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Gabriel I [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1590sunknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for the Church of Constantinople from March to August 1596. The is very little information available about the details of his life. He was previously bishop of Thessaloniki.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Gabriel I [2]

borndied
unknownunknown
Catholicose of Cilicia (1758-1770)* Armenian Apostolic Church


Gabriel II

bornactivedied
unknown1648-16591659, Dec 3
the Ecumenical Patriarch of for the Church of Constantinople for one week in 1657. In 1659 he was hanged by the Ottoman Sultan for having baptized a converted Muslim, and after refusing to abjure his own Christian faith. He is hence revered as New Hieromartyr Gabriel, Metropolitan of Prousa and his feast in the Eastern Orthodox Church is December 3
Links (1)Notes (1)


Gabriel III

bornactivedied
unknown1688-17071707, Oct 25
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople from 1702 to 1707. Gabriel was born in the town of Smyrna (now ?zmir) to parents coming from the island of Andros and in 1688 he became Metropolitan of Chalcedon. He was elected Patriarch of Constantinople on 29 August 1702 and reigned till his death. His reign had no particular troubles and was sere...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Gabriel IV

bornactivedied
unknown1760s-17851785, Jun 29
Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople during the period 1780-1785. He was born in Smyrna and descended from an aristocratic family. He was bishop of the Ayvalik Islands and later metropolitan bishop of Ioannina until April 1771 when he became Metropolitan of Old Patras. He especially liked the ecclesiastic order and precedence. In 1780 he wa...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Gabriel VII

borndied
unknownunknown
Pope and Patriarch (1526-1569)* Armenian Apostolic Church


Gabriel VIII

bornactivedied
unknown1587-16031603, May 14
the 97th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. Gabriel VIII was originally from Meer, Egypt and his lay name was Shenouda. He became a monk in the Monastery of Saint Pishoy in Scetes and was ordained on Sunday, 16 Paoni, 1303 A.M. (June 20, 1587 AD). Avva Zacharias, Bishop of Jerusalem, and Avva Kyrellos El-Khiami led Gabriel's consecratio...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Jakob Gadolin

bornactivedied
1719, Oct 241753-18021802, Sep 26
a Finnish Lutheran bishop, professor of physics and theology, politician and statesman. In 1736, he studied at The Royal Academy of Turku. He became accomplished in numerous fields such as philosophy and mathematics and from 1753 was a Professor of Physics and in 1762 a Professor of Theology. In politics, he was a member of the Hats (party) in the Swedish Ri...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Gage [1]

borndied
1597 ca1656
an English clergyman. As a Spanish Dominican he served as professor of rhetoric in the convent of Jerez, and then volunteered in 1625 for the mission to the Philippines. He spent two or three years in the priory in Guatemala City, where he seems to have liked the opportunity for study but began to have religious doubts and was led to ask to return to England...
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Henry Gally

borndied
16961769, Aug 7
an English divine and classical scholar. Lord-chancellor King appointed him his domestic chaplain in 1725, and preferred him to a prebend in the church of Gloucester, 15 May 1728, and to another in the church of Norwich in 1731. He also presented him to the rectory of Ashney or Ashton, Northamptonshire, in 1730, and to that of St. Giles-in-the-Fields in 1732...
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Vilna Gaon

aka: Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, Elijah of Vilna, HaGra
borndied
1720, Apr 231797, Oct 9
a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of mitnagdic (non-hasidic) Jewry of the past few centuries. He is commonly referred to in Hebrew as ha-Gaon he-Chasid mi-Vilna, "the saintly genius from Vilnius". Through his annotations and emendations of Talmudic and other texts he became one of the most familiar and influential names in rabbinic ...
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James Garbett

borndied
18021879
a British academic and Anglican cleric who became the Archdeacon of Chichester. He was a Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. He was an Evangelical and an opponent of the Oxford Movement. He was the anti-Tractarian candidate in the election of the Professor of Poetry in 1841/2. The 'Oxford Movement' candidate to replace John Keble in that position was Isaac ...
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James Gardiner the Elder

borndied
16371705
an English bishop of Lincoln. He entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1649, taking the degrees of B.A. 1652-3, M.A. 1656, and D.D. 1669. On the Restoration he obtained favour at court, became chaplain to the Duke of Monmouth, chaplain to the guards, and received the crown living of Epworth, Lincolnshire. He was an antiquary and assisted Simon Patrick, whe...
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Stephen Gardiner

