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Cross-listed in Inventors

Nicholas Callan

borndied
1799, Dec 221864, Jan 10
an Irish priest and scientist from Darver, County Louth, Ireland. He was Professor of Natural Philosophy in Maynooth College in County Kildare from 1834, and is best known for his work on the induction coil. Callan was ordained a priest in 1823 and went to Rome to study at Sapienza University, obtaining a doctorate in divinity in 1826. While in Rome he becam...
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Links (1)


Callinicus II

bornactivedied
unknown1688-1702unknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople for three terms (1688, 1689-93, 1694-1702).
Links (1)Notes (1)


Callinicus III

bornactivedied
unknown1720s-17261726, Nov 20
was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for one day in 1726. He is sometimes not counted amongst the patriarchs, and Callinicus IV, who was Patriarch for a short time in 1757, is then numbered as the third of that name.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Callinicus IV

bornactivedied
17131740-17571791
was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for a few months in 1757 and a writer and scholar. Callinicus IV is sometime numbered as Callinicus III because his predecessor Callinicus, who was elected in 1726 but died before being enthroned, is sometimes not counted amongst the patriarchs.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Callinicus V

aka: Kallinikos IV.
bornactivedied
unknown1780s-1801unknown
was Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople from 1801 to 1806 and 1808 to 1809. He was Metropolitan bishop of Adrianople (modern Edirne) (1780-1792) and Nicaea (1792-1801).
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Antoine Augustin Calmet

borndied
1672, Feb 261757, Oct 25
a French Benedictine monk. After his ordination, 17 March 1696, he was appointed to teach philosophy and theology at the Abbey of Moyenmoutier. Here, with the help of his brethren, he began to gather the material for his commentary of the Bible, which he completed at Munster in Alsace where he was sent in 1704 as sub-prior and professor of Biblical exegesis....
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Cross-listed in Writers

Tommaso Campanella

borndied
1568, Sep 51639, May 21
a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet. Campanella wrote his first work, Philosophia sensibus demonstrata ("Philosophy demonstrated by the senses"), published in 1592, in defence of Bernardino Telesio. Campanella spent twenty-seven years imprisoned in Naples, often in the worst conditions. During his detention, he wrote his ...
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Edmund Campion

borndied
1540, Jan 241581, Dec 1
an English Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and martyr. While conducting an underground ministry in officially Anglican England, Campion was arrested by priest hunters. Convicted of high treason, he was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. Campion was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonised in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of Englan...
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Cross-listed in Writers

William Campion

aka: William Wigmore
borndied
15991665
an English Jesuit. He published anonymously an octavo volume, without place or date, ‘On the Catholic Doctrine of Transubstantiation, against Dr. John Cosin,’ afterwards bishop of Durham.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Signor Caraccioli

aka: D'aubigny
borndied
unknownunknown
An Italian renegade priest, who became an atheist, Socialist, and revolutionist, and was living at Naples when Captain Fourbin arrived there in the French man-of-war Victoire. Caraccioli met and made great friends with a young French apprentice in the ship, called Misson, and a place was found for him on board. The ex-priest proved himself to be a brave man ...
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Notes (1)


Cross-listed in WritersEducators

Vincenzo Carafa

borndied
1585, May 51649, Jun 6
an Italian Jesuit priest and spiritual writer, elected the seventh Superior-General of the Society of Jesus. He is a Servant of God. Carafa was born in Andria (Italy), of the family of the Counts of Montorio, and a relative of Pope Paul IV. He entered the Society of Jesus on 4 October 1604, and was sixty years of age at his election as general. He died four ...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Giacomo Carissimi

bornactivedied
1605, Apr1623-16741674, Jan 12
an Italian composer. He is one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accurately, the Roman School of music. Carissimi is also noted as one of the first composers of oratorios. In addition, Carissimi was important as a teacher, and his influence spread far into Germany and France. In 1637 he was ordained a priest.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Bartolomeo Carranza

aka: Bartolomé, de Miranda, de Carranza y Miranda
borndied
15031576, May 2
a Spanish priest of the Dominican Order, theologian and Archbishop of Toledo, who spent much of his later life imprisoned on (eventually disproven) charges of heresy. His Summa Conciliorum et Pontificum (Venice, 1546) has been often reprinted, and has long been widely respected.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Educators

