hereby impowered and directed to draw upon the Province Treasurer, for such sum or sums as you may find necessary, as well for the Ransome of the Prisoners, as for the Charge of their Travel and other Contingencies that may require it, or use such other way or method of supplying your Credit as you may find most suitable.

When your business is finished and you have received the Governour of Canada’s Despatches for this Government, take back your English Passport and get one from the French Governour for your safe conduct home.

You must keep a Journal of your Proceedings, and also an Account of the Articles of Expense of the Publick money put into your hands, and lay the same before me and the Council, at your return.

Cambg2l April the 15th 1752.


[Cambrg N.E., April 14. 1752.


This comes to your Excellency by Captain Phineas Stevens, who was employed by Governour Shirley, before his departure for Great Britain, to carry Dispatches to you.

The Affair Captain Stevens was then engaged in (viz. to procure the recovery and return of our Captives in the hands of the French and Indians) being not yet fully effected, I have sent him together with Mr. Nathaniel Wheelwright, with these my Letters to you: And with Directions to do every thing necessary on the part of this Government, for the Deliverance of the rest of our Captives, still remaining in any part of the Government of Canada.

You will therefore please to receive these Gentlemen in the Character of Messengers from this Government, for transacting the Affair abovementioned, and give them all the assistance necessary to make their Business successfull, that so, (if it be possible) there may not remain one single subject of This His Majesty’s Government, either English or Indian under their miserable Captivity.

And I am the rather moved to urge this Business with freedom and importunity, by reason of the solicitous care our respective Masters have expressed to have this matter completely effected; as you will see by the inclosed Copy of his Most Christian Majesty’s Order to your Excellency (which I suppose you have received,) the Counterpart of which I have also received from his Britannick Majesty, my most Gracious Master; and I have so completely fulfilled the Directions contained therein, as that I am well assured that there is not one single Person, French or Indian, Subject of his Most Catholick Majesty, or in alliance with him, under Captivity, in any part of this Government.

I must in a particular manner repeat my pressing Demands for the restoration of any of those Indians, (now surviving) the Subjects of this his Majesty’s Government, who were taken upon the Sea, being on a Whaling Voyage, or any other Indians belonging to this Province, some of whom it has been reported are treated as Slaves, tho’ in this Province they live in as much freedom as the English themselves.

It seems highly unjust and contrary to the Form of the Articles of Peace, always stipulated between the Powers of Europe, that this Government should be put to any charge for the Ransom of Prisoners of War, after a Peace concluded; and I am confident that no one instance can be produced of any Ransom being paid by the French Government or private persons for the release of their Prisoners or that their Release was ever denied them under pretence of their being in the hands of the Indians: And therefore I must once more urge my Demand that all the Prisoners belonging to this Government may be discharged without Ransom.

I have [remainder of this letter missing]

April 27, 1752. I set out from No. 4.5 for Canada, my son Samuel with me; came two miles below Fort Turner; and lodged at Caleb Hows.

April 28th. Hired said How with two horses (for which I paid him two dollars) came to Deerfield. Lodged at Col. Hinsdell's.

April 29th. To Hatfield, where I met with Mr. Wheelwright, and returned with him to Deerfield the same day, where we remained, preparing for our journey till

May 4th then set out and came at Francis Taylor’s, 12 miles, and lodged a6 1 dollar.

May 5th. To Fort Massachusetts,7 accompanied by Capt. Moses.

May 6th. After making a present to the soldiers of one dollar, we set out, accompanied by Capt. Williamson, till noon; then took our leave of him, and came to Albany. Same day had an account of three soldiers being drowned in the morning of the said day, belonging to the fort at Albany.

May 7th we spent in visiting and consulting with some of the chief men in the place how to proceed in our Journey to Canada.

May 8th. We agreed with an Indian to assist with his son in our journey; and also engaged Mr. Sanders8 (the mayor of the city) to provide all things needful for our journey.

May 9th. We sent a man to Skanately9 to buy a canoe, for a suitable one was not to be found in Albany.

May 10th. Lords Day - exceeding dry sermon.

May 11th. The two Indians came from Stockbridge, in order to go with us.

May 12th. Fixed our canoe, and set all things in readiness for our journey.

May 13th. I set out from Albany, with Heywood, and Samuel; and the two Indians came with our canoe and lading 16 miles, and lodged at Jacob Foot’s, a Dutchman.