bornactivedied
1483 ca1531-15551555, Nov 12
English bishop and politician during the English Reformation period who served as Lord Chancellor during the reign of Queen Mary I and King Philip. In November 1531 the king rewarded him with the bishopric of Winchester, vacant since Wolsey's death.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Henry Garnet

aka: Garnett
borndied
1555, Jul1606, May 3
an English Jesuit priest executed for his complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Born in Heanor, Derbyshire, he was educated in Nottingham and later at Winchester College before he moved to London in 1571 to work for a publisher. There he professed an interest in legal studies and in 1575, he travelled to the continent and joined the Society of Jesus. He ...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Henry Highland Garnet

borndied
1815, Dec 231882, Feb 13
an African-American abolitionist, minister, educator and orator. Having escaped with his family as a child from slavery in Maryland, he grew up in New York City. He was educated at the African Free School and other institutions, and became an advocate of militant abolitionism. He became a minister and based his drive for abolitionism in religion. Garnet was ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Garnett

borndied
1707/081782, Mar 1
an English bishop of Clogher in the Church of Ireland. In 1751 Garnett went to Ireland as chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant, Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset. In 1752 he became Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin; he was translated to Clogher in 1758, and remained bishop of Clogher until his death. The only work of Garnett, besides some occasional sermons, was hi...
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Thomas Garnier

borndied
17761873
an English churchman and botanist, Dean of Winchester from 1840 to 1872. He was educated at Hyde Abbey School and Worcester College, Oxford. He was appointed Rector of Bishopstoke, Hampshire, in 1807. Whilst Dean, he was a founding member of the Hampshire Horticultural Society in 1818 (Dean Garnier's Garden in Winchester's cathedral close is named after him)...
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Jeremiah Learnoult Garrett

bornactivedied
unknown1800sunknown
an English dissenting minister. At the age of fourteen or fifteen he had a vision of an "ancient form", which he took to be Jesus Christ. A dissenting minister was called in to see him, to whom he confessed his sins; the minister 'pointed him to the blood of Christ.' Subsequently, however, he took to vicious courses, had a man-of-war's man who had assaulted ...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersWritersScientists

Pierre Gassendi

bornactivedied
1592, Jan 221617-16531655, Oct 24
a French philosopher, priest, scientist, astronomer, and mathematician. While he held a church position in south-east France, he also spent much time in Paris, where he was a leader of a group of free-thinking intellectuals. He was also an active observational scientist, publishing the first data on the transit of Mercury in 1631. The lunar crater Gassendi i...
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Thomas Gataker

borndied
1574, Sep 41654, Jun 27
an English clergyman and theologian. He was born in London, the son of Thomas Gatacre. He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge. From 1601 to 1611 he held the appointment of preacher to the society of Lincoln's Inn, which he resigned on accepting the rectory of Rotherhithe. In 1642 he was chosen a member of the Westminster Assembly, and annotated for ...
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Alfred Gatty

borndied
1813, Apr 181903, Jan 20
a Church of England vicar and author. He was born in London to Robert Gatty, a solicitor, and Margaret Jones. In 1831 he entered Exeter College, Oxford, graduating in 1836. He was ordained a deacon in 1837 and was appointed as curate of Bellerby in the North Riding of Yorkshire. He was ordained priest in 1838, and was appointed vicar of Ecclesfield on 23 Sep...
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John Gauden

borndied
16051662, May 23
an English Bishop of Exeter then Bishop of Worcester and writer, and the reputed author of the important Royalist work Eikon Basilike. He seems to have remained at Oxford until 1630, when he became vicar of Chippenham. His sympathies were at first with the parliamentary party. He was chaplain to Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, and preached before th...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Gaule

borndied
1603 ca1687
an English Puritan cleric, now remembered for his partially sceptical views on astrology, witchcraft and hermetic philosophy. Gaule's one preferment was as vicar of Great Staughton, Huntingdonshire, through Viscountess Campden by 1632, though there is some confusion on the point. Gaule clashed with, and preached against, the self-appointed witch-hunter activ...
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Links (1)


Gavriil I

bornactivedied
unknown1770-1783unknown
Metropolitan of Kiev (1770-1783)* Ukrainian Orthodox Church


