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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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Francisco Pacheco

borndied
15711654
a Spanish painter, best known as the teacher and father-in-law of Diego Velázquez and Alonzo Cano, and for his textbook on painting that is an important source for the study of 17th-century practice in Spain. He is described by some as the "Vasari of Seville": voluble and didactic about his theories of painting and thoughts about painters, conventional and ...
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Amalia Pachelbel

borndied
1688, Oct 291723, Dec 6
a German painter and engraver. She was born in Erfurt and was the oldest daughter of composer Johann Pachelbel. Amalia's interest in art pleased her father, and he was always supportive of her. Amalia became known for her floral watercolors, copper engravings and porcelain pieces. In 1715 she married notary J. G. Beer. She died in Nuremberg in 1723.
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William Page

borndied
1811, Jan 31885, Oct 1
an American painter and portrait artist. He came to New York City with his parents at the age of nine, and in 1822 received a premium from the American Institute for a drawing in India ink. His drawings in the antique class at the National Academy won him the silver medal, but, having joined the Presbyterian Church, he determined to enter its ministry. For t...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Susanna Paine

aka: Susannah, Susan
borndied
1792, Jun 91862, Nov 10
an American portrait artist in New England in the 19th century. She published poetry, a Christmas hymn, a novel, and an autobiography entitled Roses and Thorns, or Recollections of an Artist. She traveled throughout Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Maine accepting commissions for portraits of individuals or families from 1826 through 1862. Paine was "a woman...
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Anthonie Palamedes

aka: Antonie, Palamedesz
borndied
16011673, Nov 27
a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter. His father had traveled to England in service of King James of Scotland, but after Anthonie's older brother Palamedes was born, the family returned to Delft where the boys grew up. He entered the Delft Guild of St. Luke in 1636 and was in 1673 hoofdman or deacon of that guild for the last time. Palamedes primarily painted...
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Palamedes Palamedesz

borndied
16071638
a Dutch Golden Age painter, and younger brother of Anthonie Palamedes.His father was a Flemish sculptor who carved semi-precious stone such as Jasper, Porphyry, and Agate into vases and other decorative art. His father had traveled to England in service of King James of Scotland, but after young Palamedes was born the family returned to Delft where the boys ...
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Bernard Palissy

borndied
1510 ca1589 ca
a French Huguenot potter, hydraulics engineer and craftsman, famous for having struggled for sixteen years to imitate Chinese porcelain. In the 19th-century, Palissy's pottery became the inspiration for Mintons Ltd's Victorian majolica, which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851 under the name "Palissy ware". Palissy is known for his contributions t...
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Louis Vincent Leon Palliere

borndied
17871820
a French painter, was born at Bordeaux in 1787. He went to Paris and studied under Vincent, under whom he evinced uncommon talents. In 1812 he gained the first prize of the Academy for his picture of Ulysses Slaying the Suitors of Penelope, which entitled him to go to Rome on a pension from the government. At Rome he painted several classical subjects. After...
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Samuel Palmer

borndied
1805, Jan 271881, May 24
a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker. He was also a prolific writer. Palmer was a key figure in Romanticism in Britain and produced visionary pastoral paintings. Palmer painted churches from around age twelve, and first exhibited Turner-inspired works at the Royal Academy at the age of fourteen. He had little formal training, and little formal ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Antonio Palomino

borndied
16531725, Apr 13
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, and a writer on art, author of El Museo pictórico y escala óptica, which contains a large amount of important biographical material on Spanish artists. He studied philosophy, theology and law at Córdoba, and had lessons in painting from Juan de Valdés Leal, who visited there in 1672, and afterwards from Juan de Al...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Giovanni Paolo Panini

bornactivedied
1691, Jun 171710s-1750s1765, Oct 21
a painter and architect, who worked in Rome and is mainly known as one of the vedutisti ("view painters"). As a painter, Panini is best known for his vistas of Rome, in which he took a particular interest in the city's antiquities. Among his most famous works are his view of the interior of the Pantheon (on behalf of Francesco Algarotti), and his vedute—pa...
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Juan Pantoja de la Cruz