May14th. I hired the said Dutchman to carry our baggage in a wagon to Stillwater, 6 miles. I with the two Indians came up the swift water in the canoe. Then took the lading and came to Saratogue10 and lodged [having travelled] 24 miles this day. Mr. Wheelwright came on horseback this day from Albany, and lodged at Saratogue.

May 15th. I came with the canoe three miles above Lydies'es,11 and lodged at the foot of the falls. Mr. Wheelwright lodged at Lydies'es. It rained at night.

May 16th. Col. Lydies joined Mr. Wheelwright and met the canoe (at the place where we take our departure from Hulstines [or Hulstions] river)12 with five horses which assisted us in carrying our baggage. We came this day half way over the carrying place, and lodged by the branch of Wood creek. It rained hard at night.

May 17th. We came to the Lake St. Sacrement13 about noon, with all our bagg[ag]e. Col. Lydies, with the two Indians with him, turned back. After we had mended our canoe, we embarked, and came eight miles, and camped on the west side of the lake. Showery weather.

May 18th. Came over said lake. Lodged at the canoeing place from said lake to the drowned land.

May 19th. Carried our baggage over the carrying place; then embarked, and came to the French settlements, three miles south of Crown Point. Lodged in a French house. A very stormy day. Wind at head, and rain.

May 20th. The storm continued at North East and rained. We came to Crown Point at two o’clock afternoon. The commandant received us kindly.

May 21st. It stormed. We remained at the Fort.

May 22d. The storm somewhat abated. We set off from the Fort at six afternoon in a large batteau accompanied by a French officer and five soldiers; came about two miles, and lodged on the east side of the lake14 in a French house.

N.B. The commandant of the Fort fitted us out with all things necessary for our journey.

May 23d. Set out very early in the morning. Cloudy and some rain; but not much wind. Came about thirty miles; the wind freshened up at northeast. We put into the mouth of a river, on the west side of the lake; at which place there is a fine pine plain. After we had refreshed ourselves, we embarked and came twelve miles, and lodged on an island.

May 24th. Lords day. The wind blew up at south. We hoisted sail at day light. The wind continued in our favor till afternoon, which brought us in sight of Fort La Motte; then turned into the northeast. We then took down our sail, and rowed till four afternoon, which brought us to the south end of the above said island,15 in sight of a number of French houses; but the wind so very high, and having a large bay to cross, we turned to the west shore. A little before night the wind fell: We crossed the bay three miles to a French house and lodged.

May 25th. Set forward early in the morning. Came fifteen miles, and stopped at a French house on the east side, just above an Island. Below16 said Island it is called Chamblee River.17 Here we refreshed ourselves, etc. Then embarked, and came eighteen miles to St. Johns fort.18 Immediately upon our arrival the officer of the fort sent an express to La Prarie for horses and carts to convey our baggage from hence.

May 26th. About ten in the morning the two carts came. After dinner loaded our things into the carts and came off. The officer, Mr. Wheelwright, and myself rode on horses sent for that purpose. Came to La Prarie a little before night. It rained most of the way.

May 27th. A large batteau and a number of hands was made ready, which brought us to Montreal. We arrived at the Governor’s about ten in the forenoon. After he had read our passport, letters, etc., we retired to Madam Carols where we took up our lodgings; then returned to the Governor’s, and dined. After this we visited the commissioners and several other gentlemen.

May 28th and so [continued doing] till the 30th [which] we spent in making the best inquiries we could where our prisoners were, etc.

May 31st. The Sabbath day. It rained at night.

June the 1st. We dined with the Governor, and at night supped with an officer. This day a schooner arrived from Quebec, and we have a hint as if she brings news of a large army’s being about to go to Jebuctoo19 and also that a mutiny has happened amongst the soldiers at Quebec.

June 2nd. Had the news of the Indians killing and taking four of our people.

June 3d. Dined with the Commissary

June 4th. Mr. Linglauesne and his wife came to visit us.

June 5th. Nothing remarkable.

June 6th. Mr. Wheelwright and I wrote a letter to Governor Phips, and several other letters for New England.

June 7th. Sabbath day. Very hot weather.

June 8th. Mr. Wheelwright went to Connewago with a number of French gentlemen.

June 9th. Had further news of more mischief being done on our people, and that three prisoners were brought to Crown Point.