Gavriil I

bornactivedied
unknown1762-1770unknown
Metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1762-1770)* Russian Orthodox Church


Gavriil II

bornactivedied
unknown1770-1799unknown
Metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1770-1799); Metropolitan of Kiev (1799-1803)* Ukrainian Orthodox Church


Gavriil III

bornactivedied
unknown1832-1844unknown
Metropolitan of Skopje (1832–1844)* Orthodox Church of Macedonia / under Patriarchate of Constantinople


Gavrilo II Sarajevac

bornactivedied
unknown1752-1752unknown
Patriarch (1752-1752)* Serbian Orthodox Church


Gavrilo III Nikolin

bornactivedied
unknown1752-1758unknown
Patriarch (1752-1754; 1757-1758)* Serbian Orthodox Church


Gennadios

bornactivedied
unknown1858unknown
Metropolitan of Durrës and Gora (1858)* Orthodox Church of Albania


Gennadios

bornactivedied
unknown1831-1832unknown
Metropolitan of Skopje (1831–1832)* Orthodox Church of Macedonia / under Patriarchate of Constantinople


Cross-listed in Governance

King George I

aka: Georg Ludwig of Hanover, George Louis
bornactivedied
1660, May 281714-17271727, Jun 11
King of Great Britain and Ireland, Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698. During George's reign, the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led b...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

King George II

aka: George Augustus
bornactivedied
1683, Oct 301727-17601760, Oct 25
King of Great Britain and Ireland, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spen...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

King George III

aka: George William Frederick
bornactivedied
1738, Jun 41760-18201820, Jan 29
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. Also Supreme Governor of the Church of England during that time. His life and reign, which were longer than any other British monarch before him, were marked...
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Timeline (12)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

King George IV

aka: George Augustus Frederick
bornactivedied
1762, Aug 121820-18301830, Jun 26
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover following the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. Also Supreme Governor of the Church of England during that time. From 1811 until his acc...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Ignatius George II

bornactivedied
unknown1687-1708unknown
Patriarch of Antioch and All the East (1687-1708)* Syrian Orthodox Church


Ignatius George III

bornactivedied
unknown1745-1768unknown
Patriarch of Antioch and All the East (1745-1768)* Syrian Orthodox Church


Ignatius George IV

bornactivedied
unknown1768-1780unknown
Patriarch of Antioch and All the East (1768-1780)* Syrian Orthodox Church


Ignatius George V

bornactivedied
unknown1819-1836unknown
Patriarch of Antioch and All the East (1819–1836)* Syrian Orthodox Church


Georgije Hranislav

bornactivedied
unknown1841-1842unknown
0 (1841–1842)* Serbian Orthodox Church


Alessandro Geraldini

aka: Gerardini, Gueraldini
borndied
14551524, Mar 8
a Renaissance humanist scholar at the Spanish court of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. He is known for his support of Christopher Columbus. He served as tutor to the royal children and later accompanied the Infanta Catharine of Aragon to England, as her...
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Links (1)


Gerasimos

bornactivedied
unknown1833-1837unknown
Metropolitan of Durrës and Gora (1833–1837)* Orthodox Church of Albania


Gerasimos II Palladas

bornactivedied
unknown1688-1710unknown
Pope and Patriarch (1688-1710) of the Patriarchate of Alexandria for the Church of Constantinople. He was distinguished for his preaching, having written a great number of homilies. He was accused of innovation during the Divine Liturgy, at the point of the sanctification of the Precious Gifts, which brought on a reaction from the Ecumenical Patriarch as ...
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Notes (1)


Gerasimos I Spartaliotes

bornactivedied
unknown1620-1636unknown
Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria for the Greek Orthodox Church (1620-1636). He was distinguished for his great education. He participated in the general Church issues of the 17th century, collaborating with Kyrillos Loukaris, Patriarch of Constantinople.
Notes (1)


Gerasimov III Gimaris

bornactivedied
unknown1780sunknown
Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria for the Greek Orthodox Church (1783-1788). An erudite man of the Church and an experienced interpreter of the Holy Scriptures. He was most concerned with education.
Notes (1)


Gerasimus II

bornactivedied
unknown1673-1674unknown
Ecumenical Patriarch (1673-1674)*Church of Constantinople
Notes (1)


