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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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Dirck van Baburen

bornactivedied
1595 ca1617-16231624, Feb 21
a Dutch painter, one of the Utrecht Caravaggisti. He was among the first artists to popularize genre subjects such as musicians and cardplayers. One of his best-known works is The Procuress (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). It depicts a man offering a coin for the services of a lute-playing prostitute while an old woman, the lady's procuress, inspects his money...
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Marcello Bacciarelli

bornactivedied
1731, Feb 161750-18181818, Jan 5
a Polish-Italian painter of the late-baroque and Neoclassic periods. He painted a set of portraits depicting nearly all Polish kings, from Boleslaw I the Brave to the last king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Stanislaw II Augustus who was also Bacciarelli's patron and admirer. He also made a portrait of Izabela Lubomirska in her wedding gown, that she...
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Karl Daniel Friedrich Bach

borndied
1756, May1829, Apr 8
a German painter; born Potsdam, died in Breslau. As his father was a merchant and an elder (Landesältester) of the Brandenburg Jewry (de), Bach was enabled to obtain from the Potsdam painter, A. B. Krüger, his first instruction in the art of painting; later, through the influence of Colonel Guichard ("Quintus Icilius"), he succeeded in entering the Berlin ...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersNaval

Sir George Back

bornactivedied
1796, Nov 61808-18391878, Jun 23
a British naval officer, explorer of the Canadian Arctic, naturalist and artist. As a boy, he went to sea as a volunteer in the frigate HMS Arethusa in 1808 and took part in the destruction of batteries on the Spanish coast. In the following year, he was involved in combat in the Bay of Biscay, until he was captured by the French. Back remained a prisoner un...
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Jacob Adriaensz Backer

borndied
16081651
a Dutch Golden Age painter. He produced about 140 paintings in twenty years, including portraits, religious subjects, and mythological paintings. In his style he was influenced by Wybrand de Geest, Rubens and Abraham Bloemaert. He is also noted for his drawings of male and female nudes.
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Gillis Backereel

aka: Baccarelles, Bakanel, Baccarelli, Bacareel, Bakkarell
borndied
15721661
a Flemish painter. Backereel was born at Antwerp. He is known to have been in Rome between 1639 and 1643. He then returned to his native city, the churches of which once possessed a number of his works. His Adoration of the Shepherds and Vision of St. Felix is in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, and his Hero mourning Leander in the Kunsthistorische...
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Jacques Backereel

aka: Jackus Backel, Backereil
borndied
15901668
a Flemish Baroque landscape painter. Not much is known of his life. was a pupil of Tobias Verhaecht and became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1618. He was also the teacher of Abraham Genoels and Franciscus van der Steen.
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Willem Backereel

borndied
15701626
a Flemish Baroque landscape painter. There is little that is known of his life. He was in Italy from 1605 onwards and was taught painting by his older brother Gillis. His Roman sketches of the Flavian Palace are similar to works by Cornelis van Poelenburch, Jan Asselijn and Jacob de Heusch.
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Nathaniel Bacon [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1640unknown
an English painter. Bacon studied painting in Italy, but his style was more Flemish than Italian. In Walpole's time there were works of his to be seen at Culford, where he lived, and at Gorhambury House. At the latter place is a 'Cookmaid with dead fowls,' painted 'with great nature,' and a much-admired portrait of himself. The latter is engraved in the 'Ane...
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Nathaniel Bacon [2]

borndied
15851627
a painter and landowner from Culford, Suffolk, England. Only nine of Bacon's paintings survive. He was particularly known for his kitchen and market scenes, dominated by still-life depictions of large vegetables and fruit, often accompanied by a buxom maid, the most well known being "The Cookmaid with Still Life of Vegetables and Fruit" (Tate Gallery London)...
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Sisto Badalocchio

borndied
1585, Jun 281647 ca
an Italian painter and engraver of the Bolognese School. His best known work as an engraver was the Raphael's Bible series, which he created together with his fellow student, Giovanni Lanfranco. Though he often cooperated in fresco painting with Lanfranco, for example in Annibale designed series the San Diego Chapel in San Giacomo degli Spagnoli (1602–1607...
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Joseph Badger

borndied
1707 ca1765, May
a portrait artist in Boston, Massachusetts, in the 18th century. He was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, to tailor Stephen Badger and Mercy Kettell. He "began his career as a house-painter and glazier, and ... throughout his life continued this work, besides painting signs, hatchments and other heraldic devices, in order to eke out a livelihood when order...
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Elias Baeck

aka: Heldenmuth
borndied
16791747
a German painter and engraver from Augsburg. Baeck worked for some time in Rome, then in Laybach, but finally returned to Augsburg, where he died in 1747. His chief works — both in painting and engraving — were portraits and landscapes. His engravings are sometimes signed "E.B.a.H.", standing for "Elias Baeck, alias Heldenmuth".
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Derick Baegert

borndied
14401515 ca
a German late Gothic painter. Apart from some works for the city and churches of Wesel (including the retable for the Mathenachurch, largely destroyed in the Second World War), he also painted large altar pieces for churches like the Propsteichurch in Dortmund, and works for private devotion.
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Cornelis de Baellieur

borndied
16071671
a Flemish Baroque painter. Born and died in Antwerp. According to the RKD he was a pupil of Anthonis Liesaert and is known for paintings of art galleries. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1626. He drew figures in the paintings of other painters, such as Hans III Jordaens.
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Jan de Baen

borndied
16331702
a Dutch portrait painter who lived during the Dutch Golden Age. He was a pupil of the painter Jacob Adriaensz Backer in Amsterdam from 1645 to 1648. He worked for Charles II of England in his Dutch exile, and from 1660 until his death he lived and worked in The Hague. His portraits were popular in his day, and he painted the most distinguished people of his ...
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Johann Daniel Bager

borndied
17341815
a fruit and flower painter. Born at Wiesbaden, he worked some time at Frankfort, where he died in 1815. Two works by him are in the Städel Gallery in that city.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Giovanni Baglione

borndied
15661643, Dec 30
an Italian Late Mannerist and Early Baroque painter and art historian. He is best remembered for his acrimonious and damaging involvement with the slightly younger artist Caravaggio and his important collection of biographies of the other artists working in Rome in his lifetime, although there are many works of his in Roman churches and galleries and elsewhe...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Johann Karl Bahr

aka: Bähr
borndied
18011869
a German painter and writer. Enthusiastic about poetry, he moved in the circle of Ludwig Tieck in Dresden, and was a close friend of Julius Mosen. Bähr was in demand as a portraitist, and also painted some historical works. He also wrote several books.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Francois Baillairge

aka: François Baillairgé
borndied
1759, Jan 211830, Sep 15
an architect who also pursued painting and wood sculpture. A great deal of his work was in the field of painting and he was very productive although he did not achieve a level of success that matched his ambition. He had a high level of achievement as a wood-carver in architectural projects working through his father's workshop.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Thomas Baillairge

aka: Baillairgé
borndied
1791, Dec 201859, Feb 9
both a wood carver and architect, following the tradition of the family. By 1815, Thomas had begun his career in earnest, and from then until 1848, he designed numerous buildings; churches, houses and other projects. During this period he trained a number of students. Among his apprentices was Charles Baillairgé, his cousin's nephew. He also did wood carvin...
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David Bailly

borndied
15841657
a Dutch Golden Age painter. In 1613, Bailly began painting still-life subjects and portraits, including self-portraits and portraits of his students and professors at the University of Leiden. He is known for making a number of vanities paintings depicting transience of this life, with such ephemeral symbols as flowers and candles.
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Ludolf Bakhuizen

aka: Backhuysen, Backhuisen, Bakhuizen
borndied
16301708
a German-born Dutch Golden Age painter who was the leading Dutch painter of maritime subjects. He was an ardent student of nature, and frequently exposed himself on the sea in an open boat in order to study the effects of storms. His compositions, which are numerous, are nearly all variations of one subject, the sea, and in a style peculiarly his own, marked...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Thomas Ball

bornactivedied
1819, Jun 31851-18931911, Dec 11
an American sculptor, painter and musician. His work has had a marked influence on monumental art in the United States, especially in New England. As commissions started to come in he moved from studio to studio until he settled in a studio in Tremont Row where he remained for twelve years. He then turned his attention to sculpture.
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Karl Ballenberger

borndied
18011860
a German painter. Ballenberger made a close study of early German art, and painted in an archaic, medievalising style. Although his works were hard in drawing and colouring, he achieved considerable success. He was commissioned to paint four portraits, those of Conrad I, Ludwig of Bavaria, Günther von Schwarzburg and Rupert of the Palatinate, for the Imper...
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Peeter Baltens

aka: Pieter Balten, Pieter Custodis
borndied
1527 ca1584
a Flemish Renaissance painter, draughtsman and engraver of religious works, village scenes and landscapes who was closely associated with Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Baltens painted religious works, village scenes and landscapes. Not many of his works have been preserved.
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Fritz Bamberger

borndied
1814, Oct 171873, Aug 13
a German painter, primarily of landscapes. Among his noted works in this area are views of Gibraltar (at Munich), Algeciras and Granada. He later moved to Munich, where he became well known, painting both landscapes and portraits of nobles.
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Baccio Bandinelli

aka: Bartolommeo Brandini, Bartolommeo Bandinelli
bornactivedied
1493, Oct 171520s-15561560, Feb 7
a Renaissance Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter. Bandinelli's lifelong obsession with Michelangelo is a recurring theme in assessments of his career. A brilliant draughtsman and excellent small-scale sculptor, he had a morbid fascination for colossi which he was ill-equipped to execute. His failure as a sculptor on a grand scale was accentuated by hi...
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Bartholomeus Barbiers

borndied
1743, Jan1808
a Dutch painter in the 18th century. He was born and died in Amsterdam, the son and pupil of Pieter Barbiers. He was skilful at landscapes, and painted with the left hand. His brother Pieter Pietersz Barbiers and his son Pieter Bartholomeusz Barbiers was also painters
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Pieter Barbiers

borndied
17171780
a skilful Dutch artist. He painted scenery for the theaters in Amsterdam, Leiden, etc., and a picture representing the conflagration of the former in the year 1772 has been engraved by C. Bagerts. His sons Bartholomeus Barbiers and Pieter Pietersz Barbiers were also painters.
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Pieter Bartholomeusz Barbiers

borndied
1772, Jan1837, Sep 10
a Dutch painter, son of Bartholomeus Barbiers. He was born in Amsterdam, died in Haarlem. He married the painter Maria Geertruida Snabilie in Haarlem and was known as a historical and landscape painter. His children were Pieter Barbiers IV, Caecilia Geertruida and Maria Geertruida. In 1812 he made a view of the abbey ruins of Rijnsburg before they were demol...
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Pieter Pietersz Barbiers