June 10th. Paid a visit to the Governor, who told us he had no intelligence of any prisoner being brought to Crown Point. At night we supped at Mr. St. Luke Laurens. This day three men and a woman obtained a pass from the Governor and set out for New England themselves. Said the[y] belonged to the Province of Pennsylvania.

June 11th. Nothing remarkable.

June 12th. I visited French’s sisters. This day were told by John Tasble that the mischief the Indians had done on the English was at White River, and that there was six in company. Two made their escape; two killed; and two taken prisoners. At night was taken with a terrible purging.

June 13th. I kept house with the same distemper.

June 14th. Sabbath day. Two small schooners arrived at Montreal from Quebec, loaded with flour; which might certainly denote a very great scarcity; for the most of the supply for that place are in time of plenty carried from hence. This day dined at Madam Lestushes Supped at a gentleman s house near the same place.

June 15th. Lewse, a Frenchman, (who lately came from Albany,) came to visit us. Gave an account of two negroes being taken at a place called Canterbury one20 Merrimac River; one of which he saw at Crown Point, bought by the Commissary of said Fort, for 400 Livres. The other made his escape the fortnight after he was taken. He also informed us he saw nine Indians set off from thence for war, who told him they designed for some of the English settlements, for if they must fight the English they would not go so far. They look upon them to be all one people.

June 16th. It thundered and rained a small matter in the morning. Mr. Wheelwright set off for Quebec about 12 o’clock, with Mr. Deplace, the high Sheriff. We have repeated accounts of the Dureedweer Indians doing [evil] upon the French traders in the westward, which puts the merchants in Montreal into a consternation. There is nothing can hurt this country so much as to distress their trade in those parts; for their income from thence seems to be the dependance of the whole country. Vast numbers are employed in that business. We are told that 200 large birch canoes and batteaux are gone up the river this spring - some five, and some six men each; so that upwards of a thousand men are already gone upon that business. Their method of carrying on the trade is for the chief traders of factors to remain in that country for three or four years, and have supplies sent them yearly. Tis said some of these traders go 3000 miles; but their supplies are not sent so far - they go no farther than some of the French forts that are kept in those parts - viz - those westward parts. So these ramblers are obliged to return once a year to said forts for a new supply. Could our people be so well spirited in time of war as to go and destroy those forts, it must in a short time so impoverish Canada that it must fall an easy prey into our hands.

June 17th. A soldier was shot to death for deserting from some of the French forts in the westward. This day I received a letter from Mr. Hardwick, a prisoner at St. Francois, taken from Chebucto21

June 18th. It thundered and rained a small matter, but the drought is very great. The wheat in this country suffers very much. There is intelligence from Quebec that several vessels are arrived there from France laden with flour and pork.

June 19th. I received a letter from the missionary of St. Francis and another from the abovementioned woman. A number of Indians came to town to night. Tis said they have brought two scalps, and two prisoners; but it wants confirmation.

June 20th. I went round the town to look for a good gun. The scalps abovementioned were brought from the westward, and tis said are Indian’s scalps.

June 21st. Sabbath day. Hot and dry.

June 22d. A number of the chiefs of the St. Francois Indians came to Montreal, and showed me the respect as to come the same day and pay me a visit.

June 23d. After dinner the Governor sent for me to appear before him and his council to receive a message from the St. Francois Indians. I accordingly did and after their spokesman had made his speech, he delivered me a large belt of wampum, which he said I must deliver with his message to the Governor at Boston. The same day I gave my old Indian father a hat, price 10 Livres - he being one of the chiefs abovementioned.

June 24th. I sent a letter to one of the Jesuits at St. Francois by an Indian.

June 25th. I had a hint from an Indian as if a belt of wampum was come into this country from some of the Six Nations in order for a treaty with some or all the tribes of Indians here. There is numbers of the former tribes of Indians coming to Montreal every few days. The drought is now very extraordinary. The wheat in this country, tis thought, has received so much damage already that a crop cannot be expected this year, and as they had but a very small crop last year, the calamity of this country must certainly in a little time be very great.

June 26th. Something likely for rain, but very hot and dry.

June 27th. A small matter of rain fell in the morning; in the afternoon windy and dry. The great probability of a scarcity casts a sadness in all faces. In the evening it clouded up and bid fair for rain, but broke away with but a small sprinkling.