Gerasimus III

bornactivedied
unknown1762-17971797
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople from 1794 to 1797. He descended from Cyprus. In 1762 he was elected metropolitan bishop of Vize, in 1783 of Izmit and in 1791 of Derkoi. In the 3rd of March in 1794 he was elected Ecumenical Patriarch, succeeding Neophytus VII. During his patriarchy he regulated many ecclesiastic issues. One of which...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Olympe-Philippe Gerbet

borndied
1798, Feb 51864, Aug 7
a French Catholic bishop and writer. The years 1839-49 he spent in Rome, gathering data for his "Esquisse de Rome Chrétienne". Recalled by Monseigneur Sibour, he became successively professor of sacred eloquence at the Sorbonne, Vicar-General of Amiens, and bishop of Perpignan (1854). His episcopate was marked by the holding of a synod, the reorganization o...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Paul Gerhardt

borndied
1607, Mar 121676, May 27
a German theologian, Lutheran minister and hymn writer. He also sponsored a series of conferences between the Lutheran and Reformed clergy in the hopes of having them arrive at some consensus, but the result was the opposite: the more the two sides argued the further apart they found themselves. Gerhardt was a leading voice among the Lutheran clergy, and dre...
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Links (1)


Germanos II

bornactivedied
unknown1694-1705unknown
Archbishop of Nea Justiniana and All Cypru (1694-1705)* Orthodox Church of Cyprus


Germanos II

bornactivedied
unknown1702-1703unknown
Archbishop of Ohrid (1702-1703)* Orthodox Church of Macedonia


Germanus IV

bornactivedied
unknown1826-18531853
served two terms as Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople, from 1842 to 1845 and from 1852 until his death in 1853. In 1826-1830, he was bishop of Vidin, then bishop of Drama until 1835, when he was appointed bishop of Derkoi. He was elected to the patriarchal throne for the first time in 1842, and held the post until 1845, when he was succee...
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Johannes Gezelius the Younger

borndied
unknownunknown
a theologian, professor in The Royal Academy of Åbo and also superintendent of Livonia as his father had been. He became bishop of Åbo (Turku) of the Lutheran Finish Church between 1690-1718. He was the son of Johannes Gezelius the elder and Gertrud Gutheim and the father of Johannes Gezelius the youngest.
Links (1)


Ghougas I

bornactivedied
unknown1731-1737unknown
Catholicose of Cilicia (1731-1737)* Armenian Apostolic Church


Cross-listed in Writers

John Gibbons

borndied
15441589
an English Jesuit theologian and controversialist. Gibbons entered Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1561, but left the university without a degree. After studying philosophy and theology for seven years in the German College in Rome, he obtained doctorates in both in 1576 and was ordained a Catholic priest. Pope Gregory XIII gave Gibbons a canonry in the cathedra...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Gibbons

borndied
1720, May 311785, Feb 22
a London nonconformist minister who wrote hymns, sermons, and poetry. In 1742 Gibbons was appointed assistant to the Rev. Thomas Bures, minister of the Silver Street Presbyterian congregation, and in the next year he was chosen minister of the Independent congregation of Haberdashers' Hall. A favourite form of composition was elegies on the death of his frie...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Andrew Gifford

borndied
17001784
an English Baptist minister and numismatist. Gifford seems to have performed ministerial work in Nottingham in 1725. At the beginning of 1730 he accepted a call from the Baptist meeting in Eagle Street, London. He was chaplain to Sir Richard Ellys, and after Sir Richard's death to Lady Ellys, from 1731 to 1745. Two of Gifford's sermons were published, one on...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Anthony Gilby

borndied
1510 ca1585
an English clergyman, known as a radical Puritan and translator of the Geneva Bible, the first English Bible available to the general public. He was born in Lincolnshire, and was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, graduating in 1535. In Gilby’s early life, he served as a preacher in Leicestershire. During this time, he was brought together with peopl...
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Samuel Gilman

borndied
17911858
an American clergyman and author. He was an active advocate of the temperance cause. His writings consisted of Fair Harvard (1836), a hymn; contributions to periodicals; translations of certain of Boileau's satires; and other works.
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Giragos I

bornactivedied
unknown1797-1822unknown
Catholicose of Cilicia (1797-1822)* Armenian Apostolic Church