borndied
1749, Oct 261842, Oct 26
a 19th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands. He was born and died in Amsterdam. he was the son of Pieter Barbiers and the brother of Bartholomeus Barbiers. He became a member of the Amsterdam Guild of St. Luke in 1786, but the group dissolved in 1796 when the guilds were abolished during the French occupation. He became a member of the Royal Academy...
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Caroline Bardua

aka: Karoline Bardua
borndied
1781, Nov 111864, Jun 2
a German painter. She was one of the first middle-class women who was able to create an existence for herself as an independent artist. Caroline Bardua was primarily a portrait painter. The subjects of her portraits include Caspar David Friedrich, Julius Eduard Hitzig, Niccolo Paganini, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, his wife Christiane von Goethe, and Johanna ...
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Dirck Barendsz

borndied
15341592
a Dutch Renaissance painter from Amsterdam who traveled to Italy in his youth to learn from the Italian masters, most notably Titian. He was a good musician and his most notable work, among various other pieces Van Mander describes that he painted in Amsterdam, was a Judith. Among pieces worthy of mention in Leiden that Van Mander liked was a Venus that at t...
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Francis Barlow

borndied
1626 ca1704
an English painter, etcher, and illustrator. From around 1653, Barlow worked in London as a painter of animals, birds, and country life. His work can be seen at Ham House and Clandon Park. In terms of composition, his paintings are weak, tending to be filled with the animals and so forth that he depicts. However, most of the elements of his paintings are ver...
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Sebastian Herrera Barnuevo

aka: Sebastián
borndied
16191671
a painter, architect, sculptor and etcher, who was born and died in Madrid, Spain. His father, Antonio Herrera, was a sculptor; after teaching his son, Sebastiano was taught by Alonzo Cano. Like Cano, Herrera worked for Philip IV of Spain, among others in the nobility. His was held to be modest and deeply religious.
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Federico Barocci

aka: Federico Fiori, Il Baroccio
borndied
1526 ca1612
an Italian Renaissance painter and printmaker. His work was highly esteemed and influential. Barocci's swirling composition and the focus on the emotional and spiritual are elements that foreshadow the Baroque of Rubens. But even in Federico's Proto-Baroque Beata Michelina can see the makings of Bernini's High Baroque masterpiece Ecstasy of St Theresa.
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Cross-listed in Architects

Miguel Barroso

borndied
15381590
a Spanish painter, born at Consuegra. He was a scholar of Gaspare Becerra, and distinguished himself as an architect, as well as a painter. He was employed by Philip II in the Escorial, where he painted, in the principal cloister, the Resurrection, Christ appearing to the Apostles, the Descent of the Holy Ghost, and St. Paul preaching. In 1589 he was made pa...
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James Barry

borndied
17411806
an Irish painter, best remembered for his six part series of paintings entitled The Progress of Human Culture in the Great Room of the Royal Society of Arts in London. Because of his determination to create art according to his own principles rather than those of his patrons, he is also noted for being one of the earliest romantic painters working in Britain...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Ann Charlotte Bartholomew

borndied
1800, Mar 201862, Aug 18
an English flower and miniature painter, and author. In 1840 she published Songs of Azrael and other poems under the name of Mrs Turnbull. In the same year she became the second wife of the flower painter, Valentine Bartholomew. Her play The Ring, or the Farmer's Daughter, a domestic drama in two acts, appeared in 1845, and another, a farce called It's Only ...
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Fra Bartolomeo

aka: Bartolommeo di Pagholo, Bartolommeo di S. Marco, Baccio della Porta
borndied
14721517
an Italian Renaissance painter of religious subjects. Initially, his works showed the influence of Rosselli's assistant, Piero di Cosimo, and those of Domenico Ghirlandaio and Filippino Lippi. After his hiatus from 1500 to 1503, he seemed to change vision, taking from Raphael the representation of light and its effects over moving shapes.
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Cross-listed in Scientists

William Bartram

bornactivedied
1739, Apr 201773-1810s1823, Jul 22
an American naturalist. He was born in Kingsessing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a boy, he accompanied his father on many of his travels to the Catskill Mountains, the New Jersey Pine Barrens, New England, and Florida. From his mid-teens, Bartram was noted for the quality of his botanic and ornithological drawings. He also had an increasing role in the mai...
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Hendrik Bary

borndied
1640 ca1707
an eminent Dutch engraver. Bary was born and died in Gouda. He appears from his style to have been either a scholar of Cornelis Visscher, or to have formed himself from his manner. We have several plates by him of portraits and various subjects, executed very neatly with the graver, which have great merit, although they are by no means equal to the works of ...
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Antoine-Louis Barye

bornactivedied
1796, Sep 241810s-18691875, Jun 25
an Italian painter and architect of the early-Baroque period, active in Rome and Spain, where he helped decorate the pantheon of the Spanish kings at El Escorial. Also a sculptor most famous for his work as an animalier, a sculptor of animals.
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Ruth Henshaw Bascom

aka: Aunt Ruth
borndied
1772, Dec 151848, Feb 16
an American folk artist. Bascom made portraits of friends and relatives when she lived with her husband, Reverend Bascom, in Ashby. She made life-size bust profiles with pastels on paper. She continued making portraits following her husband's death. In her diary, Bascom made reference to more than 1,400 portraits, of which 185 to 215 are known to exist. Basc...
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Francesco Bassano the Younger

aka: Francesco Giambattista da Ponte, Francesco da Ponte the Younger
borndied
1549, Jan 261592, Jul 4
an Italian painter of the Renaissance period. He was born at Bassano del Grappa near Venice, the eldest son of Jacopo Bassano and grandson of Francesco da Ponte the Elder. He moved to Venice where he ran the branch of the family business, and where he was employed to paint a series of historical pictures in the Doge's Palace. He was prone to hypochondria, wh...
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Jacopo Bassano

borndied
1510 ca1592, Feb 14
an Italian painter who was born and died in Bassano del Grappa near Venice, from which he adopted the name. A pupil of Bonifazio Veronese's, he painted mostly landscapes and genre scenes. Bassano's pictures, and those of his two sons, Leandro Bassano and Francesco Bassano the Younger, who followed him closely, were very popular in Venice because of their dep...
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Leandro Bassano

aka: Leandro dal Ponte
borndied
1557, Jun 101622, Apr 15
an Italian artist from Bassano del Grappa, the younger brother of Francesco Bassano the Younger and third son of Jacopo Bassano. Leandro developed his style, taking in Venetian influence, furthering his fine drawing style. His approach to painting differed from his father’s in the use of "fine brushwork, with cool, light colours, smoothly applied in well-d...
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Pompeo Batoni

borndied
17081787
an Italian painter who displayed a solid technical knowledge in his portrait work and in his numerous allegorical and mythological pictures. Batoni's style took inspiration and incorporated elements of classical antiquity, French Rococo, Bolognese classicism, and the work of artists such as Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain and especially Raphael. As such Pomp...
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Gerrit Battem

borndied
1636 ca1684
a superior Dutch landscape painter. Battem was born and died in Rotterdam, where he was mostly active. For three years he worked in Utrecht, and his trip along the Rhine may have been a large inspiration for his topics. He painted perspective views, mountainous scenery, with shepherds, robbers, etc. therein, as well as winter scenes. He painted at the same t...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Emil Bauch

borndied
18231874 ca
a German painter, lithographer and teacher who came to reside in the city of Rio de Janeiro. He painted panoramic city scenes and portraits, as well as some views of Recife and Salvador. His landscapes are conspicuous by his close observation of all the details and the intense variety of motifs of his palette.
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Ferdinand Bauer

borndied
1760, Jan 201826, Mar 17
an Austrian botanical illustrator who travelled on Matthew Flinders' expedition to Australia. In mid-1786, on the recommendation of Jacquin, Bauer accompanied the Oxford Professor John Sibthorp as an artist on a field trip to Greece and Asia Minor. They returned to England in December 1787 with over 1,500 sketches of plants, animals, birds and landscapes, so...
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Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner

borndied
17021761, Sep 7
an Austro-German painter of the Baroque era. Very little is known about his life. He is mostly recognised for his frescoed ceilings of the Sanctuary of St. Mary of Mount Carmel in Baitenhausen in Meersburg on Lake Constance, 1760, and for his ceiling frescoes in the nave of the Sanctuary of St. Maria Loreto in Westheim.
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Gregorio Bausa

aka: Bausá
borndied
15901656
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. Born in the island of Majorca in the village of Sóller to Juan Bausá, he was baptized on August 23 the same year. He was a nephew of Simón Bausá Sales who became bishop of Majorca in 1607. He was the pupil of Francisco Ribalta, and painted devotional paintings. He died in Valencia.
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August von Bayer

borndied
18031875, Feb 2
a German painter of architectural subjects. He studied architecture under Weinbrenner, at Karlsruhe. In the mid-1820s he went to Munich, with the intention of pursuing a career in architecture, but soon turned to painting instead. His architectural education did, however provide him with a knowledge of construction rare amongst painters. He combined this kno...
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Ramon Bayeu

aka: Ramón
borndied
17461793, Mar 1
a Spanish Neoclassicist painter. Born in Zaragoza, brother of Francisco Bayeu, with whom he worked, and Manuel Bayeu, also a painter. After winning a concourse of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando of Madrid in 1766, he travelled to Italy. After 1773, he realized a series of cartoons for tapestries for the Real Fábrica de Tapices. He collabor...
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Francisco Bayeu y Subias

aka: Bayeu y Subías
borndied
1734, Mar 91795, Aug 4
an Aragonese painter, active in a Neoclassic style, whose main subjects were religious and historical themes. He was named a professor of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in 1765 and director in 1788. In 1767 he was named court painter for Charles III, king of Spain. His brothers Ramón and Manuel Bayeu were also painters.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Jean de Beaugrand

borndied
15841640
the foremost French lineographer of the seventeenth century. Though born in Mulhouse, de Beaugrand moved to Paris in 1581. He also worked as a mathematician and published works on geostatics. He lived and worked in Paris as an artist until his death in 1640.
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Domenico di Pace Beccafumi

bornactivedied
14861513-15501551, May 18
an Italian Renaissance-Mannerist painter active predominantly in Siena. He is considered one of the last undiluted representatives of the Sienese school of painting.
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Gaspar Becerra

borndied
15201570
a Spanish painter and sculptor. He was born at Baeza in Andalusia. He studied at Rome, it is said under Michelangelo, and assisted Giorgio Vasari in painting the hall of the Palazzo della Cancelleria. He also contributed to the anatomical plates of Juan Valverde de Amusco's Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (Rome, 1556). After his return to Spain ...
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David Beck