borndied
15531608, Oct 26
a Spanish painter, one of the best representatives of the Spanish school of court painters. He worked for Philip II and Philip III. The Museo del Prado contains examples of his severe portraiture style. Pantoja represents one of the highest points in the Mannerism aesthetic of portrait painting. He followed the Spanish tradition of Royal Portraits, initiated...
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Juan de Pareja

borndied
1606 ca1670
a Spanish painter, born into slavery in Antequera, near Málaga, Spain. He is known primarily as a member of the household and workshop of painter Diego Velázquez, who freed him in 1650. His 1661 work The Calling of St. Matthew (sometimes also referred to as The Vocation of St. Matthew) is on display at the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain.
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Luis Paret y Alcazar

aka: Paret y Alcázar
borndied
1746, Feb 111799, Feb 14
a Spanish painter of the late-Baroque or Rococo period. He was born in Madrid he first trained with Antonio González Velázquez and attended the Academia Real de San Fernando in Madrid, where he won a second prize in a painting contest in 1760, and first prize in 1766. He entered the studio of the French painter Charles de la Traverse, who worked for the Ma...
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Parmigianino

aka: Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola, Francesco Mazzola
borndied
1503, Jan 111540, Aug 24
an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma. His work is characterized by a "refined sensuality" and often elongation of forms and includes Vision of Saint Jerome (1527) and the iconic if somewhat untypical Madonna with the Long Neck (1534), and he remains the best known artist of the first gene...
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Nehemiah Partridge

borndied
1683, Mar 91732 ca
a Colonial American painter. He is believed to be the same artist as those identified as the Schuyler Limner and the Aetatis Suae Limner, though this identification has been called into question by some historians. Sometime around 1718 Partridge was introduced into the society of Albany, New York, which had not yet been visited by any painters, and close to ...
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Jean-Baptiste Pater

borndied
1695, Dec 291736, Jul 25
a French rococo painter. Born in Valenciennes, Pater was the son of sculptor Antoine Pater and studied under him before becoming a student of painter Jean-Baptiste Guide. Pater then moved to Paris, briefly becoming a pupil of Antoine Watteau in 1713. Watteau, despite treating Pater badly, had a significant influence on him. However the two quarreled and Pate...
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Jacques Patin

bornactivedied
unknown1550s-1580s1587, May 28
a French painter, decorator, illustrator and engraver. Although the date and place of Patin's birth are unknown, he was part of a family of artists that included his father and brothers. He married Marguerite Pennichot in 1555, when he had already established a passable reputation. In 1559 he was hired along with François Clouet and Guyon Ledoux to make arm...
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Joachim Patinir

aka: Patenier
borndied
1480 ca1524, Oct 5
a Flemish Northern Renaissance history and landscape painter from the area of modern Wallonia. He was probably the uncle of Herri met de Bles, his follower in establishing the world landscape, a distinct style of panoramic northern Renaissance landscapes. Originally from Dinant or Bouvignes in present-day Belgium, Wallonia, Patinir became registered as a mem...
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Charles Willson Peale

borndied
1741, Apr 151827, Feb 22
an American painter, soldier, scientist, inventor, politician and naturalist. He is best remembered for his portrait paintings of leading figures of the American Revolution, as well as for establishing one of the first museums. Finding that he had a talent for painting, especially portraiture, Peale studied for a time under John Hesselius and John Singleton ...
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James Peale

borndied
17491831, May 24
an American painter, best known for his miniature and still life paintings, and a younger brother of noted painter Charles Willson Peale. At the outset of his career Peale painted portraits and still-life, and by the mid-1780s had established his reputation. At about this time, however, Charles turned over his own miniature portrait practice to him, and thro...
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Raphaelle Peale

aka: Raphael
borndied
1774, Feb 171825, Mar 4
considered the first professional American painter of still-life. In 1793, he made a trip to South America in order to collect specimens for the Peale Museum founded by his father. He exhibited five portraits and eight other paintings, probably still lifes, at the Columbianum, Philadelphia in 1794. His first professional exhibition was in 1795 at the age of ...
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Rembrandt Peale

borndied
1778, Feb 221860, Oct 3
an American artist and museum keeper. A prolific portrait painter, he was especially acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jef...
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Rubens Peale