Giragos II

bornactivedied
unknown1855-1865unknown
Catholicose of Cilicia (1855–1865)* Armenian Apostolic Church


Cross-listed in Writers

John Glover

borndied
17141774, May 9
an English preacher and writer. Glover left school at age 13, and was apprenticed to business. Later he retired on a legacy from an uncle. In 1748 he was influenced by the teaching of the Methodists at Norwich. His published memoirs are entirely devoted to religious reflection, and he corresponded with the Calvinist writer Anne Dutton. In 1761, his health fa...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Goad

borndied
15761638
an English clergyman, controversial writer, and rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk. A participant at the Synod of Dort, he changed his views there from Calvinist to Arminian, against the sense of the meeting. He wrote two anti-Catholic populist tracts in 1623: on Robert Drury, and as author or editor the Friers Chronicle, a collection of nasty sexual tales supposed...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryWriters

Guru Gobind Singh

aka: Gobind Rai
borndied
1666, Dec 221708, Oct 7
the 10th Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. He succeeded his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine and became the last of the living Sikh Gurus. He died without lineal descendant after the martyrdom of his four sons during his lifetime. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the S...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Antoine Godeau

borndied
1605, Sep 241672, Apr 21
a French bishop, poet and exegete. His verse-writing early won the interest of a relative in Paris, Valentin Conrart, at whose house the literary world gathered. He is now known for his work of criticism Discours de la poésie chrétienne from 1633. He turned his talent for versification to religious uses, his best known productions being a metrical version ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Francis Godwin

borndied
15621633, Apr
an English historian, science fiction author, divine, Bishop of Llandaff and of Hereford. He was elected student of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1578, took his bachelor's degree in 1580, and that of master in 1583. In 1616 Godwin published Rerum Anglicarum, Henrico VIII., Edwardo VI. et Maria regnantibus, Annales, which was afterwards translated and published b...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Charles Pourtales Golightly

borndied
1807, May 231885, Dec 25
an Anglican clergyman and religious writer. For some time he was curate of Headington; he held the miserably endowed vicarage of Baldon Toot, and he occasionally officiated in the church of St. Peter in the East, Oxford, for Hamilton, afterwards bishop of Salisbury. He was a thorough student of theology and history. Even opponents admitted his deep religious...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Jean Francois Paul de Gondi

aka: Jean François Paul, cardinal de Retz
borndied
1613, Sep291679, Aug 24
a French churchman, writer of memoirs, and agitator in the Fronde. He was Archbishop of Paris for almost twenty years. During the last ten years of his life, Retz wrote his Memoirs, which go up to the year 1655. They are addressed in the form of narrative to a lady who is not known, though guesses have been made at her identity, some even suggesting Madame d...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Edmund Goodenough

borndied
17861845
an English churchman, dean of Wells from 1831. Having taken orders, Goodenough became tutor and censor of Christ Church, and in 1810 was appointed curate of Cowley, Oxford. In 1819 Goodenough was appointed headmaster of Westminster School and subalmoner to the king, in succession to William Page. He wrote and published several sermons.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

John Goodwin

borndied
15941665
an English preacher, theologian and prolific author of significant books. In 1639 Goodwin wrote a preface to the posthumous sermons of Henry Ramsden. During the next two years he published several sermons, and a tract (1641) criticising the positions of George Walker, of St. John's, Watling Street. Walker retorted upon Goodwin and others with a charge of Soc...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Philip Goodwin

borndied
unknown1699
an English divine. Goodwin, a native of Suffolk, was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and proceeded M.A. in 1630. During the First English Civil War he sided with the Parliamentarians, and was appointed one of the 'triers' for Hertfordshire. By an ordinance of the lords and commons, dated 23 April 1645, he became vicar of Watford in that county, in...
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Cross-listed in Writers