aka: Beek
borndied
16211656, Dec 20
a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter. He was the son of a schoolmaster in Delft, where he learned painting from Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, a prominent portrait painter in the Netherlands. Late in 1640 he moved to London to join Anthony van Dyck's ...
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Benedikt Beckenkamp

borndied
17471828
a German painter. Beckenkamp was born in the valley of Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. He studied under his father Lorenz Beckenkamp and Jan Zick, at Koblenz. At first he devoted himself to painting landscapes, after C. G. Schütz; but later changed to portraiture. He settled at Cologne, and successfully imitated the style of painting of the old German master...
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August Becker

borndied
1821, Jan 271887, Dec 19
a German landscape painter.. Becker was born in Darmstadt, where he studied under Schilbach, and afterwards at Düsseldorf, and in 1844 traveled in Norway, Switzerland, the Tyrol, and the Scottish Highlands. At Balmoral he instructed the British princesses in landscape painting. His pictures of mountain scenery are particularly valued
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Jakob Becker

borndied
1810, Mar 151872, Dec 22
a German painter. He began his studies with Franz Nikolaus Jung in Worms. When he was 17 years old he started to work as a lithographer. His first important work was a panorama over the Rhine from Mainz to Cologne. Between 1833 and 1841 Becker studied at the Academy of Art in Düsseldorf. He broke with the lofty attitude of much Biblical historical painting ...
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Karl Becker

borndied
1820, Dec 181900, Dec 20
a German history painter and president of the Berlin Academy. He was a pupil of August von Klöber, Peter von Cornelius, and Heinrich Maria von Hess, and afterwards studied a year in Paris, two years in Rome, and visited Venice. He first attained success with subjects of the Venetian Renaissance. Later in life, he made many visits to Venice to study painting...
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Philipp Jakob Becker

borndied
17631829
a German painter, was born at Pforzheim. At seventeen years of age he went to Rome, where he studied and formed his style under Raphael Mengs and Maron. In 1785 he returned to Carlsruhe, having acquired in Italy a high degree of skill in every technical requirement of his art. But he was wanting in poetic fancy, and did not succeed in any remarkable manner i...
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Johannes van der Beeck

aka: Johannes Torrentius
borndied
15891644, Feb
a Dutch painter. Despite his reputation as a still life master, few of Torrentius' paintings survive, as his works were ordered to be burned after he was accused of being a Rosicrucian adherent of atheistic and Satanic beliefs. The tortured painter was thrown into prison as a convicted blasphemer until being permitted to leave the country as a political gest...
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Cornelis Beelt

borndied
1602/121644/1702
a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. According to the RKD though older sources claim he was born in Rotterdam in 1640, this is impossible because he was engaged to be married in Haarlem 30 March 1630. This places the year of his birth between 1602 and 1612. It is unknown in what year he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, but he is listed in 1...
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Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten

borndied
1622, Feb1666, Jul
a Dutch painter of marine art and landscapes, particularly of events of the First Anglo-Dutch War and Dutch-Swedish War. Jan Abrahamsz, painter, married in Amsterdam. From this marriage eleven children were born, and when he married a second time in 1665, a daughter was born. Currently, The RKD records Johannes as the same person, and Abraham Beerstraaten is...
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Osias Beert

borndied
1580 ca1623/1624
a Flemish painter active in Antwerp who played an important role in the early development of flower and "breakfast"-type still lifes as independent genres in Northern European art. Little is known about this artist's early life. It is believed that he was born in Antwerp. He has been recognized as one of the most influential artists of the earliest generatio...
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Cornelis Pietersz Bega

borndied
1631/321664, Aug 27
a Dutch Golden Age painter and engraver. Bega was born, lived and worked in Haarlem shake and was the son of sculptor and goldsmith Pieter Jansz. Begijn. His mother Maria was the illegitimate daughter of the Haarlem painter Cornelis van Haarlem. He assumed the name Bega when he started working professionally. He was a student of Adriaen van Ostade, and produ...
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Carl Joseph Begas

borndied
1794, Sep 301854, Nov 24
a German historical painter born at Heinsberg near Aachen. His father, a retired judge, destined him for the legal profession, but the boy's tastes pointed definitely in another direction. Even at school he was remarked for his wonderful skill in drawing and painting, and in 1812 he was permitted to visit Paris in order to perfect his art. He was engaged to...
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Abraham Begeyn

borndied
1637 ca1697, Jun 11
a Dutch Golden Age painter. There his works were greatly prized, and, according to Houbraken, he was principal painter to Frederick III, the elector of Brandenburg, afterwards king of Prussia. He died of a heart attack when Augustinus Terwesten came to visit his studio, accompanied by two other painters. It is highly possible that he felt put under great pre...
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Kamal ud-din Behzad

aka: Kamal al-din Bihzad, Kamaleddin Behzad
bornactivedied
1450 ca1488-14951535 ca
a Persian painter and head of the royal ateliers in Herat and Tabriz during the late Timurid and early Safavid Persian periods. Behzad is the most famous of Persian miniature painters, though he is more accurately understood as the director of a workshop (or kitabkhana) producing manuscript illuminations in a style he conceived. Persian painting of the perio...
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Franz Joachim Beich

borndied
1666, Oct 151748, Oct 16
a German artist. He excelled in painting landscapes and battles. His best works are in the palaces of the Elector of Bavaria, in whose employment he was for several years; among these are several large pictures of the battles fought in Hungary by the Elector Maximilian Emmanuel. With the permission of his patron, he visited Italy, and made many drawings from...
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Hippolyte Bellange

aka: Bellangé
borndied
1800, Jan 171866, Apr 10
a French battle painter. His art was influenced by the wars of the first Napoleon, and while a youth, he produced several military drawings in lithography. He afterwards pursued his systematic studies under Gros, and with the exception of some portraits, devoted himself exclusively to battle-pieces. In 1824, he received a second class medal for an historical...
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Jacques Bellange

borndied
1575 ca1616
an artist and printmaker from the Duchy of Lorraine (then independent but now part of France) whose etchings and some drawings are his only securely identified works today. They are among the most striking Northern Mannerist old master prints, mostly on Catholic religious subjects, and with a highly individual style. He worked for fourteen years in the capit...
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Alexis Simon Belle

borndied
1674, Jan 121734, Nov 21
a French portrait painter, known for his portraits of the French and Jacobite nobility. As a portrait artist, Belle's style followed that of his master François de Troy, Hyacinthe Rigaud, and Nicolas de Largillière. Belle became the principal painter to the Jacobite court, where he and his wife settled and worked. After war broke out again between Great Br...
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Jehan Bellegambe

aka: Belgambe, Belganb
borndied
1470 ca1535 ca
a French-speaking Flemish painter of religious paintings, triptychs and polyptychs, the most important of which are now held at Douai, Arras, Aix, Lille, Saint Petersburg and Chicago. He was known as the 'master of colours' for the transparency and interplay of his colours. He is known as Jehan Bellegambe the elder to distinguish him from his descendents who...
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Gentile Bellini

borndied
1429 ca1507, Feb 23
an Italian painter of the school of Venice. He came from Venice's leading family of painters, and at least in the early part of his career was more highly regarded than his younger brother Giovanni Bellini, the reverse of the case today. From 1474 he was the official portrait artist for the Doges of Venice, and as well as his portraits he painted a number o...
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Giovanni Bellini

borndied
1430 ca1516, Nov 26
an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters. His father was Jacopo Bellini, his brother was Gentile Bellini, and his brother-in-law was Andrea Mantegna. He is considered to have revolutionized Venetian pa...
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Bernardo Bellotto

aka: Canaletto
borndied
1721/221780, Nov 17
an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities (Dresden, Vienna, Turin and Warsaw). Bellotto's style was characterized by elaborate representation of architectural and natural vistas, and by the specific quality of each place's lighting. It is plausible that Bellotto, and other Venetian mas...
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Antonio Bellucci

borndied
16541726
an Italian soldier who became a painter of the Rococo period and was best known for his work in England, Germany, and Austria. He was one of the many Venetian-trained artists of his time, including Ricci, Tiepolo, Amigoni, and others, who sought commissions north of Italy, providing patrons with the then-popular Italianate grand-manner frescoes for private p...
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Henry Benbridge

borndied
1743, Oct1812, Feb
early American portrait painter, was born in Philadelphia, the only child of James and Mary (Clark) Benbridge. When he was seven years old, his mother, who had been left a widow, was married to Thomas Gordon, a wealthy Scot. The boy's artistic talent was encouraged. He made decorative designs for his stepfather's drawing-room which were much admired. When he...
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Eduard Bendemann

borndied
1811, Dec 31889, Dec 27
a German painter. After he completed elementary school, he enrolled in the Wilhelm von Schadow's school in Düsseldorf. In 1828 he painted a portrait of his grandmother which attracted some attention. In 1830 he went on a school trip to Italy where he remained for a year. After a series of jobs, among them with Boas and Ruth, his talent as an artist began to...
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Alexander Bening

aka: Sanders Bening
borndied
unknown1519
an early 16th-century miniature painter of the Ghent-Bruges school and Netherlandish tradition. His date of birth is unknown. Bening was part of a South Netherlandish family of illuminators. He married Kathelijn van der Goes (probably a sister or niece of the painter Hugo van der Goes). Bening had two sons: Simon Bening, who was trained in his father's craft...
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Simon Bening

borndied
1483 ca1561
a Flemish miniaturist, generally regarded as the last major artist of the Netherlandish tradition. Bening, born either in Ghent or Antwerp, was probably trained by his father, illuminator Alexander Bening, in the family workshop in Ghent. He travelled between Ghent and Bruges and became a member of the guild of San John and Saint Luke in Bruges as an illumin...
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Ambrosius Benson

borndied
1495/15001550
an Italian painter who became a part of the Northern Renaissance. While many surviving paintings have been attributed, there is very little known of him from records, and he tended not to sign his work. He is believed to be responsible for mainly religious art, but also painted portraits on commission. He sometime painted from classical sources, often settin...
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Nicolaes Pietersz Berchem

borndied
1620, Oct 161683, Feb 18
a highly esteemed and prolific Dutch Golden Age painter of pastoral landscapes, populated with mythological or biblical figures, but also of a number of allegories and genre pieces. He was a member of the second generation of "Dutch Italianate landscape" painters. These were artists who travelled to Italy, or aspired to, in order to soak up the romanticism o...
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Gerrit Adriaensz Berckheyde

borndied
16381698, Jun 10
a Dutch Golden Age painter, active in Haarlem, Amsterdam, and The Hague, who is best known today for his cityscapes. He was a painter known for his Italianate landscapes as well as portraits and cavalry pieces. Berckheyde favoured views of monuments on large open squares, rather than giving up clarity for the sake of pictorial effect by painting views along ...
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Job Adriaensz Berckheyde