John Carroll

borndied
1735, Jan 81815, Dec 3
a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the first bishop and archbishop in the United States. He served as the ordinary of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, Maryland. Carroll is also known as the founder of Georgetown University (the oldest Catholic university in the United States), and of St. John the Evangelist Parish of Rock Creek (now Forest Gle...
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Cross-listed in WritersInventorsScientists

Giovanni Caselli

borndied
18151891
an Italian physicist and priest. He is the inventor of the pantelegraph (a.k.a. Universal Telegraph or "all-purpose telegraph"), the predecessor of the modern fax machine. The world's first practical operating facsimile machine ("fax") system put into use was by Caselli. In Florence he studied physics under Leopoldo Nobili. These studies involved electrochem...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Jacques Cassagne

aka: Jacques de Cassaigne
borndied
1636, Jan 11679, May 19
a French clergyman, poet and moralist. A doctor of theology, he was 'garde' of the king's library and entered the Académie française aged 29. In 1663, he was one of the four founder members of the "Petite Académie" which later gave birth to the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. In 1665 he edited the preface to the complete works of Guez de Bal...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Fernando Castro Palao

borndied
15811633, Dec 1
a Spanish Jesuit theologian. At the age of fifteen, in 1596, he entered the Society of Jesus. He taught philosophy at Valladolid, moral theology at Compostela, and scholastic theology at Salamanca. Later he became rector of the College of Medina, and consultor and qualificator of the Holy Inquisition. He filled these three offices until his death. His "Opus ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Robert Cawdrey

borndied
1538 ca1604+
an English clergyman and writer. Cawdrey was ordained as a deacon, and 22 October 1571 he was made rector of South Luffenham. As many new words were entering the English language in the 16th century, Cawdrey became concerned that people would become confused. Cawdrey worried that the wealthy were adopting foreign words and phrases, he produced one of the fi...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersWriters

Martin del Barco Centenera

aka: Martín
borndied
15351602 ca
a Spanish cleric, explorer and author. He became a secular priest and in 1572 accompanied, as chaplain, the expedition of Juan Ortiz de Zárate to the Rio de La Plata in South America. For twenty-four years he followed the vicissitudes of Spanish exploration in the Argentine with undaunted courage. Centenera was made archdeacon of the church of Paraguay. In ...
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Aloysius Centurione

aka: Alessandro Luigi
borndied
1686,Aug 291757, Oct 2
the seventeenth Superior General of the Society of Jesus. Coming from an illustrious family of Genoa, Centurione undertook his schooling in the Jesuit boarding school of Parma before joining the Society of Jesus in 1703. At the end of the usual spiritual and philo-theological Jesuit training, he was ordained priest in 1717. He seemed to be set on a teaching ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Charles I

bornactivedied
1600, Nov 191625-16491649, Jan 30
was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Supreme Governor of the Church of England (1625–1649). Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to...
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Timeline (34)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles II of England

bornactivedied
1630, May 291660-16851685, Feb 6
the monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Supreme Governor of the Church of England (1660–1685). Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religio...
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Timeline (43)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Educators

Philander Chase

bornactivedied
1775, Dec 141843-18521852, Sep 20
an Episcopal Church bishop, educator, and pioneer of the United States western frontier, especially in Ohio and Illinois. Presiding Bishop (1843–1852) for the Episcopal Church (United States).
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Isaac Chauncy

borndied
1632, Aug 231712, Feb 28
an English dissenting minister. Chauncy was a voluminous author. He went as a child to New England with his father, and was entered at Harvard University in 1651, where he studied both theology and medicine, but, coming to England, completed his education at Oxford University, where he proceeded M.A. Before 1660 he was given the rectory of Woodborough, Wilts...
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Christodoulos

bornactivedied
unknown1718-1745unknown
Metropolitan of Ethiopia (1718-1745)* Ethiopian Church