James Gordon

aka: James Gordon Huntly
borndied
15411620
a Scottish Jesuit. in Scotland Gordon, as a kinsman of King James VI, had influence among the nobility; and he engaged in public discussions with Protestant ministers. For two months he followed the king everywhere else in hope of finding an opportunity to convert him to Catholicism. He then went to the north of Scotland, where he held a public discussion on...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Anders Abraham Grafstrom

aka: Grafström
borndied
1790, Jan 101870, Jul 24
a Swedish historian, priest and poet. Grafström belonged to the literary circle centred on Malla Silfverstolpe. He wrote a famous biography of his father-in-law Frans Michael Franzén. Some of Grafström's poetry was set to music by the composer Johan Erik Nordblom. His daughter married Artur Hazelius, the teacher and folklorist.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Sylvester Graham

bornactivedied
1794, Jul 51828-18511851, Sep 11
a 19th-century Presbyterian minister, was an American dietary reformer, best known for his emphasis on vegetarianism, the temperance movement and his emphasis on eating whole-grain bread; he did not invent graham flour, graham bread, or graham crackers, but those products were inspired by his preaching.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Anthony Grant

borndied
1806, Jan 311883, Nov 25
an English clergyman and divine. In 1834 he was ordained, and two years later became curate of Chelmsford; from 1838 to 1862 he was vicar of Romford, Essex, and from 1862 to 1877 vicar of Aylesford, Kent. In 1843 he was Bampton lecturer at Oxford University, and delivered a course entitled The Past and Prospective Extension of the Gospel by Missions to the H...
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Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

aka: Comte de La Baume Saint Amour
borndied
1517, Aug 201586, Sep 21
a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". He was also a notable art collector, the "grea...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Richard Graves

borndied
1715, May 41804, Nov 23
an English minister, poet, and novelist. He served as rector of Claverton, near Bath, and was an enthusiastic collector of poems, a translator, essayist and correspondent. His best-known work is the picaresque novel, The Spiritual Quixote (1773); this was a satire of John Wesley, George Whitefield, and Methodism in general, which he saw as a threat to...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Grayle

borndied
16141654
an English Puritan minister. At the age of 18 he entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, as a batler, and proceeded B.A. in 1634 and M.A. on 15 June 1637. He subsequently became rector of Tidworth in the same county. While a strict presbyterian, Grayle was charged with Arminianism, and defended his principles in a work, which was published after his death , entitled ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

William Greenfield

borndied
unknown1827
a Scottish minister, professor of rhetoric and belles lettres, literary critic, reviewer, and author whose career ended in scandal, resulting in him being excommunicated from the Church of Scotland, having his university degrees withdrawn, and his family assuming his wife's patronymic Rutherford. Greenfield contributed at least one review to the Quarterly Re...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Richard Greenham

aka: Grenham
borndied
1535?1594?
an English clergyman of Puritan views, known as a Sabbatarian writer. Greenham's Workes were collected and edited by H.H., i.e. Henry Holland, in 1599; a second edition appeared in the same year; the third edition was 1601, reprinted 1605 and 1612 ('fift and last' edition). 'A Garden of Spiritual Flowers,' by Greenham, was published 1612, and several times r...
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Gregory IV

bornactivedied
unknown1620sunknown
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople for two months in 1623. Before he was elected as Patriarch of Constantinople Gregory IV was Metropolitan of Amasya. Gregory IV proved to be incompetent and could not pay the appointment fee (peshtesh) due to the Ottoman Sultan. Further the Metropolitans and the bishops were unsatisfied with him becaus...
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Gregory IV of Athens

bornactivedied
unknown1820s1828
a Greek or Albanian scholar and cleric who became Metropolitan of Athens in 1827–1828. Gregory was born in Gjirokastër (Aryrokastro) in the mid to late-18th century. In ca.1784 he was a teacher in the New Academy, a famous educational institution in Moscopole, a leading center of Greek culture at the time. In 1799 he was appointed Bishop of Paramythia but...
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Gregory V

bornactivedied
17461790s-18211821, Apr 22
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople from 1797 to 1798, from 1806 to 1808 and from 1818 to 1821. He was responsible for much restoration work to the Patriarchal Cathedral of St George, which had been badly damaged by fire in 1738. At the onset of the Greek War of Independence, as Ethnarch of the Orthodox Millet Gregory V was blamed by Ot...
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Gregory VI

aka: Georgios Fourtouniadis
borndied
1798, Mar 11881, Jun 8
the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople in the periods 1835-1840 and 1867-1871. He was especially ethical and devout, but persistent to his ideas. He published canonical provisions concerning wedding (matchmaking, dowry), the education of the monks and dogmatic differences with the Catholic Church and the Protestants, he forbid the burial i...
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Pope Gregory XIII