borndied
1630, Jan 271693
a Dutch artist of the 17th century, active in Haarlem, Amsterdam, and The Hague. He could paint landscapes in the same style as his brother, but seems to have preferred interiors and genre works, whereas his brother's oeuvre consists mostly of outdoor scenes. Job is better known for his later work, which consists mainly of interior views of the Sint-Bavokerk...
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William Berczy

borndied
1744, Dec 101813, Feb 5
a German-born Upper Canada pioneer and painter. He studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna and at the University of Jena in Saxony. His early career was spent in several European countries, including Italy (meeting with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Florence) and England, where he exhibited at the Royal Academy. Although best known for his po...
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Christian Berentz

borndied
16581722
a German Baroque painter. He travelled through the Netherlands in the years 1677-1679 and in 1679 he travelled to Venice and from there to Rome where he stayed until 1722. He is known for still lifes in the manner of Pieter Claesz, Maximilian Pfeiler, Willem Kalf, Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten, and Francesco Fieravino. Berentz painted primarily still lifes,...
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Georg Bergmann

borndied
18211870
a German painter of historical subjects and portraits. Bergmann was born at Celle, near Hanover, in 1821. He studied under Theodor Hildebrandt at the Düsseldorf Academy in 1843-7. Having finished his studies, he lived until 1852 in his parents house near St Michael's church in Hildesheim. In 1853 he moved to Hanover where he became a court painter, but ofte...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Johann Georg Bergmuller

aka: Bergmüller
borndied
1688, Apr 151762, Apr 2
a painter, particularly of frescoes, of the Baroque. Bergmüller quickly acquired a high reputation in Augsburg and created works of art, few of which have survived however. He became the most important teacher of fresco painting at the Imperial City of Augsburg Academy, founded in 1710. His style of composition and his motifs were influential on his pupils....
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Ambrogio Bergognone

aka: Ambrogio da Fossano, Ambrogio di Stefano da Fossano, Ambrogio Stefani da Fossano, il Bergognone, Ambrogio Egogni
borndied
1470s1523/1524
an Italian painter of the Renaissance period active in and near Milan. While he was nearly contemporary with Leonardo da Vinci, he painted in a style more akin to the pre-Renaissance, Lombard art of Vincenzo Foppa and Bernardino Zenale. The dates of his bir...
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Antoine Berjon

borndied
1754, May 171843, Oct 24
a French painter and designer, among the most important flower painters of 19th-century France. He worked in a variety of media including oil, pastel, watercolour, and ink. His early history is not clear; according to his uncorroborated biographer J. Gaubin, he may have studied medicine or a religious vocation, learning flower painting during his novitiate. ...
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Johann Martin Bernatz

borndied
1802, Mar 221878, Dec 9
a German landscape artist. Born in Speyer and trained in Vienna. he spent much of his life in Munich. He accompanied an expedition to Egypt and the Holy Land in 1836, and a British embassy to Ethiopia in 1842; drawings made during both journeys were published as sets of lithographs. Bernatz settled as a landscape painter at Munich, where he died.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsWritersArchitects

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

aka: Gianlorenz, Giovanni Lorenzo
bornactivedied
1598, Dec 71609-16781680, Nov 28
an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets.
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Balthasar Beschey

borndied
17081776
a Flemish painter, draughtsman and decorative painter of interiors. He was born and died in Antwerp. He started his career as landscape painter but later on switched to history and portrait painting. He played a prominent role in the development of the Academy of Arts in Antwerp and as a teacher.
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Miquel Bestard

borndied
15921633
a Spanish painter from Majorca. Bestard's paintings can be divided into two distinct groups: the religious paintings for churches and convents in Mallorca and the profane pieces -- a view of Mallorca from the port, Troy and fighting fires navales -- on large canvases, including some who have been assigned until recently an anonymous "mad painter" because of ...
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Joachim Beuckelaer

borndied
1533 ca1574
a Flemish painter specialising in market and kitchen scenes with elaborate displays of food and household equipment. His market scenes, like Aertsen's, often incorporate biblical episodes into the background. His Four Elements series, acquired by the National Gallery, London in 2001, exemplifies this on a large scale. Water, for example, shows a fish market ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Bewick

borndied
1753, Aug 111828, Nov 8
an English engraver and natural history author. Early in his career he took on all kinds of work such as engraving cutlery, making the wood blocks for advertisements, and illustrating children's books. Gradually he turned to illustrating, writing and publishing his own books, gaining an adult audience for the fine illustrations in A History of Quadrupeds.
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Cross-listed in Writers

George Bickham the Elder

borndied
16841758
an English writing master and engraver. He is best known for his engraving work in The Universal Penman, a collection of writing exemplars which helped to popularise the English Round Hand script in the 18th century. In 1712, Bickham wrote copy books and business texts as there was a strong link between writing and mathematics (arithmetic and bookkeeping) in...
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Karl Eduard Biermann

borndied
18031892
a German landscape painter. He was born in Berlin. He was at first a decorative painter, but afterwards studied landscape in Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Italy, and was one of the founders and most prominent members of the Berlin school of landscape painting. He was for some time a professor in the Berlin Academy. His style has been characterized as in genera...
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Albert Bierstadt

bornactivedied
1830, Jan 71855-18951902, Feb 18
a German-born American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century.
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Johannes Bilders

borndied
1811, Aug 181890, Oct 29
a Dutch painter who was the father of Gerard Bilders (1838–1865) and a forerunner of the Hague School. Johannes Bilders was born in Utrecht and took lessons from Jan Lodewijk Jonxis (1789–1867). After travels in Germany, he settled down in 1841 at Oosterbeek, also called the 'Dutch Barbizon', where he gathered around him many young painters who would lat...
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Moses Billings

borndied
1809, Jan 151884, Aug 14
an American painter and photographer known mainly for his portraits. He was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, but spent most of his career working in Erie, Pennsylvania. Billings was self-taught, and "born with all the instincts of an artist". It is not known exactly what his influences were, though a number of potential influences have been suggested. Much of...
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George Caleb Bingham

borndied
1811, Mar 201879, Jul 7
an American artist whose paintings of American life in the frontier lands along the Missouri River exemplify the Luminist style. Left to languish in obscurity, Bingham's work was rediscovered in the 1930s. By the time of his bicentennial in 2011, he was considered one of the greatest American painters of the 19th century.
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Peter Binoit

bornactivedied
unknown1610s-1620sunknown
a flower painter of the 17th century, flourished in Cologne. Very little is known about his life. In the Darmstadt Gallery there are two flower-pieces by him. One has his monogram and the date 1611, and the other is signed P. BINOIT. FRANCFORT 1620.
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William Birch

borndied
1755, Apr 91834, Aug 7
an English miniature painter, enameller, and landscape engraver and designer. After emigrating to Philadelphia in 1794 he made portrait enamels of many people including copies of portraits of George Washington, by Gilbert Stuart. He was the father of Thomas...
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Antonio Bisquert

borndied
15961646
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. He was born in Valencia, where he became a pupil of Francisco Ribalta. He established himself at Teruel in 1620 where he got married. In his works, religious and subject always to a clientele that, in his case, it seems exclusively ecclesiastical and intended for the decoration of religious buildings.
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Cornelis Bisschop

borndied
16301674
a Dutch Golden Age painter. In ca. 1650 he was a student of Ferdinand Bol in Amsterdam. In 1653 he was back in Dordrecht, where he got married. According to Houbraken he was the first to paint carved trompe l'oeil wooden panels in such an ingenious way that they became quite popular. He painted historical allegories, portraits, still lifes, and genre-works. ...
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Joseph Blackburn

aka: Jonathan
borndied
unknown1787
an English portrait painter who worked mainly in Bermuda and in colonial America. His notable works include portraits of Hugh Jones (circa 1777) and Colonel Theodore Atkinson (circa 1760). He seems to have been the son of a painter, and to have had a studio in Boston in 1750-1765; among his patrons were many important early American families.
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William James Blacklock

bornactivedied
1816, Mar 31843-18551858, Mar 12
an English landscape painter, painting scenery in Cumbria, the Lake District and the Scottish Borders. Although Blacklock's art can be described as semi-photographic, Blacklock rejected Ruskin's exact copying of truth to nature and the Victorian faith in facts for his own inner thoughts and imagination. His works are very rare and there are strong similariti...
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Cross-listed in Writers

William Blake

borndied
1757, Nov 281827, Aug 12
an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. His prophetic poetry has been said to form "what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language". His visual artistry led one conte...
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Carl Blechen

borndied
1798, Jul 291840, Jul 23
a German landscape painter and a Professor at the Academy of Arts, Berlin. His distinctive style was characteristic of the Romantic ideals of natural beauty. After a short study trip to Dresden, he returned to Berlin and became a decorator for the Royal Theater. He married in 1824 and became a member of the Berlin Artists' Association in 1827. Later that ye...
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Georg Bleibtreu

borndied
1828, Mar 271892, Oct 16
German painter of military and historical scenes. Bleibtreu was a painter, lithographer, designer and 'graveur sur bois'. He was a member of the Berlin Academy, receiving two gold medals for his works; he also received a medal at Vienna in 1873. Like many historical painters of the 19th century, he studied at the Düsseldorf Academy between 1843 and 1848, an...
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Gerrit Claesz Bleker

borndied
15921656, Feb 8
a Dutch Golden Age painter. According to Houbraken in 1718, who repeated a list of names from Theodorus Schrevelius's 1648 book on Haarlem called Harlemias, he was a good landscape painter of Haarlem along with Cornelis Vroom, son of Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom, "Joh. Jakobsz.", who was in Italy for many years, "Nicol. Zuyker", Salomon van Ruysdael, and Reyer v...
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Anna Katharina Block

borndied
16421719
a German Baroque flower painter. According to Houbraken she was the daughter of the flower painter Johann Thomas Fischer who taught her to paint. She was good at painting flowers in water colors and in oils, and taught the Duchess Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the wife of the Duke August von Sachsen, and their daughters in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt in the 1...
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Benjamin Block

aka: Blok
borndied
16311690
a seventeenth-century German - Hungarian Baroque painter who married the flower painter Anna Katharina Block. He is known for his portrait paintings. After working as a portrait painter in Siena, Florence and Venice, in 1664 Block crossed the alps back to his native Germany, and settled in Nuremberg, where he married the daughter of the flower painter Johann...
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Anthonie Blocklandt van Montfoort

aka: Anthonie van Blocklandt, Anthonie van Montfoort
borndied
1533/341583, Oct 8
a Dutch painter. He was born in Montfoort, where his father was at one time mayor. He went to learn under Hendrick Sweersz. in Delft and Frans Floris in Antwerp. In 1552 he returned to Montfoort, where he married the daughter of the then mayor. Blocklandt then settled in Delft, where he produced paintings for the Oude Kerk and the Nieuwe Kerk, later lost to ...
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Abraham Bloemaert