borndied
1784, May 4 1865, July 17
an American artist and museum director. Born in Philadelphia, he was a son of artist-naturalist, Charles Willson Peale. In October 1855, he began keeping a journal, and he turned to still life painting, as an extension of his interest in natural history. In 1864, he returned to Philadelphia, and studied landscape painting with Edward Moran. In the last ten y...
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Titian Peale

aka: Titian Ramsey Peale II
borndied
1799, Nov 21885, Mar 13
an American artist, naturalist, entomologist, and photographer. His drawings were published in Thomas Say's American Entomology as early as 1816, and he was soon after elected to the Academy of Natural Sciences. Peale took part in the 1817 expedition of the Academy of Natural Sciences to Florida and Georgia, together with Thomas Say, George Ord and William M...
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Eglington Margaret Pearson

borndied
unknown1823, Feb 14
an English stained glass painter. Pearson and her husband James came to public attention through works shown at the Society of Artists of Great Britain in its exhibitions in 1775-77. The works she showed there were mostly depictions of birds, especially parrots and parakeets. Most of her output consisted of works on a single sheet of glass. Following the pra...
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August Joseph Pechwell

borndied
17571811
a German painter. There is not much information available about the details of his life. Pechwell was born at Dresden in 1757. He was instructed by Flutin, and afterwards went to Rome, where he remained till 1781. He painted altarpieces and portraits. He was Inspector of the Royal Gallery at Dresden.
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Bonaventura Peeters the Elder

borndied
1614, Jul 231652, Jul 25
a Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher and one of the leading marine artists in the Low Countries in the first half of the 17th century. Bonaventura's marine paintings comprise the whole range of battle scenes, storms, shipwrecks, views of ships in rivers and harbours, night scenes etc. His earliest marine paintings are panoramic views. His intimate and a...
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Catharina Peeters

borndied
16151676
the sister of Bonaventuur Peeters, Jan Peeters I, and Gillis Peeters. They were all Flemish Baroque painters noted for painting seascapes. Few details of her life are known. According to the RKD, she was taught to paint by her brothers. She is mentioned in Cornelis de Bie's book on painters in his chapter on noteworthy female painters. She is mentioned in V...
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Clara Peeters

bornactivedied
unknown1607-1621unknown
a still-life painter who came from Antwerp and trained in the tradition of Flemish Baroque painting, but probably made her career mostly in the new Dutch Republic, as part of Dutch Golden Age painting. Many aspects of her life and work remain very unclear, especially outside the period 1607 to 1621 from which period dated paintings are known. As Seymour Sliv...
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Gillis Peeters the Elder

borndied
16121653
a Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver who contributed to the development of marine art and landscape painting in Flanders. In 1634 Gillis became together with his brother Bonaventura a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke. Initially the two brothers shared a studio in Antwerp until in 1641 Bonaventura moved to Hoboken (Antwerp) where he worked in ...
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Jan Peeters

aka: Johannes
borndied
1624, Apr 241677
a Flemish Baroque painter and draughtsman. He is known for his seascapes often depicting stormy seas and shipwrecks as well as for his topographical drawings. He was active in Hoboken near Antwerp from 1645 to 1654, likely working in his brother Bonaventura’s workshop. In 1659 Jan Peeters spent six months in the Dutch Republic drawing panoramas of several ...
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Peter Pelham [1]

borndied
1695 ca1751, Dec
an American limner and engraver, was born in England. Pelham was one of several London artists who learned the then new technique of the mezzotint engraving. He obviously was well trained as a portrait painter, and he must have had influential connections, for between 1720 and 1726 he produced portrait plates of many prominent people.
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Juan de Penalosa

aka: Peñalosa
borndied
1579, Nov 71633
a Spanish painter of altarpieces, a priest and poet. He trained as a painter in Córdoba, Andalusia with Pablo de Céspedes, and also studied and worked with the scholar and painter Francisco Pacheco. Only after the death of Céspedes are there works that are signed and dated by Peñalosa. The first, in 1609, one San Francisco Cordoba penitent painted and se...
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Georg Pencz

borndied
1500 ca1550, Oct 11
a German engraver, painter and printmaker. In Nuremberg, influenced by works he had seen in Italy, Pencz painted a number of trompe l'oeil ceilings in the houses of patrician families; one, for which a drawing survives, showed workmen raising building materials on a hoist, against an open sky, to create the illusion that the room was still under construction...
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Marten Pepijn