Cross-listed in Writers

John Christopherson

borndied
unknown1558
the Chaplain and confessor to Queen Mary I of England, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge (1553–1558), Dean of Norwich (1554–1557) and Bishop of Chichester (1557–1558) - all during the reign of Queen Mary (1553–1558). He became Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1541, Fellow of St John's in 1542 and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 154...
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Chrysanthos [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1767-1783unknown
Archbishop of Nea Justiniana and All Cypru (1767-1783)* Orthodox Church of Cyprus


Chrysanthos [2]

bornactivedied
unknown1784-1810unknown
Archbishop of Nea Justiniana and All Cypru (1784-1810)* Orthodox Church of Cyprus


Chrysanthos [3]

bornactivedied
unknown1820-1833unknown
Metropolitan of Durrës and Gora (1820–1833)* Orthodox Church of Albania


Chrysanthos I

bornactivedied
unknown1707-1731unknown
Patriarch (1707-1731)* Patriarchate of Jerusalem


Chrysanthus I

bornactivedied
unknown1824-1826unknown
Ecumenical Patriarch (1824–1826)* Church of Constantinople
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Cross-listed in Writers

Charles Churchill

borndied
1732, Feb1764, Nov 4
an English poet and satirist. He became curate of South Cadbury, Somerset, and, on receiving priest's orders (1756), began to act as his father's curate at Rainham. Two years later the elder Churchill died, and the son was elected to succeed him in his curacy and lectureship. His emoluments amounted to less than £100 a year, and he increased his income by t...
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Cross-listed in Writers

James Freeman Clarke

borndied
1810, Apr 41888, Jun 8
an American theologian and author. In 1839 he returned to Boston where he and his friends established (1841) the Church of the Disciples which brought together a body of people to apply the Christian religion to social problems of the day. One of the features that distinguished his church was Clarke's belief that ordination could make no distinction between ...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceWritersPhysicians

John Clarke

borndied
1609, Oct1676, Apr 20
a physician, Baptist minister, co-founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas. All of the other New England colonies were hostile to Rhode Island, and both Massachusetts and Connecticut had made incursions into Rhode Island territory. After th...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Samuel Clarke

borndied
1599, Oct 101683, Dec 25
an English clergyman and significant Puritan biographer. Clarke had already given some offence by his puritan tendencies. He accepted a lectureship at Coventry, where he was opposed by Samuel Buggs, who held both the city churches. Buggs persuaded Bishop Thomas Morton to inhibit Clarke from preaching, and, though Archbishop George Abbot had given him a licen...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

William Clayton [1]

borndied
1814, Jul 171879, Dec 4
an early leader in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints who was a clerk and scribe to the Mormon religious leader Joseph Smith. Clayton, born in England, was also an American pioneer journalist, inventor, lyricist, and musician. In September 1840, Clay...
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Joseph Clemens of Bavaria

borndied
1671, Dec 51723, Nov 12
a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne from 1688 to 1723. As did his brother Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, Joseph Clemens allied with France during the War of Spanish Succession and was forced to flee his residence Bonn in 1702 and found refuge at the French court. Joseph Clemens was put under the ban of...
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Clement

bornactivedied
unknown1660sunknown
Ecumenical Patriarch (1667)*Church of Constantinople
Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement IX

aka: Giulio Rospigliosi
bornactivedied
1600, Jan 281667-16691669, Dec 9
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669. Nothing remarkable occurred under Clement IX's short administration beyond the temporary adjustment of the disputes between the Holy See and those prelates of the Gallican Church who had refused to join in condemning the writings of Jansen. He was mediator during the 1668 peace of Aac...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement VII

aka: Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici
bornactivedied
1478, May 261523-15341534, Sep 25
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 19 November 1523 to his death in 1534. The Sack of Rome and English Reformation occurred during his papacy. During his half-year imprisonment in 1527, Clement VII grew a full beard as a sign of mourning for the sack of Rome. This was in contradiction to Catholic canon law, which required priests to be clean-shaven; how...
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Timeline (13)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement VIII