borndied
15661651, Jan 27
a Dutch painter and printmaker in etching and engraving. He was one of the "Haarlem Mannerists" from about 1585, but in the new century altered his style to fit new Baroque trends. He mostly painted history subjects and some landscapes. He was an important teacher, who trained most of the Utrecht Caravaggisti, at least for a period.
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Adriaan Bloemaert

borndied
1610 ca1666, Jan
a Dutch painter. Bloemaert was the fourth son of Abraham Bloemaert, and younger brother of Hendrick, Frederik and Cornelis Bloemaert. He received his first instruction from his father. He was sent to Italy, where he studied until 1637. He then visited Vienna, where he met with employment, but settled at Salzburg the same year. In 1640 he visited Freistadt. B...
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Cornelis Bloemaert

borndied
16031692, Sep 28
a Dutch Golden Age painter and engraver. Bloemaert was born at Utrecht. He studied with his father, Abraham Bloemaert, his brothers Hendrick and Adriaan, and his father's pupil, Gerard van Honthorst. Though originally trained as a painter, he devoted himself primarily to printmaking, which he learned from Crispijn van de Passe. He went to Paris in 1630, wher...
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Hendrick Bloemaert

borndied
1601/021672, Dec 30
a Dutch Golden Age painter. Hendrick was the oldest son of Abraham Bloemaert. His brothers Cornelis and Adriaen were also painters. According to Houbraken, he never became as good as his father, but it is unclear whether Houbraken saw his work or copied this comment from Joachim von Sandrart.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Hugo von Blomberg

borndied
18201871
a poet and painter, was born at Berlin in 1820. He studied under Wach in the Academy at Berlin, and under Léon Cogniet at Paris, and copied Rubens's works in the Louvre. He died at Weimar in 1871.
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Cross-listed in ArchitectsCartographers

Lancelot Blondeel

borndied
14981561, Mar 4
a Flemish painter, architect, surveyor and cartographer. Blondeel was born in Poperinge, but established himself as an artist at Bruges. He became a member of the painters' guild in 1519. He primarily painted commissioned religious themed works for local churches. In 1550 Blondeel and more
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Cross-listed in Architects

Edward Blore

bornactivedied
1787, Sep 131811-18741879, Sep 4
a 19th-century British landscape and architectural artist, architect and antiquary. In 1826, he was appointed surveyor to Westminster Abbey. In 1827 he was engaged to furnish plans for the chancel fittings of Peterborough.
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Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra

borndied
1638, May 121688
a Spanish painter, born at Granada. He was a scholar of Alonso Cano and John of Seville, but improved himself in colouring by studying the works of Pedro de Moya and Van Dyck. He was vain and arrogant, and boasted his superiority to all the artists of his time; but on being challenged to a contest of ability by Mathias de Torres, he slunk from the trial, and...
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Boccaccio Boccaccino

borndied
1467 ca1525 ca
a painter of the early Italian Renaissance, belonging to the Emilian school. He was born in Ferrara and studied there, probably under Domenico Panetti. Few facts of his life are known. His principal artistic activity was in Venice, Ferrara, and especially in Cremona, where he founded a school in which Garofalo was a pupil. His most celebrated achievement is ...
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Gottlieb Bodmer

borndied
18041837
a German painter, designer, and lithographer. Bodmer was born at Munich in 1804. He first painted portraits under Stieler. In 1829 he lithographed the Madonna di San Sisto, after the engraving of F. Müller, and later two paintings after H. Hess, viz., Christmas Eve, and a small altar-piece; by these works he is favourably known. He visited Paris, and return...
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Karl Bodmer

aka: Jean-Charles, Johann Carl, Johann Karl
borndied
1809, Feb 111893, Oct 30
a Swiss-French printmaker, etcher, lithographer, zinc engraver, draughtsman, painter, illustrator and hunter. After 1843, likely as a result of the birth of his son Charles-Henry Barbizon, he began to sign his works K Bodmer. Karl Bodmer was well known in Germany for his watercolours, drawings and aquatints of cities and landscapes of the Rhine, Mosel and L...
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Jan Boeckhorst

aka: Johann Bockhorst
borndied
1604 ca1668, Apr 21
a German-born Flemish Baroque painter and draughtsman. He was a versatile artist who produced history paintings, genre scenes and portraits in a style influenced by the trio of leading Baroque painters in Antwerp Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens.
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Pieter Boel

aka: Peeter
borndied
16261674
a Flemish painter who specialised in lavish still lifes and animal paintings. He moved to Paris where he worked in the gobelin factory and became a painter to the king. Pieter Boel revolutionized animal painting by working directly from live animals in a natural setting. He had many followers in France. Boel principally painted still lifes including flower s...
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Frans Boels

borndied
1555 ca1596
a Flemish painter and draftsman, who was active in the Dutch Republic in the latter part of his life. He is mainly known for his landscape paintings. Not much is known about his life and career. He was born in Mechelen and was a pupil and stepson of Hans Bol who was a successful and versatile landscape painter and draftsman. He was active in Antwerp between ...
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Theodoor Boeyermans

aka: Theodor Boeyermans, Theodor Boeijermans
bornactivedied
1620, Nov 101660-16771678, Jan
a Flemish painter active in Antwerp who painted Baroque history paintings and group portraits informed by the tradition of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck. Boeyermans' dated works are dated between 1660 and 1677. He was mainly a painter of history and allegorical paintings. The artist received many important commissions for churches in his native Antw...
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Louis-Leopold Boilly

aka: Louis-Léopold
borndied
1761, Jul 51845, Jan 4
a French painter and draftsman. A gifted creator of popular portrait paintings, he also produced a vast number of genre paintings vividly documenting French middle-class social life. His life and work spanned the eras of monarchical France, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire, the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy.
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Joseph Ferdinand Boissard Boisdenier

aka: Fernand Boissard
borndied
18131866
a French painter of the romance. He was a pupil of Gros and Devéria. Boissard debuted at the Paris Salon of 1835 with a large painting (1.60 m high, 2.25 m wide, oil on canvas ), which immediately caused a sensation. Due to the recent history of France , the softly depicted dramatic scene the audience touched was a well: lying in the twilight, in the snow, ...
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Melchior Boisseree

aka: Boisserée
borndied
17861851
German artist and art collector. In the wake of the French occupation and the closure of many churches, he undertook, in conjunction with his brother and Johann Baptist Bertram, the formation of a collection of pictures by early German and Netherlandish painters, to which the three devoted twenty years' labour and the bulk of their fortunes. Boisserée was t...
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Ferdinand Bol

borndied
1616, Jun 241680, Aug 24
a Dutch artist, etcher, and draftsman. Although his surviving work is rare, it displays Rembrandt's influence; like his master, Bol favored historical subjects, portraits, numerous self-portraits, and single figures in exotic finery. Bol was a popular and successful painter. His palette had lightened, his figures possessed greater elegance, and by the middle...
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Hans Bol

borndied
1534, Dec 161593, Nov 20
a Flemish painter who migrated to the Dutch Republic. He is known for his landscapes, allegorical and biblical scenes, and genre paintings in a Northern Mannerist style. Because Bol’s watercolors became so widely reproduced, he began creating miniatures on parchment. The technique earned him many international clients and a good income. In addition, Bol pr...
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Hans Bollongier

aka: Boulenger
borndied
1600 ca1675 ca
a Dutch Golden Age still life flower painter. Bollongier was born and died in Haarlem. Little is known of his early life. He became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1623, and in 1675 his younger brother Horatio was named as his beneficiary. He was a specialist in bouquets of blooms. Paintings attributed to him that are not flower- or fruit still ...
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Horatius Bollongier

aka: Horatio
borndied
1601 ca1675 ca
a Dutch painter, probably born and died in Haarlem. He was a rare genre scene painter. He was influenced by Adriaen Brouwer, who lived in Haarlem in 1626/27, and by Frans Hals and his circle. Horatius was the younger brother of the painter Hans Bollongier. Apparently, and strangely enough, Horatius Bollongier seems to have quit painting circa 1625/1630 to wo...
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Boetius a Bolswert

aka: Boëtius Adamsz, Boetius à Bolswert, Boetius Adamsz Bolswert, Bodius
borndied
1585 ca1633
a renowned copper-plate engraving engraver of Friesland origin. In his time the paintings of Peter Paul Rubens called forth new endeavours by engravers to imitate or reproduce the breadth, density of mass and dynamic illumination of those works. Boetius Bolswert was an important figure in this movement, not least because he was the elder brother and instruct...
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Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio

borndied
1466/671516
an Italian painter of the High Renaissance from Lombardy, who worked in the studio of Leonardo da Vinci. Boltraffio and Bernardino Luini are the strongest artistic personalities to emerge from Leonardo's studio. According to Giorgio Vasari, he was of an ari...
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Rosa Bonheur

borndied
1822, Mar 161899, May 25
a French artist, an animalière (painter of animals) and sculptor, known for her artistic realism. Her most well-known paintings are Ploughing in the Nivernais, first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1848, and now at Musée d’Orsay in Paris, and The Horse Fair (in French: Le marché aux chevaux), which was exhibited at the Salon of 1853 (finished in 1855) a...
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Ignace Francois Bonhomme

aka: Ignace François
borndied
18091881
The history of art is to retain the name of François Bonhomme because he was the first painter of the industry and because he devoted almost all of his work in illustration the first industrial revolution. This work is not only a unique historical testimony on the technological revolution. It also marks as artistic production, a particular aspect of the rev...
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Richard Parkes Bonington

borndied
1802, Oct 251828, Sep 23
an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France. Becoming after his very early death one of the most influential British artists of his time, the facility of his style was inspired by the old masters, yet was entirely mod...
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Jan Baptist Bonnecroy

aka: Jean
borndied
16181676+
a Flemish painter and engraver known for his large panoramic city views and marine paintings. He painted at least 4 views of Antwerp. The view dated 1658 was ordered for the Antwerp City Hall. He also made views of Amsterdam and Brussels. These views all show the cities from a distance and with a bird’s eye perspective. Bonnecroy relied on drawings of the ...
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Jean-Claude Bonnefond

borndied
17961860
a French artist, born at Lyons in 1796, studied under Révoil, and became successful in representing scenes from peasant life. About 1826 he went to Rome, and became influenced by the style of Robert and Schnetz, and painted sacred as well as genre subjects. In 1831 he became director of the Art School at Lyons, and in 1837 a member of the Academy. He died i...
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Joseph Bonomi the Younger

bornactivedied
1796, Oct 91824-18561878, mar 3
an English sculptor, artist, Egyptologist and museum curator. From 1824 to 1826, he was a member of Hay's expedition to Egypt where he sketched many antiquities. No doubt influenced by his family's architectural associations, Bonomi designed the entrance to Abney Park Cemetery in Stoke Newington, London (in collaboration with William Hosking), built in Egypt...
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Francois Bonvin