June 28th. Sabbath day, and kept as a day of rejoicing with them for the birth.of a young prince born in France, they have lately had news of.22 They went in procession and fired all their cannon, viz. 33 in number. A black cloud came up at night, but no rain.

June 29th. I paid my respects to the Governor. He informed me of a great difficulty at Chebucto, but did not let me know what it was about.

June 30th. Four large birch canoes containing nine or ten Indians each came to Montreal. Tis said those Indians’ place of abode is 1800 miles from hence. There came also a batteau with nine or ten Frenchmen to town from a French fort west of our English governments, 900 miles from hence. They brought with them an Englishman, who deserted from some of our Indian traders from Philadelphia. His name is Jonathan Lafavour. There came also four canoes of Indians from Albany.

July 1st. A large number of Indians came to town from Becanco[ur] an Indian town on the south side the Great River near the Three Rivers. This day a number of women came to the Commissary for bread, and upon his refusing to let them have any, one of them took him by the throat. Exceeding hot and dry weather.

July 2d. I received a letter from Mr. Wheelwright at Quebec informing of his speedy arrival at Montreal. The weather is yet exceeding hot.

July 3d. Mr. Wheelwright returned to Montreal from Quebec; brought with him two men taken at New Medows last summer. Great numbers of Indians are daily coming to town to receive their presents from their fathers, as they term it.

July 4th. Two of the Ottawa Indians, being almost drunk, fell out to such a degree that one stabbed the other with his knife so that he expired in a few minutes. An old Indian that sit by and see the action ordered a lad of about 14 or 15 years of age (being a near relation of him that was stabbed) to charge his gun and be ready to kill the other as soon as the first was dead. The boy accordingly did with deliberation. The French people that were by told the murderer to make his escape. He moved off slowly. The boy stood with his gun in his hand till his kinsman was quite gone; and as soon as he see him fetch his last breath, he went after the other with as much calmness as he was in pursuit of some game. When the murderer saw the lad after him he endeavored to hide himself; but the boy was so lucky as to see him lie down in a place of wheat. The boy went as near as he thought convenient, and then first gave him a mortal wound; but he retained so much strength that he rose up and pursued the boy but not far. The old Indian that gave the boy his orders seeing that he was not killed outright ran with his knife and gave him several stabs, so that he died immediately - so that in half an hour’s time they were both dead. This was transacted just with out the wall of Montreal.

July 5th. Sunday. Two prisoners were brought to town from St. Francoes, viz. Seth Webb and Amos Eastman. We bought them at 300 Livres each, and ten livres each for the charge of bringing them to Montreal.23

July 6th. I received a letter from the missionary of St. Franscoes.

July 7th. Mrs. Honor Hancok, a prisoner taken from Jebucto was brought to Montreal; which we bought at 300 livres, and 30 livres for the charge of bringing her.

July 8th. Mr. Wheelwright and I went to visit a captive girl named Elizabeth Cody. She lived at the hospital south of the town.

July 9th. A great number of the St. Franscoes Indians came to Montreal. Brought with them some of our captive boys. There came up a smart thunder shower at night, and for about half an hour it rained hard, so that the water run in brooks in the streets.

July 10th. Mr. Wheelwright and I paid our respects to the Governor, in the morning. [In the] Afternoon I bought two guns, price 65 livres, 10 sous, each; of which Mr. Wheelwright paid 66 livres, 15 sous. The heat increases very much.

July 11th. An exceedingly hot day. Being by the river side I see the French people dig ice out of the bank, which was hove up in the winter and covered by the bank falling down upon it. They use this ice to preserve their fresh meat.

July 12th. Sabbath day. Hot and dry. Clouds of smoke are rising in all parts of this country - a surprising sight at this time of year.

July 13th. Mr. Wheelwright and my self went before the Governor with a Dutch girl taken in the war, named Elizabeth Cody, and an English boy named Solomon Metchel, 12 years old taken about one year ago. Upon their refusing to go home the Governor would not give them up. The same day John Starks24 was brought to Montreal by his Indian Master. He was taken a hunting this spring. He is given us for an Indian poney in his place, for which we paid 515 livres.

July 14th. We took our leave of the Governor and the rest of the chief Officers and made all things ready for our return to New England.