aka: Ippolito Aldobrandini
bornactivedied
1536, Feb 241592-16051605, Mar 3
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. He was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio in 1585 by Pope Gregory XIII. Pope Sixtus V named him major penitentiary in January 1586 and in 1588 sent him as legate in Poland. He placed himself under the direction of the reformer Philip Neri, who for thirty years was his confessor....
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Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement X

aka: Emilio Bonaventura Altieri
bornactivedied
1590, Jul 131670-16761676, Jul 22
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676. On 29 April 1670, the papacy was offered to him by fifty-nine Cardinals present at the election; only two being against him. He, however, objected because of his age, for he was almost eighty, and exclaimed, "I am too old to bear such a burden." Pointing to Cardinal Brancaccio, Alti...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement XI

aka: Giovanni Francesco Albani
bornactivedied
1649, Jul 231700-17211721, Mar 19
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 23 November 1700 to his death in 1721. Clement XI was a patron of the arts and of science. He was also a great benefactor of the Vatican Library, his interest in archaeology is credited with saving much of Rome’s antiquity. In fact, he authorized excavations of the Roman catacombs. He was of Italian and distant Alba...
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Timeline (4)Links (5)Notes (1)


Pope Clement XII

aka: Lorenzo Corsini
bornactivedied
1652, Apr 71730-17401740, Feb 6
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 12 July 1730 to his death in 1740. He is known for building the new façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, beginning construction of the Trevi Fountain, and the purchase of Cardinal Alessandro Albani's collection of antiquities for the papal gallery.
Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement XIII

aka: Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico
bornactivedied
1693, Mar 71758-17691769, Feb 2
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 6 July 1758 to his death in 1769. He was consecrated on 16 July 1758. His pontificate was overshadowed by the constant pressure to suppress the Society of Jesus but despite this, he championed their order and also proved to be their greatest defender at that time.
Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Clement XIV

aka: Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli
bornactivedied
1705, Oct 311769-17741774, Sep 22
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. To date, he is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Clement" upon his election. He is best known for his suppression of the Society of Jesus.
Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Maurice Clenock

aka: Clenocke, Clennock
borndied
1525 ca1581
a Welsh Roman Catholic priest and recusant exile. He was the first head of the English College, Rome. He was born at Llyn or Eifionydd (present-day Gwynedd) and died at sea. He was educated at the University of Oxford, where he was admitted Bachelor of Canon Law in 1548. During Mary of England's reign he became almoner and secretary to Cardinal Pole, prebend...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Robert Cox Clifton

borndied
1810, Jan 41861, Jul 30
an English churchman, canon of Manchester Cathedral. In 1830 he matriculated at Worcester College, Oxford. He proceeded B.A. in 1831 and M.A. in 1834, and took holy orders in 1833, at the hands of the bishop of Oxford. In 1833 he was elected Fellow of his college. In 1843 he was instituted to the rectory of Somerton in Oxfordshire, a benefice he held with hi...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Charles John Fynes Clinton

borndied
17991872
an English clergyman and classical scholar. Having held some parochial charges, he was appointed in 1828 to the rectory of Cromwell, Nottinghamshire. He was also vicar of Orston in the same county. He died in 1872. In 1842 he published 'Twenty-one plain Doctrinal and Practical Sermons,' London, 1842; and in 1853 edited and completed for publication 'An Epito...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersEducators

William Benton Clulow

bornactivedied
18021835-18651882, Apr 16
an English dissenting minister, tutor and writer. Clulow was a native of Leek, Staffordshire, and, after receiving a preliminary education in the grammar school there, entered Hoxton Academy. He became pastor of the congregational church at Shaldon, Devonshire, where he stayed for twelve years. In 1835 he accepted an invitation to the classical tutorship of ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Edward Coffin

aka: Hatton
borndied
15701626, Apr 17
an English Jesuit. In the Lent of 1598, on his way to the novitiate in Flanders, travelling with Thomas Lister, he was seized by the Dutch, near Antwerp, and taken to England, where he was imprisoned for five years., and was sent back to England, where he spent his novitiate and the first five years of his religious life in prison, chiefly in the Tower of Lo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Naphtali Cohen