borndied
1575, Feb 211643
a Flemish painter who was mainly known for his large-scale history paintings and to a lesser extent for his smaller genre scenes. Marten Pepijn was mainly known for his large religious compositions, and in particular, altarpieces. His style in these works is old-fashioned. The figures are generally depicted in stiff poses reminiscent of 16th-century sculptur...
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Antonio de Pereda

borndied
1611 ca1678, Jan 30
a Spanish Baroque-era painter, best known for his still lifes. Pereda was born in Valladolid. He was the eldest of three brothers from an artistic family. His father, mother and two brothers were all painters. He was educated in Madrid by Pedro de las Cuevasmore
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Andres Perez

aka: Andrés Pérez
borndied
1660 ca1727
a Spanish Baroque painter. The art historian Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez wrote: "signed in 1707, that were in the tabernacle of the church of St. Lucia, soon they were separating Sevillian painters from Murillo". However, it was in flower painting in which, according to Ceán, would have stood out especially, and in this genre all that is known of his hand...
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Granville Perkins

borndied
18301895
an American artist and illustrator. Granville Perkins was born in Baltimore, Maryland. began his painting career at a young age, reportedly painting scenery for a theatrical company known as the Ravel family by fifteen. During his twenties, Perkins was greatly influenced by the paintings of artist Frederic Edwin Church. Perkins followed Church’s inclinatio...
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Jean Perreal

aka: Perréal, Peréal, Johannes Parisienus, Jean De Paris
borndied
1455 ca1530 ca
a successful portraitist for French Royalty in the first half of the 16th Century, as well as an architect, sculptor and limner of illuminated manuscripts. He was active mostly in France and in Italy and London as well. He was an accomplished designer of tombs, medals, theater scenery and ceremonies, including the marriage of King Louis XII and his second wi...
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Jean-Baptiste Perronneau

borndied
1715 ca1783, Nov 19
a French painter who specialized in portraits executed in pastels. He made his Salon debut with a pastel portrait in 1746 and received full membership in the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1753, with portraits of fellow artist Jean-Baptiste Oudry and the sculptor Lambert-Sigisbert Adam, both now at the Louvre Museum. After 1779 he no longer ...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Marie Adrien Persac

bornactivedied
18231856-18731873
a French-born painter, photographer, surveyor, lithographer and inventor, Marie Adrien Persac was the most important delineator of plantation scenes in nineteenth-century Louisiana. In addition to painting some thirty idealized plantation scenes and public buildings in gouache for private clients, Persac also worked in traditional watercolors, depicting hou...
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Pietro Perugino

aka: Pietro Vannucci
borndied
1446/521523
an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil. In 1499 the guild of the cambio (money-changers or bankers) of Perugia asked him to decorate their audience-hall, the Sala delle Udienze del Collegio del Cambio. This extensive sch...
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Johann Anton de Peters

borndied
1725, Jan 161795, Oct 6
a German painter and etcher. Peters was born at Cologne in 1725, and studied in Paris under Greuze. He was raised to the rank of a noble by the king of France, and appointed court painter by the Danish king, Christian IV, as well as by Prince Charles of Lorraine. The Revolution drove him back to his native country, where he lived in poverty, and died at Col...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Matthew William Peters

borndied
17421814, Mar 20
an English portrait and genre painter who later became an Anglican clergyman and chaplain to George IV. He became known as "William" when he started signing his works as "W. Peters". Peters received his artistic training from Robert West in Dublin; in 1756 and 1758 he received prizes from the first School of Design in Dublin. In 1759, he was sent by the Dubl...
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Thomas Phillips

borndied
1770, Oct 181845, Apr 20
a leading English portrait and subject painter. He painted many of the great men of the day including scientists, artists, writers, poets and explorers. Phillips was born at Dudley then in Worcestershire. Having learnt glass-painting in Birmingham under Francis Eginton, he visited London in 1790 with an introduction to more
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Giovanni Battista Piazzetta