aka: François
borndied
1817, Nov 221887, Dec 19
a French realist painter. Bonvin exhibited three paintings in the Salon of 1849, where he was awarded a third-class medal. He exhibited in the Salon of 1850 with Courbet, and won recognition as a leading realist, painting truthfully the lives of the poor which he knew at first hand. His paintings were well received by critics and by the public.
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Arnold Boonen

borndied
1669, Dec 161729, Oct 2
a Dutch portrait painter. He was born at Dordrecht, in the Dutch Republic in 1669. He was a pupil first of Arnold Verbuis, and then of Godefried Schalken. He painted genre pictures in the style of the latter, representing subjects by candlelight, but met with such encouragement in portrait painting that he devoted himself almost wholly to that branch of art....
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Paulus Bor

borndied
1601 ca1669, Aug 10
a Dutch painter. Bor's style of painting was rather at odds with that of contemporary painters from Utrecht. He initially painted rather Caravaggisti-like history paintings, but his works fast became marked by a classicism related to that of his townsman van Campen. Through unusual compositions and primitive technique, his paintings depict strange and myster...
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Gesina ter Borch

borndied
1633, Nov 151690, Apr 16
a Dutch Golden Age painter, whose work mostly consists of watercolour paintings in albums. Most of her work captured her observations of family life and current events. Her work is simple but passionate. Gesina ter Borch was born in Deventer in the Dutch Republic. She was the daughter of Gerard ter Borch the Elder and the half-sister of Gerard ter Borch, who...
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Paris Bordone

borndied
1500, Jul 51571, Jan 19
an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of Mannerist complexity and provincial vigor. Bordone is at his best in his smaller cabinet pieces, showing half-figures, semi-undressed men and women from mythology or religious stories in a muscular interaction despite the crowded space. In Paris Bordone s...
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Orazio Borgianni

borndied
1574, Apr 61616, Jan 14
an Italian painter and etcher of the Mannerist and early-Baroque periods. He was the stepbrother of the sculptor and architect Giulio Lasso. He was instructed in the art of painting by his brother, Giulio Borgiani, called Scalzo. The patronage by Philip II of Spain induced him to visit that Spain, where he signed an inventory in January 1605. He returned to ...
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Hinrik Bornemann

aka: Henrik Bornemann, Hinrich Bornemann
borndied
1450 ca1499
a Northern German Late Gothic painter. He was the son of Hans Bornemann, who died in 1474. After his father's death his mother was thrice remarried to painters- to Hinrik Funhof (d. 1485), to Absolon Stumme (d. 1499), and then finally to Wilm Dedeke (d. 1528). His main work was the Altarpiece of St. Luke (Lukas-Altar) for St. Mary's Cathedral in Hamburg, now...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Nicolas Borras

aka: Nicolás Borrás
borndied
15301610
a Spanish Renaissance painter, active in Valencia. The Hieronymite monks of Cotalba called him to paint the greater altarpiece of the church. In this way, he entered in the order. The altarpiece consisted in fourteen tables. There was a sculpture of Saint Jerome in the middle. In addition, he made other altarpieces for the chapels of the church and the chapt...
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Johannes Bosboom

borndied
1817, Feb 181891, Sep 14
a Dutch painter and watercolorist of the Hague School, known especially for his paintings of church interiors. At the age of 14 he became a student of Bartholomeus van Hove and painted in his studio along with Van Hove's son Hubertus van Hove. Together they worked on the pieces of scenery that Van Hove created for the Royal Theatre in The Hague. Bosboom's ch...
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Hieronymus Bosch

aka: Jheronimus Bosch, Jheronimus van Aken
borndied
1450 ca1516, Aug 9
an Early Netherlandish painter. His work is known for its fantastic imagery, detailed landscapes, and illustrations of religious concepts and narratives. Within his lifetime his work was collected in the Netherlands, Austria, and Spain, and widely copied, especially his macabre and nightmarish depictions of hell. Bosch produced at least sixteen triptychs, of...
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Friedrich Boser

borndied
18111881
a German artist. He studied in Dresden, Berlin, and Düsseldorf; his paintings, chiefly genre subjects and portraits, were popular. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. Boser first attended the academies of Dresden (1826-1832) and Berlin (1834-1836). 1837/1838 he received the 2nd class of historical painting at the Dusseldorf Art Academy...
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Abraham Bosschaert

borndied
16121643
a Dutch Golden Age painter. Bosschaert was born in Middelburg. According to the RKD he was a member of the Bosschaert dynasty. Like his father Ambrosius Bosschaert and older brothers, he signed his works with a monogram; AB, but this was only discovered in 1992. His older brothers Ambrosius Bosschaert II and Johannes Bosschaert were his first teachers after ...
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Ambrosius Bosschaert II

borndied
16091645
a Dutch Golden Age painter who specialized in flower paintings in the manner of his father Ambrosius Bosschaert. Bosschaert was born in Middelburg. According to the RKD his works are confused with those of his father, mostly because he painted in a similar style and signed with the same monograph. He was also heavily influenced by his uncle Balthasar van der...
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Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder

borndied
1573, Jan 181621
a still life painter of the Dutch Golden Age. He was born in Antwerp, where he started his career, but he spent most of it in Middelburg (1587–1613), where he moved with his family because of the threat of religious persecution. He specialized in painting still lifes with flowers, which he signed with the monogram AB (the B in the A). At the age of twenty...
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Jan Baptist Bosschaert

borndied
1667, Dec 171746
a Flemish painter. Bosschaert was born and died in Antwerp, and lived and worked there all his life. He specialized in still life paintings, particularly depictions of flowers. He became a free master of the Guild of Saint Luke in 1693. When the painter Ferdinand van Kessel needed to fulfill commissions from the King of Poland he periodically subcontracted o...
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Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert

borndied
16131654, Jan 23
a Dutch-born Flemish Baroque painter. Willeboirts Bosschaert was born in Bergen op Zoom, where his Catholic family had moved in the late sixteenth century. He moved to Antwerp in 1628, and entered the studio of Gerard Seghers for eight years. In 1636 or 1637 he became an Antwerp citizen and joined the Guild of St. Luke. He died in Antwerp. His style is heavi...
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Abraham Bosse

borndied
1602 ca1676, Feb 14
a French artist, mainly as a printmaker in etching, but also in watercolour. Roughly 1600 etchings are attributed to him, with subjects including: daily life religion, literature, history fashion, technology, and science. Most of his output was illustrations for books, but many were also sold separately. His style grows from Dutch and Flemish art, but is gi...
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Francois Antoine Bossuet

aka: François-Antoine
borndied
1798, Aug 221889, Sep 30
a painter and draughtsman of the Belgian school. Bossuet is known for his depictions of the landscapes, cities and monuments of Spain and Italy, with an emphasis on historic places, occasionally with genre scenes of everyday life. He is noted for the excellence of perspective in his paintings, on which he wrote a dissertation in 1843. His fascination with S...
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Andries Both

borndied
1612/131642, Mar 23
a Dutch Golden Age genre painter, one of the bamboccianti, and brother of Jan Dirksz Both. His work is noted for its humorous and outrageous quality, mixed with objectivity and harsh reality, depicting the seamier side of Italian life with broad strokes. The style, known as Bambocciata, after the nickname of its originator, Pieter van Laer, known as il bambo...
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Jan Dirksz Both

borndied
1614 ca1652, Aug 9
a Dutch painter, draughtsman, and etcher, who made an important contribution to the development of Dutch Italianate landscape painting. Both was born in Utrecht, and was the brother of Andries Both. By 1638 Jan and his brother Andries were in Rome where Andries concentrated on genre works in the manner of Pieter van Laer, while Jan concentrated on landscapes...
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Sandro Botticelli

aka: Sandro Filipepi
borndied
1445 ca1510, May 17
an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later in his Vita of Botticelli as a "golden age". Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen ...
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Francois Boucher

aka: François
borndied
1703, Sep 291770, May 30
a French painter in the Rococo style. Boucher is known for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical themes, decorative allegories, and pastoral scenes. He was perhaps the most celebrated painter and decorative artist of the 18th century. He also painted several portraits of his patroness, Madame de Pompadour.
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Adriaen Fransz Boudewijns

borndied
1644, Oct 31719, Dec 3
a Flemish landscape painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was known mainly for his landscapes with trees, Italianate landscapes with architecture and river and village views city, coast and country views and architectural scenes. Boudewijns was a landscape artist who produced paintings, drawings and prints. All surviving paintings are believed to have been pai...
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Eugene Boudin

aka: Eugène
borndied
1824, Jul 121898, Aug 8
one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors. Boudin was a marine painter, and expert in the rendering of all that goes upon the sea and along its shores. In his shop, in which pictures were framed, Boudin came into contact with artists working in the area and exhibited in the shop the paintings of Constant Troyon and Jean-François Millet, w...
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Etienne Bouhot

aka: Étienne-Louis Boullée
borndied
1780, Aug 81862, Jul 17
a French painter and art teacher. Bouhot was born in Bard-lès-Époisses. As a pupil of Pierre Prévost the painter, Bouhot had his first exhibition in the Salon in 1808. In 1810, his works received several accolades. He was the director of the École de Dessin (School of Drawing) in Semur-en-Auxois. He died in Semur-en-Auxois.
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Louis Boulanger

borndied
1806, Mar 111867, Mar 5
a French Romantic painter, lithographer and illustrator. He enrolled in 1821 at the École des beaux-arts where he attended the workshop of Guillaume Guillon Lethière and received a solid classical training. Next he made a présentation for the prix de Rome, in 1824, in which he finished logiste. He became the companion of Eugène Devéria and an intimate o...
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Sebastien Bourdon

aka: Sébastien
borndied
1616, Feb 21671, May 8
a French painter and engraver. His chef d'œuvre is The Crucifixion of St. Peter made for the cathedral of Notre Dame. In spite of his poverty he managed to get to Rome in 1636; there he studied the paintings of Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain and Caravaggio, until he was forced to flee in 1638, to escape denunciation by the Inquisition for his Refor...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersWriters

Marc-Theodore Bourrit

aka: Marc-Théodore
borndied
17391819
a genevois traveller and writer. He was a good artist and etcher, and also a pastor, so that by reason of his fine voice and love of music he was made (1768) precentor of the church of St Peter (the former cathedral) at Geneva. This post enabled him to devote himself to the exploration of the Alps, for which he had conceived a great passion ever since an asc...
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Esaias Boursse

borndied
1631, Mar 31672, Nov 16
a Dutch painter. His paintings were mainly genre works. The life of Esaias Boursse is the story of a painter who could not earn a living by painting alone and therefore had to look for an alternative source of income. The fact that he was no exception is proven by the life stories of for example Jan Steen (who was also an innkeeper) and Johannes Vermeer (who...
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Pieter Bout

borndied
1649 ca1700 ca
a Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He known mainly for his landscapes, city, coast and country views and architectural scenes painted in a style reminiscent of earlier Flemish masters such as Jan Brueghel the Elder. Pieter Bout was a very prolific artist who worked in many genres. Most of his works include a landscape element and many are views of ci...
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Friedrich August Bouterwek

aka: Buterweck
borndied
18061867
a German artist, who spent much of his life in Paris. Bouterwek was born at Tamowitz, in Silesia. He was trained in the school of Kolbe at Berlin, and later pursued his studies under Delaroche in Paris, where he three times carried off the gold medal. In 1834 he made a tour in Italy, and later visited Spain, Scotland, and the East. After a while he moved fro...
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Aelbert Bouts

aka: Albert, Aelbert, Albrecht
borndied
1450s1549, Mar
a Belgian painter of the Early Netherlandish era. He was born into a family of painters in Leuven. Aelbrecht’s father was Dieric Bouts the Elder (ca.1415-1475), and his brother was Dieric Bouts the Younger (ca.1448-1490). Jan Bouts (ca.1478-ca. 1530), son of Dieric Bouts the Younger, also became a painter. Dieric Bouts the Younger inherited his father’s ...
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Johann Baptiste Bouttats

aka: Jan Baptist
borndied
1680s1743
a Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher who worked in a wide variety of genres including history, landscapes, architecture, topological views, marine scenes and still lifes. He was active in Antwerp and England. here are very few details about Bouttats’ early life and training. He was a member of the Bouttats family of artists, who were active in Antwerp...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Samuel Boyce

borndied
unknown1775
an English engraver and poet. Boyce was originally an engraver, and subsequently worked in the South Sea House. He published one play, entitled The Rover, or Happiness at Last, a dramatic pastoral (1752), which was never performed. In its preface, he claimed that this was due to its length, and not to its lack of merit. In 1757, he published Poems on Several...
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Thomas Shotter Boys

borndied
1803, Jan 31874
an English watercolour painter and lithographer. He exhibited at the Royal Academy for the first time in 1824, and in Paris in 1827. In 1830 he went to Brussels, but returned to England on the outbreak of the revolution there. Paying another visit to Paris, he remained there until 1837, and then returned to England in order to lithograph the works of David R...
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Mathew Brady

borndied
1822, May 181896, Jan 15
one of the first American photographers, best known for his scenes of the Civil War. He studied under inventor Samuel F. B. Morse, who pioneered the daguerreotype technique in America. Brady opened his own studio in New York in 1844, and photographed Andrew Jackso...
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Richard Brakenburg

borndied
16501702
a Dutch Golden Age painter. He was born and died in Haarlem. He is known for both Italianate landscapes and portraits. He painted similar subjects to those of Schendel, representing merry-makings and drunken assemblies. His pictures are ingeniously composed, and well coloured, something in the manner of Adriaen van Ostade, though greatly inferior. They are p...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Bramantino

aka: Bartolomeo Suardi
bornactivedied
1456 ca1508-1520s1530 ca
an Italian painter and architect, mainly active in his native Milan; a follower of Bramante, from whom he takes his nickname. In 1508 he was engaged in Rome. Donato Bramante taught Bramantino architecture, and the pupil assisted the master in the execution of the interior of the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan. In 1525 Bramantino was appointed...
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Leonaert Bramer

borndied
1596, Dec 241674, Feb
a Dutch painter known primarily for genre, religious, and history paintings. Very prolific as a painter and draftsman, he is noted especially for nocturnal scenes which show a penchant for exotic details of costume and setting. He also painted frescos—a rarity north of the Alps—which have not survived, as well as murals on canvas, few of which are extant...
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Christian Hilfgott Brand

borndied
16951756
a German artist. Very little is known about his life. He was born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1695, and studied under Agricola, left that town and settled, in 1720, at Vienna, where he became celebrated for his landscapes. He died at Vienna in 1756. The Belvedere has by him four pictures, landscapes with figures of cattle.
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Heinrich Brandes

borndied
1803, May 231868, Oct 6
a German painter. Brandes was born at Bortfeld, near Brunswick, and learned the rudiments of painting under the guidance of F. Barthels at Brunswick. From 1823 to 1825 he attended the Academy of Munich, where he first devoted himself to historic painting under the tuition of Peter von Cornelius, but then turned his attention to landscapes. On leaving the Aca...
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Petr Brandl

aka: Peter Johannes Brandl, Jan Petr Brandl
borndied
1668, Oct 241735, Sep 24
a Czech painter of the late Baroque, famous in his time but – due to isolation behind the Iron Curtain – rather forgotten until recently. He was of German-speaking Austrian descent in the bilingual Kingdom of Bohemia. His mother was from Czech peasant family, that lived in P?estanice (a village in Bohemia, now part of Hlav?ovice). He was born into a craf...
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Bartholomeus Breenbergh

aka: Bartholomaeus
bornactivedied
1598, Nov 131619-16571657, Oct 3
a Dutch Golden Age painter of Italian and Italianate landscapes, in Rome (1619-1630) and Amsterdam (1630-1657). Little is known of his early life. Äccording to the Netherlands Institute for Art History (RKD), Breenbergh was born in the Netherlands town of Deventer, but after the death of his father in 1607 moved away with the rest of his family, probably to...
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Carl Breitbach

borndied
18331904
A German painter. He was born in Berlin, and was a pupil of the Academy of Art, in that city, and of Couture, in Paris. He settled in Berlin, where he devoted himself to landscape, genre, and portrait painting. The following are among his principal works: "Mill of Saint-Ouen, near Paris;" "Park of Trianon;" "Autumn Evening in the Weser Valley;" "Sunrise in t...
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Friedrich Brentel

borndied
15801651
a German printmaker in engraving and etching, and miniature painter, was born at Lauingen in 1580, and became a citizen of Strasbourg in 1601. His principal work is a set of plates for 'The Funeral of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine,' and the Royal entry of his son as the new duke, published at Nancy in 1611. They are from the designs of Claude de La Ruelle an...
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Moretto da Brescia

aka: Alessandro Bonvicino, Buonvicino
borndied
1498 ca1554, Dec 22
an Italian Renaissance painter from Brescia, where he also mostly worked. His dated works extend from 1524 to 1554, but he was already described as a master in 1516. He was mainly a painter of altarpieces that tend towards sedateness, mostly for churches in and around around Brescia, but also in Bergamo, Milan, Verona and Asola; many remain in the churches t...
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Johann Michael Bretschneider

borndied
16801729
a German painter. Bretschneider was born at Aussig, in Bohemia. His parents were Wentzel and Ludmilla Bretschneider. His teacher is not assuredly known, but it is believed that he learned from Johann Rudolf Byss (1660–1738) in Prague. On 18 July 1700 he was admitted to the painters' guild in Old Town and got Citizenship on 20 September 1700. He stayed in P...
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Jorg Breu the Elder

aka: Jörg
borndied
1475 ca1537
a painter of the German Danube school. He was the son of a weaver. He journeyed to Austria and created several multi-panel altarpieces there in 1500–02, such as the Melk Altar (1502). He returned to Augsburg in 1502 where he became a master. He travelled to Italy twice, in ca. 1508 and in 1514/15. After his death in 1537, his son, Jörg Breu the Younger co...
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Jorg Breu the Younger

aka: Jörg
borndied
1510 ca1547
a painter of Augsburg. Very little is known about the details of his life. He was the son of Jörg Breu the Elder. In the 1540s, he was involved with the creation of the Fechtbucher commissioned by Paulus Hector Mair.
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John Brewster Jr.

borndied
1766, May 30/311854, AUg 13
a prolific, deaf itinerant painter who produced many charming portraits of well-off New England families, especially their children. He lived much of the latter half of his life in Buxton, Maine, USA, recording the faces of much of Maine's elite society of his time. As a deaf from birth, and growing up in a time when no standardized sign language for the dea...
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Frans Breydel

borndied
16791750
a Flemish painter, draftsman and decorative painter (of interiors). He is known for his merry companies, carnival scenes, landscapes and battle pieces. The details about Frans Breydel's life are sketchy. Frans Breydel was a younger brother of the painter Karel Breydel. There is no information about his training. He left for a trip, maybe to Italy, at an earl...
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Karel Breydel

aka: Carel
borndied
16781733
a Flemish painter of battle pieces, equestrian paintings and landscapes. These paintings are ingeniously composed and painted with spirit after the manner of Adam Frans van der Meulen, the leading Antwerp battle painter of the 17th century. He also executed a number of landscapes, and views of the Rhine, in the manner of Griffier. Breydel also worked as a co...
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Matthijs Bril the Eder

borndied
unknown1550 ca
Artist from Antwerp, father of Matthijs Bril the Younger


Matthijs Bril the Younger

borndied
15501583, Jun 8
a Flemish painter specialised in landscapes. He spent most of his active career in Rome where he introduced the northern style of landscape painting. Matthijs Bril's work is now mainly known through his frescoes and drawings. Matthijs was specialized in landscapes. He painted two types of landscapes: landscapes with a topographical interest and imaginary lan...
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Paul Bril

borndied
15541626, Oct 7
a Flemish painter principally of landscapes who spent most of his active career in Rome. His Italianate landscapes had a major influence on landscape painting in Italy and Northern Europe. Paul Bril was the son of the painter Matthijs Bril the Elder (Date of birth unknown, probably Breda - c. 1550, Antwerp). Paul and his older brother Matthijs likely started...
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Philipp Hieronymus Brinckmann

borndied
17091760, Dec 21
a German painter and engraver. Brinckmann was born at Spires in 1709. He was a pupil of J. G. Dathan. His favourite subjects were landscapes, but he also painted historical subjects and portraits; in some of the latter he imitated the force and colouring of Rembrandt. He was painter to the Court, and keeper of the Gallery at Mannheim, where he died. In the S...
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August Bromeis

borndied
18131881
a landscape painter, who was born at Wilhelmshöhe in 1813, first studied in the academy of his native town, then at Munich, from 1831 to 1833, in which year he went to Rome, where he was much influenced by the style of J. A. Koch. Bromeis returned to Germany in 1848, and resided at Frankfurt and Düsseldorf, and at Kassel , where he was made Instructor and ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Branwell Bronte

aka: Brontë
borndied
1817, Jun 261848, Sep 24
an English painter and writer. He was the only son of the Brontë family, and brother of the writers Charlotte, Emily and Anne. Brontë was rigorously tutored at home by his father, and shared much of his sisters’ creative talent, earning praise for his poetry and translations from the classics. But he drifted between jobs, supporting himself by portrait-p...
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Bronzino