bornactivedied
16491690-17181718
a Russo-German rabbi and kabalist born in Ostrowo in Ukraine. He belonged to a family of rabbis in Ostrowo, where his father, Isaac Cohen, a great-great-grandson of the Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel, had fled during the Polish–Cossack–Tatar War.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Cole [1]

borndied
16281697
an English Independent minister. The Restoration of Charles II led to the ejection of Cole from his position at Oxford. He then opened a dissenting academy at Nettlebed, Oxfordshire, where one of those under his charge was James Bonnell. Samuel Wesley attacked the character of Cole, based on reports from Bonnell; Samuel Palmer defended Cole in his Vindicatio...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Hercules Collins

borndied
unknown1702
an English Baptist minister, author of a revision of the Heidelberg Catechism called the Orthodox Catechism. His published material begins with An Orthodox Catechism (1680), an edited version of the 16th century Heidelberg Catechism. Collins revised the section on baptism, as well as making a number of stylistic changes; he also added the text of the Nicene ...
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Links (1)


Commission

bornactivedied
unknown1834-1840unknown
Metropolitan of Hungaro-Walachia (1834–1840)* Romanian Orthodox Church


Cross-listed in Writers

James Coningham

borndied
16701716
an English presbyterian divine and tutor. Coningham was educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.A. on 27 February 1694. The same year he became minister of the presbyterian congregation at Penrith. Here he employed himself in educating students for the ministry, probably with the concurrence of the ‘provincial meeting’ of Cumberland and Westmorland. ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

John Constable [1]

aka: Lacey, Clerophilus Alethes
borndied
1676, Nov 101743, Mar 28
an English Jesuit controversial writer. There is very little information available about the details of his life. In 1695 he entered the Society of Jesus. For many years he served the Fitzherbert family at Swinnerton, where he is buried. He wrote and published many volumes on religious topics.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

George Constantine

borndied
1500 ca1560
a British priest who was an early Protestant and evangelical reformer. He adopted the Protestant doctrine, and fled to Antwerp where he met and assisted both William Tyndale and George Joye. Here he helped to translate the New Testament into English, and compiled books denouncing the Catholic Church. Constantine later moved to Paris, where he studied Luthera...
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Constantius I

bornactivedied
17701805-18341859, Jan 5
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople during the period 1830-1834. He was born in 1770 in Constantinople. He studied in the Patriarchal School, in Ia?i and in Kiev. In 1805 he was elected Archbishop of Sinai, position he held until he was elected Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople in 1830. He resigned in 1834 and devote...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Constantius II

bornactivedied
unknown1834-1835unknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Church of Constantinople during the period 1834-1835. Before his election as Ecumenical Patriarch in 1834, he had been Metropolitan bishop of Veliko Tarnovo. He wasn't particularly educated, nor did he have administrative skills. So, the next year he had to resign. He retired to Arnavutköy on the Bosphorus, where he died in 1...
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Cross-listed in WritersPhysicians

Thomas Cooper

aka: Couper
borndied
1517 ca1594, Apr 29
an English bishop, lexicographer, theologian, and writer. Cooper was born in Oxford, England, where he was educated at Magdalen College. He became Master of Magdalen College School and afterwards practised as a physician in Oxford. Elizabeth I was greatly pleased with his Thesaurus, generally known as Cooper's Dictionary; and its author, who had been ordaine...
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Cross-listed in WritersEducators

Ambrose Corbie

aka: Corby, Corbington
borndied
1604, Dec 71649, Apr 11
an English Jesuit, teacher and author. Ambrose Corbie was born near County Durham, England, the fourth son of Gerald Corbie and his wife, Isabella (née Richardson), recusant/exiled Roman Catholics. Of their children, sons Ambrose, Ralph and Robert, became Jesuit priests (Richard died as a student at Saint-Omer) and their two surviving daughters, Mary and Ca...
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Frederick Cornwallis

bornactivedied
1713, Mar 51768-17831783, Mar 19
the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1768 unitl 1783 for the Church of England, and the twin brother of Edward Cornwallis. Cornwallis was able to ascend quickly in the Church thanks to his aristocratic connections, and in 1746 was made chaplain to King George ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Charles Cotin

borndied
16041681, Dec 8
a French abbé, philosopher and poet. He was made a member of the Académie française on 7 January 1655. Cotin was born and died in Paris. He was a scholar of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac, an advisor to Louis XIV, and renowned in his time for his sermons, poetry, and erudition. Cotin is remembered for his violent squabbles with Nicolas Boileau and Moli...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