aka: Giambattista Piazzetta, Giambattista Valentino Piazzetta
borndied
1682/83, Feb 131754, Apr 28
an Italian Rococo painter of religious subjects and genre scenes. By Piazzetta's account, he studied under Giuseppe Maria Crespi while living in Bologna in 1703–05, although there is no record by Crespi of formal tutelage. Thanks to Crespi, Carlo Cignani's influence reached Piazzetta. Piazzetta did find inspiration in Crespi's art, in which the chiaroscuro...
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Nicolaes Eliasz Pickenoy

bornactivedied
1588, Jan 101630s1653/56
a Dutch painter of Flemish origin. Pickenoy was possibly a pupil of Cornelis van der Voort and presumably Bartholomeus van der Helst was his own pupil. Pickenoy painted large Schuttersstukken, group portraits of the regents of the orphanage, and individual portraits of local or national celebrities like Nicolaes Tulp, Cornelis de Graeff, Maarten Tromp and Jo...
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Pieter Pietersz the Elder

bornactivedied
15401569-15831603
a Dutch Renaissance painter. From 1569 to 1583 he produced religious scenes in Haarlem, but he is mostly known for his market scenes produced in Amsterdam. He was the teacher of his son, the painter Pieter Pietersz II, and the painter Cornelis van Haarlem. Pietersz primarily painted portraits and altarpieces. He received many commissions and was a wealthy m...
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Eunice Pinney

aka: Eunice Griswold Holcombe
bornactivedied
1770, Feb 91809-18261826
an American folk artist active in the towns of Windsor and Simsbury, Connecticut. According to art historian Jean Lipman, a specialist of American folk painting, Pinney and her contemporary Mary Ann Willson are considered two of the earliest American painters to work in the medium of watercolor. Pinney was a well-educated woman from an influential Connecticu...
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Pinturicchio

aka: Bernardino di Betto, Pintoricchio
borndied
14541513
an Italian painter of the Renaissance. He acquired his nickname, Pintoricchio ("little painter"), because of his small stature, and he used it to sign some of his works. In 1492 Pinturicchio was summoned to Orvieto, where he painted two Prophets and two of the Doctors in the Cathedral. He then returned to Rome, and was employed by Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) ...
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Bernardo Lopez Piquer

aka: Bernardo López
borndied
1799/1800, Aug 201874, Aug 1
a Spanish portrait painter; noted especially for his pastels. After 1844, he held the position of Director of Studies at the Real Academia. He served as President of the Painting Section from 1845 until his death. From 1843, he was a court painter for Isabel II and was the "Primer Pintor" from 1858 to 1868, when he was dismissed following the Glorious Revolu...
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Giovanni Battista Piranesi

borndied
1720, Oct 41778, Nov 9
an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Le Carceri d'Invenzione). From 1740 he had an opportunity to work in Rome as a draughtsman for Marco Foscarini, the Venetian ambassador of the new Pope Benedict XIV. He resided in the Palazzo Venezia and studied under Giuseppe Vasi, who introduced him to the art of...
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Antonie Sminck Pitloo

aka: Anton, Antonio van Pitloo
borndied
1790, Apr/May1837, Jun 22
a Dutch painter. His surname was originally Pitlo, but he added the extra "o" because he was often mistaken for an Italian while resident in Italy. Pitloo started studying painting first at Paris and then at Rome, where there was already an international artistic colony, in 1811. He took advantage of a scholarship offered by Louis Bonaparte, the King of Holl...
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Francis Place [1]

borndied
16471728, Sep 21
an English gentleman draughtsman, potter, engraver and printmaker, active mainly in York. Place's virtuosity and enthusiasm led him to experiment with oil painting from 1680, stoneware pottery glazing, and the manufacture of porcelain from 1683, which he abandoned in 1694 owing to his lack of commercial success. Only four of his marbled greyware pots are kno...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Ernst Zacharias Platner

borndied
1773, Oct 11855, Oct 14
a German painter and writer born in Leipzig. He initially took art classes at the Academy in Leipzig under Adam Friedrich Oeser, then continued his education in Dresden (from 1790), Vienna (from 1797) and Rome (1800), where he remained for the rest of his life. In 1823 he was appointed consul to the Saxon Royal Court in Rome. With Karl Bunsen, Barthold Georg...
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Matthieu van Plattenberg

aka: Matthieu de Plattemontagne, Matthieu de Platte Montagne, Matthieu Montaigne
borndied
1607/081660, Sep 19
a Flemish Baroque painter, draughtsman, etcher and engraver who specialized in marine paintings and landscapes. He spent most of his career abroad, first in Italy and then in France where he played an important role in the development of the painting of stormy seascapes.
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Ary Pleysier

aka: Pleijsier
borndied
1809/19, Apr 161879, May 12
a Flemish painter. Self-taught, Ary Pleysier specialized in painting marine and rivers. He worked until 1842 in Rotterdam , before moving to The Hague and finally settled in Amsterdam in 1850. He was a member of the society of artists " Arti and Amicitiae (en) " from 1852.