aka: Agnolo di Cosimo
borndied
1503, Nov 171572, Nov 23
painter. He is noted chiefly for his stylized portraits. Of his religious works, Deposition of Christ (1540-1545) is the most famous. Bronzino first received Medici patronage in 1539, when he was one of the many artists chosen to execute the elaborate decorations for the wedding of Cosimo I de' Medici to Eleonora di Toledo, daughter of the Viceroy of Naples....
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Charles Brooking

borndied
1723 ca1759
an English painter of marine scenes. Brooking's earliest known works are two pictures, one depicting a moonlit harbour scene and the other a burning ship, which he signed and inscribed with his age, 17, and thus datable to 1740. Since he was described as a "celebrated painter of sea-pieces" in 1752, when he worked for John Ellis (c.1710–76), he had evident...
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Adriaen Brouwer

borndied
1605 ca1638, Jan
a Flemish painter active in Flanders and the Dutch Republic in the first half of the 17th century. Brouwer was an important innovator of genre painting through his vivid depictions of peasants, soldiers and other 'lower class' individuals engaged in drinking, smoking, card or dice playing, fighting, music making etc. in taverns or rural settings. Brouwer con...
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Ford Madox Brown

borndied
1821, Apr 161893, Oct 6
an English painter of moral and historical subjects, notable for his distinctively graphic and often Hogarthian version of the Pre-Raphaelite style. Arguably, his most notable painting was Work (1852–1865). Brown spent the latter years of his life painting the Manchester Murals, depicting Mancunian history, for Manchester Town Hall. Brown struggled to make...
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Mather Brown

borndied
1761, Oct1831, May 25
a portrait and historical painter, born in Boston, Massachusetts, but active in England. He arrived in London in 1781 to further his training in Benjamin West's studio, entered the Royal Academy schools in 1782 with plans to be a miniature painter, and began to exh...
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Mosen Vicente Bru

borndied
16821703
a Spanish painter. Very little is known about the details of his life. He was born at Valencia. He was the pupil of Juan Conchillos. He painted for the churches in his native city, including a St. Francisco de Paula, a Baptism of Christ by St. John, and an All the Saints for the church of San Juan del Mercado.
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Alexander Bruckmann

borndied
18061852
a German historical and portrait painter. Bruckmann was born at Reutlingen. From 1826 he studied painting under Georg Friedrich Eberhard at Stuttgart and in 1827– 9 he studied at Munich, mostly under Heinrich von Hess. From the autumn of 1829 until 1832 he lived in Rome, where he painted Barbarossa's Body Drawn out of the Calycadnus (Staatsgallerie Stuttga...
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Abraham Brueghel

borndied
1631, Nov1690 ca
a Flemish painter from the famous Brueghel family of artists. He emigrated at a young age to Italy where he played an important role in the development of the style of decorative Baroque still lifes. Abraham Brueghel established a reputation for his still lifes and in particular, floral still lives. One hunting still life signed and dated by him is known. Du...
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Ambrosius Brueghel

aka: Ambrose
borndied
1617, Aug 101675, Feb 9
a Flemish Baroque painter who specialized in landscapes. His brother and nephews specialized in flower paintings and some have been attributed to him also. He was the son of Jan Brueghel the Elder and Catharina van Marienburg and his work is similar to that of his older half-brother and teacher, Jan Brueghel the Younger, and Jan the Younger's son Abraham Bru...
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Jan Brueghel the Elder

borndied
15681625, Jan 13
a Flemish painter, son of Pieter Bruegel the Elder and father of Jan Brueghel the Younger. Nicknamed "Velvet" Brueghel, "Flower" Brueghel, and "Paradise" Brueghel, of which the latter two were derived from his floral still lifes and paradise landscapes, while the former may refer to the velveteen sheen of his colors. In about 1589 Jan traveled to Italy, prob...
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Jan Brueghel the Younger

borndied
1601, Sep 131678, Sep 1
a Flemish Baroque painter, and the son of Jan Brueghel the Elder. Brueghel was born and died in the 17th century in Antwerp. He was trained by his father and spent his career producing works in a similar style. Along with his brother Ambrosius, he produced landscapes, allegorical scenes and other works of meticulous detail. Brueghel also copied works by his ...
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Pieter Brueghel the Elder

aka: Bruegel
borndied
1525 ca1569, Sep 9
a Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting). He is sometimes referred to as the "Peasant Bruegel". From 1559, he dropped the 'h' from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel.Pieter Bruegel specialized in genre paintings populated by peasants, often with a landsca...
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Pieter Brueghel the Younger

aka: Bruegel , Breughel
borndied
15641638
a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Bruegel the Elder's work as well as his original compositions. The large output of his studio, which produced for the local and export market, contributed to the international spread of his father's imagery. Traditionally Pieter Brueghel the Younger has been nicknamed "de helse Brueghel" or...
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Constantino Brumidi

borndied
1805, Jul 261880, Feb 19
a Greek-Italian-American historical painter, best known and honored for his fresco work in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC. Brumidi was born in Rome, his father a Greek from Filiatra in the province of Messinia, Greece, and his mother an Italian. He showed his talent for fresco painting at an early age and painted in several Roman palaces, among them ...
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Elise Bruyere

aka: Élise Bruyère
borndied
17761847
a French painter who specialized in portraits and floral still lifes. Bruyère was the daughter of Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier (1738–1836), a noted French writer, illustrator, and painter of French historical scenes. Her sister Henriette was also a painter. Bruyère was of the Realist school of French painting, and her still lifes, particularly her p...
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Barthel Bruyn the Elder

borndied
14931555
a German Renaissance painter active in Cologne. He painted altarpieces and portraits, and was Cologne's foremost portrait painter in the sixteenth century. Bruyn is especially noted for his portraits. He was the first important portrait painter in Cologne, and the founder of a prolific school of portraiture that was continued by his sons Arnt and Barthel Bru...
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Barthel Bruyn the Younger

borndied
1530 ca1608 ca
a German painter active in Cologne. He is noted mainly for his portraits. He was born in Cologne, where he trained in his father's workshop. From about 1547, he worked with his father and his older brother Arnt on a series of 57 scenes from the New Testament for the cloisters of Cologne’s Karmelitenkloster. His only signed painting, a diptych of Christ Car...
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Ludwig Buchhorn

borndied
1770, Apr 181856, Nov 13
a German painter and engraver. In his early works, the Old Master was a big focus of his work. Influenced by Franz Krüger and Johann Gottfried Schadow, Buchhorn soon found a unique style and worked in his later works increasingly from nature. Between 1790 and 1793 Buchhorn was at the Academy of the Arts, Berlin. In addition to aquatint and lithography, Buch...
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Cross-listed in Performers

Matthias Buchinger

aka: Matthew Buckinger
borndied
1674, Jun 21740, Jan 17
a German artist, magician, calligrapher, and performer who was born without hands or feet and was 29 in (74 cm) tall. Buchinger was especially noted for his micrography, in which illustrations consist of very small text. Buchinger was born in Ansbach, Germany, without hands or lower legs. An artist and performer, he "traveled all over Northern Europe to ente...
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Hans Burgkmair

borndied
14731531
a German painter and woodcut printmaker. Hollstein ascribes 834 woodcuts to him, mostly for book illustrations, with slightly over a hundred being "single-leaf", that is prints not for books. Burgkmair was also a successful painter, mainly of religious scenes and portraits of Augsburg citizens and members of the Emperor's court. Many examples of his work are...
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Thoman Burgkmair

aka: Thomas
borndied
unknown1523
a German painter. The father of Hans Burgkmair, and the father-in-law of Hans Holbein the elder, he is mentioned in the records of the Painters' Guild at Augsburg in 1460, and in public documents there in 1479. In 1480 he painted a Christ with St. Ulric and a Virgin with St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, both in the cathedral at Augsburg; the gallery of that city ...
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Francisco de Burgos Mantilla

borndied
16121672, Apr 1
a Spanish Baroque painter of portraits and still lifes. He was born in Burgos but from 1618 he lived in Madrid, where he had his artistic training under Pedro de las Cuevas. In his mature work he was strongly influenced by Velázquez. Although in his lifet...
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Heinrich Burkel

aka: Bürkel
bornactivedied
18021824-18671869
a German genre and landscape painter. He was designed for trade, but devoted every spare minute to drawing. His father's house, being an inn, presented him with subjects in great variety, and so early as his eleventh year he came into conflict with the police on account of a caricature of Napoleon. At fifteen he entered the law, but at twenty he was incited ...
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Friedrich Bury

aka: Fritz
borndied
1763, Mar 121823, May 18
a German artist born in Hanau. He studied first under his father Jean Jacques Bury, who was a goldsmith and professor in the Academy of Design in Hanau, and then with Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. In 1780 he visited Düsseldorf, and two years later went to Rome; thence to Dresden, and finally settled in Berlin, where he was patronized by the Queen of Pr...
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Joseph Henry Bush

borndied
17941865
an American visual artist, specializing in portraits. There is little information available concerning the details of his life. He painted portraits of Zachary Taylor, Clough Marshall Anderson, Dr. Benjamin Winslow Dudley, Rev. Miles D. Harper, General William Clark and many others.


Master of the Butzow Altarpiece

aka: Bützow
bornactivedied
unknown1500 caunknown
The Master of the Bützow Altarpiece was a German painter, active in the area around Lübeck around 1500. Next to nothing is known about him. He is named for an altarpiece painted for the church of Bützow, still held in the ambulatory of the church.
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Jacobus Buys

borndied
1724, Nov 191801, Apr 7
a Dutch painter and engraver. Buys was born in Amsterdam. He studied under C. Pronk, Jacob de Wit, and C. Troost, and ultimately became director of the Drawing Academy of his native city, where he died in 1801. He painted portraits, bas-reliefs, and tapestry, designed book-illustrations, and made copies of the works of the best masters of the seventeenth cen...
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Willem Pietersz Buytewech

bornactivedied
1591/921612-16241624, Sep 23
a Dutch Golden Age painter, draughtsman and etcher. He is one of the early specialists in the merry company type of subject in Dutch genre painting. His contemporaries named him “Gheestige Willem” (Jolly or spirited William). Buytewech was primarily a graphic artist, mostly of landscapes and genre pieces, but occasionally also of biblical and allegorical...
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Anne Frances Byrne

borndied
17751837
a British flower-painter. She also had some proficiency in fruit-painting, and exhibited a fruit-piece at the Academy in her twenty-first year, 1796, after which date pictures of hers appeared there from time to time, and at the British Institute, and Suffolk Street, down to 1832. In 1805, Miss Byrne's father died. In 1806, she was elected associate-exhibito...
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