John Cotton

borndied
1585, Dec 41652, Dec 23
a clergyman in England and the American colonies and, by most accounts, the preeminent minister and theologian of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Following five years of study at Trinity College, Cambridge, and another nine years at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he had already built a reputation as a scholar and outstanding preacher when he accepted the positio...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Francis Coventry

borndied
17251754 ca
an English cleric and novelist, best known for The History of Pompey the Little. A native of Cambridgeshire, he was educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he proceeded B.A. 1748 and M.A. 1752. He was appointed by his kinsman the Earl of Coventry to the perpetual curacy of Edgware, and died of smallpox at Whitchurch.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersPhysicians

George Crabbe

borndied
1754, Dec 241832, Feb 3
an English poet, surgeon, and clergyman. He is best known for his early use of the realistic narrative form and his descriptions of middle and working-class life and people. In the 1770s, Crabbe began his career as a doctor's apprentice, later becoming a surgeon. In 1780, he travelled to London to make a living as a poet. After encountering serious financial...
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Links (1)


Clemens Crabbeels

borndied
1534 ca1592, Oct 22
the third bishop of 's-Hertogenbosch, in the Habsburg Netherlands, from 1584 until his death in 1592. Crabeels was born in Leuven around 1534 and studied at the University of Leuven, graduating Licentiate of Laws. In 1557 he was appointed to a canonry of the collegiate church of St Bavo, in Ghent, which in 1559 was elevated to the status of cathedral. In 157...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceCommerceEducators

Elijah Craig

borndied
1740 ca1808, May 8
a Baptist preacher in Virginia, who became an educator and capitalist entrepreneur in the area of Virginia that later became the state of Kentucky. He has sometimes, although rather dubiously, been credited with the invention of bourbon whiskey. Craig became politically active as the legislative liaison of the general convention and general association to Vi...
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Thomas Cranmer

borndied
1489, Jul 21556, Mar 21
a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the se...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in WritersEducators

Richard Crashaw

borndied
1613 ca1649, Aug 21
an English poet, teacher, Anglican cleric and Catholic convert, who was among the major figures associated with the metaphysical poets in seventeenth-century English literature. Crashaw was ordained as a clergyman in the Church of England, but his theology and practice embraced the Catholic heritage of Anglicanism and the High Church ritual reforms enacted b...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Johannes Crellius

borndied
1590, Jul 261633, Jun 11
a Polish and German theologian. Crellius moved to Poland at the age of 22, and quickly became known as one of the chief theologians of the Socinians, also known as Polish brethren. From 1613 he worked at the Racovian Academy at Raków, of which he was the rector from 1616 to 1621. In 1630 he worked with Joachim Stegmann Sr. in the production of a German vers...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Serenus de Cressy

borndied
1605 ca1674, Aug 10
an English convert and Benedictine monk, who became a noted scholar in Church history. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1651. That same year he was sent to serve as chaplain to the monastery of English Benedictine nuns, then still in Paris. While there he began his work on the text of Julian of Norwich. Returning to his own monastery in Douai, he underto...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Oliver Cromwell

bornactivedied
1599, Apr 251628-16581658, Sep 3
an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and the Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1653 until his death in1658. Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagu family of Hinchingbrooke House. He made ...
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Timeline (10)Links (22)


Cross-listed in Governance

Richard Cromwell

bornactivedied
1626, Oct 41658-16591712, Jul 12
Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the position. He also acted as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England...
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Timeline (7)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Cromwell [3]

borndied
17921870
an English dissenting minister and antiquary. He published in 1816 wia small volume of verse, The School-Boy, with other Poems, which was four years later followed by privately printed copies of Honour; or, Arrivals from College: a Comedy. The play had been produced at Drury Lane on 17 April 1819, and was twice repeated,. Oliver Cromwell an...
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Links (1)