Charles Peale Polk

borndied
1767, Mar 171822, May 6
a renowned American portrait painter and the nephew of artist Charles Willson Peale. Polk’s earliest paintings were copies of his uncle's originals and he was highly dependent on his uncle's training and guidance. He continued to make copies of many paintings including his own. It is said that he produced fifty-seven reproductions of his more
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James Pollard

borndied
17921867
a British painter noted for his mail coach, fox hunting and equine scenes. Between 1821 and 1839, James Pollard exhibited at the Royal Academy. He exhibited at the British Institution in 1824 and 1844. During his career, he also worked with John Frederick Herring, Sr. on several horse racing paintings in which he painted the backgrounds and spectators while ...
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Robert Pollard

borndied
17551838
an English engraver and painter. Born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, Pollard was articled to a watch-smith there, and then became a pupil of Richard Wilson. For a time he practised as a landscape and marine painter, but in 1781 he moved to London, worked as an engraver for the printseller John Harris, and established himself in a studio in Spa Fields, London.
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Pollard Limner

bornactivedied
unknown1690-1730unknown
a portrait painter who worked in the region around Boston in Neuengland between 1690 and 1730. The not-known artist was given his nickname after his portrait of Mrs. Anne Pollard. The Pollard Limner was probably more a craftsman and his portrait painting was a side job. 8 to 12 received images are assigned to him on the basis of stylistic similarities.
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Pontormo

aka: Jacopo Carucci, Jacopo da Pontormo, Jacopo Pontormo
borndied
1494, May 241557, Jan 2
an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School. His work represents a profound stylistic shift from the calm perspectival regularity that characterized the art of the Florentine Renaissance. He is famous for his use of twining poses, coupled with ambiguous perspective; his figures often seem to float in an uncertain environment, unha...
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Jan Porcellis

borndied
1580/841632, Jan 29
a Dutch marine artist in the seventeenth century. His works initiated a “decisive transition from early realism to the tonal phase,” fostering a new style and subject in marine painting by focusing on overcast skies and rough waters, a radical break from maritime art’s previous focus on the grandeur of ships in historical settings (Slive, p. 216). This...
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Il Pordenone

aka: Giovanni Antonio de' Sacchis
borndied
1484 ca1539
an Italian Mannerist painter, loosely of the Venetian school. Vasari, his main biographer, wrongly identifies him as Giovanni Antonio Licinio. He painted in several cities in northern Italy "with speed, vigor, and deliberate coarseness of expression and execution—intended to shock". He appears to have visited Rome, and learnt from its High Renaissance mast...
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Frans Post

bornactivedied
1612, Nov 171630s-1660s1680, Feb 17
a Dutch painter. He was the first European artist to paint landscapes of the Americas, and therefore of South America. In 1636 he traveled to Dutch Brazil at the invitation of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen. Post continued to paint Brazilian scenes until 1669, and the lack of dated paintings in the 1670s suggests he stopped ten years before his death. White...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Pieter Jansz Post

borndied
1608, May 11669, Apr/May
He is credited with the creation of the Dutch baroque style of architecture, along with his longtime collaborator Jacob van Campen. According to the RKD he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1623, and became painter and architect for Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik.
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Hendrik Gerritsz Pot

borndied
1580 ca1657, Oct
a Dutch Golden Age painter, who lived and painted in Haarlem, where he was an officer of the militia, or schutterij. Pot’s type of genre scenes became known as "Merry Company" genre paintings. This included his 1635 piece, Portrait of a Young Woman, and a companion piece, now lost, as well as his 1630 piece, A Merry Company at Table. Both these paintings ...
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Paulus Potter