July 15th. We set out from Montreal for New England. Brought with us eight prisoners, viz: two taken from Jebucto, Thomas Stanard and Honor Hancock; two men from New Hampshire, Amos Estmon and John Stark, taken a hunting; Joseph Fortner, taken west of Pennsylvania; from the Massachusetts Edmund Hinckley, Samuel Lambart, and Seth Webb. We came this day to Laperary.25 It rained a smart shower as we crossed the river, and some in the night.

July 16th. Set out from thence - came to St. Johns. Our baggage was brought in carts. An officer is sent with us, who has orders to conduct us to the first English land. We remained till 5 afternoon, then set out with a batteau and a birch canoe. Came 18 miles and lodged.

July 17th. Embarked very early in the morning. Came about 45 miles. Met several canoes from Albany. It rained some showers.

July 12th. Sabbath day. Two small barks arrived from Quebec. I this day saw a man in prison. [He said] His name was Johnson and that he had an uncle in Boston, named George Johnson, and a kinsman one Wm. Johnson. His father he says, lives in Edinburgh in Scotland, and is a man of note. Look back for the 12th day and then add this above.

July 18th. Embarked early in the morning - wind at head and some rain. We came to the mouth of Otter creek and turned ashore to lodge; but the small flies were so plenty that we could not sleep. We embarked again about 2 at night - wind at northeast and some hard showers of rain. We hoisted sail and came to Crown Point about sunrise. I would note that my old Indian master came in the canoe with me and that the quarter part of the St. Fransioes Indians have left their town for want of protection, and are on the road to the Dutch Settlements. We remained at Crown Point all day, being Sabbath day. The wind blew hard all the day, but we could not prevail with the Indians, being none here but of the St. Fransioes tribe. The negro which the Commissary of the fort bought of the Indian taken at Canterbury, we cannot get for the same money we suppose he bought him for. The gentleman declares he gave 600 livres for him. We have been informed he gave but 400 - the captain’s lady told us she was offered him for that money.

July 20th. The Indians we had engaged to go with us to Lydie’s s failing us and not coming, obliged us to remain at the fort all day. Just at night agreed with two other Indians so that Mr. Wheelwright and five of our people set off at sunset. I with the rest lodged at the fort.

July 21st. I, with the people left with me, set out from Crown Point at ten in the morning, accompanied by an officer and ten soldiers, who brought us in two log canoes. We came all night up the drowned land. Arrived at the landing place at the west end of the great bay west of the mouth of wood creek. At 8 the next morning we slept and refreshed ourselves till two afternoon; then bound up our packs and set forward. Came about one mile and passed by a family of Indians. Came 7 miles and camped.

July 23d. In the mo[r]ning I missed my sword which I had left at the place where we first took up our packs. Sent two men back: they found it with the Indians above-mentioned. We came this day to Col. Lydis’s. Met with Mr. Wheelwright (who came by the way of the lake St. Sacrement.26) He was obliged to leave the canoe and loading on the carrying place. The Indians leaving him, he came to Lydeses for help.

July 24th. I went with Lydieses son with three horses to assist in getting our things to Hutson’s River. I hired two Mohawks to carry the canoe. Brought our things to the river and returned to Lydyes at night met great numbers of the St. Francois Indians coming to Albany with beaver.

July 25th. Came from Lydyeses to Saratogue. Lodged at Mr. Killians. The two Mohawks that brought our canoe over the carrying came thus far with us for which we paid them six dollars.

July 26th. Sabbath day. Mr. Wheelwright and his man came on horseback to Albany. I with the canoe and the rest of our people came within 10 miles of Albany. I paid 3 dollars for the carrying our things by the bad water.

July 27th. Came to Albany about 12 o’clock. Remained there the rest of the day.

July 28th. I remained at Albany upon the desire of a number of the St. Francois Indians, who this day had a sort of treaty with the Dutch Traders. They met at 10 forenoon - [They] made a small speech to the Dutch, in which they manifest a great desire for peace; then delivered a belt of wampum and a pack of beaver. The Dutch desired their attendance at 3 afternoon. They accordingly met, when the Dutch made their speech, in which they gave them free liberty to come and trade without molestation, and [told them] that the road was open. Then [the Dutch] made them a present of a belt of wampum, and two pieces of 2 kegs of rum, tobacco, etc. The Indians received them thankfully.