Theodorus van der Croon

bornactivedied
unknown1733-1739unknown
Archbishop of Utrecht (1733-1739)*Old Catholicism: Church of Utrecht


Cross-listed in Writers

Harry Croswell

borndied
1778, Jun 161858, Mar 13
a crusading political journalist, a publisher, author, and an Episcopal Church clergyman. Though largely self-educated, he received an honorary degree of A. M. from Yale College in 1817, an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut in 1831 – an institution he co-founded – established the first public lectures in New Haven...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Pedro Cubero

borndied
16451697 ca
a Spanish priest, best known for his travel around the world from 1670 to 1679. He studied in Zaragoza and Salamanca, up to his ordination as a priest in Zaragoza, and soon afterwards went to Rome, where he joined the Propaganda Fide congregation. He wrote the account of his adventures around the world in a very objective, detailed and interesting book, Pere...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

John William Cunningham

borndied
1780, Jan 31861, Sep 30
an evangelical clergyman of the Church of England, known also as a writer and editor. After passing some months with the Grants in Edinburgh, Cunningham was ordained in 1802 to the curacy of Ripley, Surrey. He became curate to John Venn, vicar of Clapham and prominent in the Clapham sect. In 1811 Cunningham became vicar of Harrow, the presentation to which h...
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Links (1)


Cyprianus

bornactivedied
unknown1707-1714unknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople twice, in 1707-1709 and 1713-1714. He served as metropolitan bishop of Kayseri. On 25 October 1707 he was elected Patriarch, succeeding Neophytus V. He gave emphasis to the strictness of clerics' lives and preserved up to today, is his circular about clergy being forbidden to use bright clothing. He ...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cyril I Lucaris

aka: Cyril I of Constantinople
bornactivedied
1572, Nov 131612-16381638, Jun 27
a Greek prelate and theologian, and a native of Candia, Crete (then under the Republic of Venice). He later became the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril I. Lucaris strove for a reform of the Eastern Orthodox Church along Protestant and Calvinist lines. He was acting Ecumenical Patriarch in 1612; 16...
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Links (1)Notes (2)


Cyril II Kontares

bornactivedied
unknown1633-16391640
Ecumenical Patriarch (1633; 1635-1636; 1638-1639)*Church of Constantinople
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cyril III

aka: Cyril Spanos
bornactivedied
unknown1650sunknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Church of Constantinople for two short terms in 1652 and 1654. There is very little information available concerning the details of his life. He hailed from Xanthi and also served as bishop of Corinth (1655-75), Philippopolis and Tarnovo.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Cyril IV

bornactivedied
1816 ca1854-18611861, Jan 31
110th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. Despite his relatively short papacy, he is regarded as the "Father of Reform" of the Coptic Orthodox Church in modern times.
Links (1)


Cyril IV

bornactivedied
unknown1709-17131728
the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Church of Constantinople during the period 1711–1713. He descended from Mytilene. He was remarkably educated and served as metropolitan bishop of Cyzicus. He was elected Patriarch in 1709, but Athanasius V of Constantinople took the Throne. So, he became Patriarch after Athanasius' deposal. He fought for the economical reco...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cyril V

bornactivedied
unknown1748017571775, Jul 27
was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for two periods from 1748 to 1751 and from 1752 to 1757. A controversial figure, often blamed for his ideas about the baptism.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cyril VI

aka: Konstantinos Serpetzoglou
bornactivedied
17691813-1818unknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople between the years 1813 and 1818. He was born in 1769 in Edirne, where he finished school. He was a smart and good student. He was put under the protection of the local metropolitan bishop (and later Ecumenical Patriarch) Callinicus V, who ordained him deacon in 1791 and hired him as a secretary. In Se...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cyril VII

bornactivedied
unknown1855-1860unknown
Ecumenical Patriarch (1855–1860)* Church of Constantinople
Links (1)Notes (1)

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