borndied
1625, Nov1654, Jan
a Dutch painter who specialized in animals within landscapes, usually with a low vantage point. Before Potter died of tuberculosis at the age of 28 he succeeded in producing about 100 paintings, working continuously. Potter became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke in Delft, but by 1649, Paulus moved to The Hague, next to Jan van Goyen. Potter married in th...
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Pieter Symonsz Potter

borndied
15971652
a Dutch Golden Age painter. He was first trained as a glass painter and in 1628 moved to Leiden to learn painting in oils. He is known mostly for genre pieces and farm landscapes, and he became a member of the Delft Guild of St. Luke in 1646, and a member of the Confrerie Pictura in 1647.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsCartographers

Pieter Pourbus

borndied
1523 ca1584, Jan 30
a Dutch Flemish Renaissance painter, sculptor, draftsman and cartographer. Though he painted many good works in Bruges, his best work was in the Sint Janskerk in Gouda, the History of Saint Hubertus. He was later eclipsed by his own son, Frans Pourbus the Elder. Besides painting, he was also a surveyor and engineer. He was known primarily for his religious a...
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Frans Pourbus the Elder

borndied
15451581, Sep 19
a Flemish Renaissance painter. There is very little information abvailable about the details of his life. Pourbus was born in Bruges. He was known primarily for his religious and portrait painting and worked mainly in Antwerp. His father was painter Pieter Pourbus and his son was painter Frans Pourbus the younger. He died in Antwerp.
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Frans Pourbus the Younger

aka: Frans II
borndied
15691622
a Flemish painter, son of Frans Pourbus the Elder and grandson of Pieter Pourbus. He was born in Antwerp and died in Paris. Pourbus worked for many of the highly influential people of his day, including the Brussels-based Spanish Regents of the Netherlands, the Duke of Mantua and Marie de' Medici, Queen of France. Pourbus was best known for portraits, but cr...
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Nicolas Poussin

borndied
1594, Jun1665, Nov 19
the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome. His work is characterized by clarity, logic, and order, and favors line over color. Until the 20th century he remained a major inspiration for classically oriented artists. He worked in Rome for a circle of leading collectors from there and elsewher...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Andrea Pozzo

borndied
1642, Nov 301709, Aug 31
an Italian Jesuit Brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician. Pozzo was best known for his grandiose frescoes using illusionistic technique called quadratura, in which architecture and fancy are intermixed. His masterpiece is the nave ceiling of the Church of Sant'Ignazio in Rome. Through his techniques, he has be...
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Matthew Pratt

bornactivedied
1734, Sep 231764-18001805, Jan 9
an American "Colonial Era" artist famous for his portraits of American men and women. He was apprenticed to his uncle from 1745 to 1755. From his uncle he learned different aspects of portrait painting (including business acumen). In 1764 he escorted his cousin, Betsey Shewell to England for her marriage to the American "expatriate" artist more
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Cross-listed in Writers

Johann Daniel Preissler

borndied
16661737
a notable member of a German artistic family, originating in Bohemia. Most notable for his portraits, nudes and history paintings, he also produced drawings and frescoes. He was also known beyond Nuremberg for his "Die durch Theorie erfundene Practic,' a sequence of works on art-theory – the individual works were translated into several other languages and...
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Johann Justin Preissler

borndied
16981771
a German painter and draughtsman. Preissler was born and died in Nuremberg. According to the RKD he was the son and pupil of Johann Daniel Preissler and the brother of Georg Martin and Johan Martin. Like his father before him, he took a grand tour as a young man and travelled extensively in Italy (Venice, Florence Rome Naples). On his return he married the g...
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Mattia Preti

borndied
1613, Feb 241699, Jan 3
an Italian Baroque artist who worked in Italy and Malta. He was also a member of the Order of Saint John. During most of 1653-1660, he worked in Naples, where he was influenced by another major painter of his era, Luca Giordano. One of Preti's masterpieces were a series of large frescoes, ex-votos of the plague (which were painted on seven city gates but hav...
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Pierre Prevost

aka: Prévost
borndied
1764, Dec 71823. Aug 30
the first French panorama painter. Born in the city of Montigny-le-Gannelon, he was a student of Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes. He died in Paris and is buried there in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Francesco Primaticcio