July 29th. I set out from Albany with my son. Came to the first Dutch house on Hoosack river, and lodged. Wm. Heywood and the seven prisoners who came off the day before lodged at Fort Massachusetts.

July 30th. I came to Capt. Rice’s where I overtook the above said men. Here we all lodged.

July 31st. Came to Deerfield and lodged.

August 31st. I sent an express to Boston with the letters that came from Canada; and four of the prisoners went down the country road for home, three of which belonged to the eastward, the others to Jebucto. I came with the rest of the people to Northfield.

August 2d. Lords day. Went to meeting. After meeting came to Hinsdell’s Fort27 with my son and Joseph Fortner. The two Hampshire men set off for Winchester.28

August 3d. Came with my son to No. 2. Left Fortner with Col. Hinsdell. Wm. Heywood remains at Northfield to hunt for his horse, that left him at the carrying place.

August 4th. Came to No. 4. Found my family all well, my wheat all reaped, etc.

August 5th and 6th. My people finished reaping my oats.

August 7th. I begun to them.

August 8th. A paper was drew up, and signed for me to go to New Hampshire, etc.

August 9th. Lords day.

August 10th. A day of rain. I prepared for my Journey.

August 11th. I set out for Portsmouth. Came to Col. Hinsdells fort.

August 12th. Stopped the greater part of day at said fort to get my linen washed. Came to Northfield at night.

August 13th. [Came] to Deerfield to get my clothes. Returned the same day to Winchester, where I met Capt. Hubard. We lodged at Major Willards.

August 14th. We came to and lodged at Col. Berrys house. It rained the most of the day.

August 15th. [Came] to Luneinburge.

August 16th. Lords day.

August 17th. Hubard and I, in company with Mr. Bellows came to Col. Blanchard at Dunstable and lodged.

August 18th. After dinner I set out from thence and came to Chester and lodged at Capt. Dalford;s.

August 19th. Said Capt. set out with me and came to Portsmouth. I remained there till the

24th. In which time I lodged a proposition with the Governor and counsel for the township No. 4. I came from Portsmouth to Ipswich, and lodged at Mr. Rogers’.

August 25th. Came to Boston by the way of Cambridge and Roxbury.

August 26th. At Boston I lodged with Mr. Lyman.

27. I set out from Boston. Came as far as Marlborough.

August 28th. [Came] to Rutland.

August 29th. At Rutland.

August 30th. Lords day.

August 31st. Came from Rutland to Hardwicke.

Sept. 1st. Came to Hatfield.

Sept. 2nd. [Came] to Deerfield. Bought a trunk of Madam Hinsdell, in which I put my clothes and sent them to Northfield. The next day, which, according to act of Parliament,29 is the

14th. I came to Col. Hinsdells fort. It rained some

Sept. 15th. I came to Killbruns at No. 3, and lodged.

Sept. 16th. [Came] home to No. 4.30

Sept. 17th. Lords day. From the

18th to the 23d exceeding dry weather. The Great River is thought to be as low as has been known these many years past. Some of our people are gone down to Deerfield and Hatfield this week, viz. Dr. Hastings and wife, Joseph Willards and Hastings wives. Thos. Putnam and Isaac Parker went with a canoe for salt, etc. I this week begun to fall timber for a house.

Sept. 24th. Sabbath day.

Sept. 25th. I sawed timber for clapboards etc. A great supply of rain at night. The water in puddles the next morning.

Sept. 26th. It rained part of the day.

Sept. 27th. A hard frost at night.

Sept. 28th. I began to make a road at the south end of my house lot. Ebr. Putnam and his brother Larence set out upon a journey.

Sept. 29th. I finished the above said road. The whole cost me seven days work.

Sept. 30th. It rained hard afternoon.

October 1st. Lords day. Stephen Farnsworth had an ox killed by the fall of a tree.

Oct. 2d. Wright had a barrel rum brought to the fort. I bought a three acre lot of Joseph Woods.

Oct. 3d. Elijah Grout left me and set out for home.

Oct. 4th. I fell timber, etc.

Oct. 5th. I begun to hew timber for my house.

Oct. 6th. I gathered my corn.

Oct. 7th. I carted my corn.

Oct. 8th. Sabbath day. It rained hard all day.

Oct. 9th. The storm continued.

Oct. 10th. At husking. Pleasant weather, but clouded up at night, and bid fair for more rain.

Oct. 11th. It rained the most of the day.