bornactivedied
1504, Apr 301530s-1570s1570
an Italian Mannerist painter, architect and sculptor who spent most of his career in France. Together with Rosso Fiorentino he was one of the leading artists to work at the Chateau Fontainebleau (where he is grouped with the so-called "First School of Fontainebleau") spending much of his life there. Primaticcio's crowded Mannerist compositions and his long-l...
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Johann Georg Primavesi

borndied
17741855
a German etcher and painter, primarily of landscapes. Primavesi was born in Heidelberg. In 1812 he became a theatrical painter in Mannheim. He was dissatisfied with the artistic possibilities offered there, however, so moved to the royal theatre in Darmstadt. Though well paid, his finances deteriorated; from 1815 he split work with another painter, Sandhaas,...
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William Matthew Prior

borndied
1806, May 161873, Jan 21
an American folk artist known for his portraits, particularly of families and children. Prior completed his first portrait in 1823, at the age of 17 after training under Charles Codman, another Maine-based painter. In 1840, Prior moved to East Boston, Massachusetts from his native Bath with his in-laws, notably fellow painter Sturtevant J. Hamblin, to invigo...
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Samuel Prout

borndied
1783, Sep 171852, Feb 10
one of the masters of British watercolour architectural painting. Prout secured the position of Painter in Water-Colours in Ordinary to King George IV in 1829 and afterwards to Queen Victoria. John Ruskin, whose work often emulated Prout's, wrote in 1844, "Sometime...
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Cross-listed in ArchitectsCartographers

Jan Provoost

aka: Jean Provost, Jan Provost
borndied
1462/651529, Jan
a Belgian painter born in Wallonië (Mons). He was one of the most famous Netherlandish painters of his generation. He was a prolific master who left his early workshop in Valenciennes to run two workshops, one in Bruges, where he was made a burgher in 1494, the other simultaneously in Antwerp, which was the economic center of the Low Countries. Provost was ...
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Pierre-Paul Prud'hon

aka: Pierre Prudhon
borndied
1758, Apr 41823, Feb 16
a French Romantic painter and draughtsman best known for his allegorical paintings and portraits. He received his artistic training in the French provinces and went to Italy when he was twenty-six years old to continue his education. On his return to Paris, he decorated some private mansions and his work for wealthy Parisians led him to be held in high estee...
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Pierre Paul Puget

bornactivedied
1620, Oct 161634-16881694, Dec 2
a French painter, sculptor, architect and engineer. He was born in Marseille. At the age of fourteen he carved the ornaments of the galleys built in the shipyards of his native city, and at sixteen the decoration and construction of a ship were entrusted to him. Soon after he went to Italy on foot, and was well received at Rome by Pietro da Cortona, who took...
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Pierre Puvis de Chavannes

borndied
1824, Dec 141898, Oct 24
a French painter, who became the co-founder and president of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and whose work influenced many other artists. Though his reputation has since declined, he was a prominent painter in the early Third Republic. His work is seen as symbolist in nature, even though he studied with some of the romanticists, and he is credited wi...
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Adam Pynacker

aka: Pijnacker
borndied
1622, Feb 151673, Mar
a Dutch Golden Age painter, mostly of landscapes. He travelled to Italy and was gone for three years. In 1658 he converted to Catholicism in order to marry Eva Maria de Geest, Wybrand de Geest's daughter. Pynacker is considered an example of an Italianate landscape painter, along with Jan Both, Jan Baptist Weenix, Nicolaes Berchem and Jan Asselyn. He specia...
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Jacob Symonsz Pynas

borndied
15921656
a Dutch Golden Age painter. He was the brother of Jan Pynas who travelled to Italy. Though Jacob is known for scenes of Italy, these paintings could have been based on sketches brought back by his brother Jan and it is not certain that Jacob travelled to Italy. The Pynas brothers were grouped within Dutch artists called the Pre-Rembrandtists. Their work is c...
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Jan Symonsz Pynas

borndied
15811631
a Dutch Golden Age painter. Jan and his brother Jacob Pynas were good at landscapes and figures, but Jan was better than Jacob. He made two trips to Italy in 1605 and 1617 and it is not certain his brother accompanied him. The works of the Pynas brothers are close in style to the painter Adam Elsheimer, and there has been a history of mis-attribution between...
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