Oct. 12th. I finished husking my corn.

Oct. 13th. It rained part of the day. It is now a very wet season.

Oct. 14th. Lieut. Bellows came to No. 4.

Oct. 15th. Sabbath day.

Oct. 16th. I fell timber, etc.

Oct. 17th. Stephen Davis came to town.

Oct. 18th. I hewed timber with six scoope. The boat came to the falls with salt, rum, etc.

Oct.19th. Hewed timber with 8 schooars.

Oct. 20th. Hewed with 6 do. Doct. Hastings and wife returned home. Ruth Parker came home.

Oct. 21st. Hewed with six hands.

Oct. 22d. Sabbath day.

Oct. 23d. Hewed with six do. Our people are yet busy at harvesting.

Oct. 24th. Five hands at hewing.

Oct. 25th. Five do. This day two barrels [of] rum [were] brought to the fort.

Oct. 26th. It rained hard the most of the day.

Oct. 27th. Four hands schooring. Drew part timber off.

Oct. 28th. I finished hewing in the forenoon Three at schooring. Afternoon the carpenters went home.

Oct. 29th. Sabbath day.

Oct. 30th. I drew my hay out of the great meadow. Our cattle are now all let into said meadow.

Oct. 31st. There fell a small snow in the morning about 2 inches deep, but all went off before night.

Nov. 1st., 2d., and 3d. I drew timber for my house etc. Fine pleasant weather. We are now set out for

Nov. 4th. Fine weather.

Nov. 5th. Sabbath day, very warm for the season. I have a cow calf.

Nov. 6th. Drew timber, etc.

Nov. 7th. Davis came in the morning, father Perry with him. Began to frame my house the same day.

Nov. 8th. At framing. Deacon Addams and family came to No. 4.

Nov. 9th. At framing. Lieut. Johnson’s wife brought abed of a daughter.

Nov. 10th. At framing. This day a number of men from Woodstock came to No. 4.

Nov. 11th. Forenoon it rained - obliged us to lie by. Afternoon at raising. Begun to raise the sides of the house.

Nov. 12th. Lords day. Our people begin to assemble together for the worship of God.

Nov. 13th. At framing. The lower part of the house is almost up.

Nov. I4th. At framing. A small snow fell at night.

Nov. 15th. I begun to raise my house.

Nov. 16th. I finished. Wheeler and old Mr. Putnam raised the same day. Davis and Jeremy went home.

Nov. 17th and 18th. Nothing worth notice.

Nov. 19th. Lords day.

Nov. 20th. I sent my son Enos down to Hatfield in company with several others. A stormy day.

Nov. 21st. The storm continued.

Nov. 22d. I worked at my cellar.

August 10th 1752

Cash borrowed of John Hastings Jr 14 Spanish Dollars
of Caleb Wright     Do. 2
Of Moses Wheeler     1 do.

After I returned home I paid John Hastings one dollar, and allowed Wright for his on my bond against him.

Nov. 23d. I went to No. 3 to help Lieut. Bellows raise his house and a barn. A small snow fell at night.

Nov. 24th. We finished raising the above buildings and returned home. Cold for the season.

A Short Description of the City of Montreal in Canada

Viz: Its built on the south side of the great island called the Island of Montreal. This island is said to be fifteen leagues in length, and … in breadth, called the most healthful part of their country, mostly inhabited by tenants put on by the priests and nuns; for they own the greater part of the land. The city is about 3/4 of a mile in length, and about 100 rods wide in the widest place. It stands on the side of St. Lawrence’s river, encompassed round with a wall 16 or 18 feet high. The wall on the river side stands about three rods from highwater mark. The town lies upon a descent of land, so that from the water side to the upper part, or northwestwardly side of [the] town, is up hill, but not very steep.

There is but two streets that go through the length of the town, and so about nine or ten cross streets. This town contains about four hundred dwelling houses, besides public buildings. There is five chapels or churches, viz: one for the barefoot friars; one for the close nuns, to which joins the hospital; one do. for the holy sisters, and one for the Jesuits; and one which is called the great church, where the priests say mass. There is one more just without the walls on the south side joining to the Kings Hospital.

N.B. The walls of the city are not so wide at the north end as at the south; for at the north are but about thirty rods wide. Here is the battery, on a rise of land which commands all the city.

Source: Travels in the American Colonies

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