aka: Ugo Boncompagni
bornactivedied
1502, Jan 71572-15851585-Apr 10
Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day. During his pontificate, Gregory fostered cultural patronages associated with his papacy. He strengthened many ecclesiastical and d...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Gregory XIV

aka: Niccolò Sfondrato, Sfondrati
bornactivedied
1535, Feb 111590-15911591, Oct 16
Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591. Gregory XIV's brief pontificate was marked by vigorous intervention in favour of the Catholic party in the French Wars of Religion. Instigated by the king of Spain and the duke of Mayenne, he excommunicated more
Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Gregory XV

aka: Alessandro Ludovisi
bornactivedied
1554, Jan 91621-16231623, Jul 8
Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623. Gregory XV interfered little in European politics, beyond assisting Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Catholic League against the Protestants—to the tune of a million gold ducats—as well as Sigismund III Vasa, King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, against the Ott...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (1)


Pope Gregory XVI

aka: Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, Mauro
bornactivedied
1765, Sep 181831-18461846, Jun 1
Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigned from 2 February 1831 to his death in 1846. Strongly conservative and traditionalist, he opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States and throughout Europe, seeing them as fronts for revolutionary leftism. Against these trends he sought to strengthen the religious and political authority of the papa...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Rev. George Gregory

borndied
1754, Apr 141808, Mar 12
an English writer, scholar, and preacher in the 18th and early 19th-century Britain. He held a Doctor of Divinity degree. Gregory is best known for his literary compilations and writings. In 1782-3, he helped compile a book of excerpts from other authors called Beauties which sold well. His first original lengthy work, in 1785, was Essays, Historical and Mor...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Martin Grene

borndied
16161667, Oct 2
an English Jesuit. After studying humanities in the college of the English Jesuits at St. Omer, he was admitted to the society in 1638. In 1642 he was a professor in the college at Liege, and he held important offices in other establishments belonging to the English Jesuits on the continent. In 1653 he was stationed in Oxfordshire. He was solemnly professed ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Lady Jane Grey

aka: Jane Dudley
bornactivedied
1536/3715531554, Feb 12
an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. When the 15-year-old king lay dying in June 1553, he nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will, thus subverting the claims of his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth under the Third Succession Act. Jane was imprisoned in the Tower of London when the Priv...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

George Griffith

borndied
16011666
a bishop of St. Asaph. In 1635 he proceeded D.D. In 1640, as a proctor in convocation, he urged the necessity of a new edition of the Welsh Bible, none having been published since that of Bishop Parry in 1620. In 1652 he accepted the challenge which the famous itinerant, Vavasor Powell, threw down to any minister in Wales, to dispute whether his calling or P...
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Grigorios

bornactivedied
unknown1858-1878unknown
Metropolitan of Turnovo (1858–1878)* Bulgarian Orthodox Church


Grigorios II

bornactivedied
unknown1767-1772unknown
Metropolitan of Durrës and Gora (1767-1772)* Orthodox Church of Albania


Grigorios II

bornactivedied
unknown1760-1787unknown
Metropolitan of Hungaro-Walachia (1760-1787)* Romanian Orthodox Church


Grigorios III

bornactivedied
unknown1799-1820unknown
Metropolitan of Athens (1799-1820)* Orthodox Church of Greece


Grigorios III

bornactivedied
unknown1823-1834unknown
Metropolitan of Hungaro-Walachia (1823–1834)* Romanian Orthodox Church


Grigorios III

bornactivedied
unknown1799-1820unknown
Metropolitan of Athens (1799–1820)* Orthodox Church of Greece


Grigorios IV

bornactivedied
unknown1827-1828unknown
Metropolitan of Athens (1827–1828)* Orthodox Church of Greece


Grigory

bornactivedied
unknown1856-1860unknown
Metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1856–1860)* Russian Orthodox Church


Edmund Grindal

bornactivedied
1519 ca1575-15831583, Jul 6
an English Protestant leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of London, Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury for the Church of England (1575-1583) during the reign of Elizabeth I of England. Grindal was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury on 26 July 1575, though there is no actual proof that the new archbishop ever visited the seat of his...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Grinfield

borndied
1788, Apr 271870, Apr 8
an English clergyman and hymn-writer. He was ordained in 1813. He married his first cousin, Mildred Foster Barham; became curate at St Sidwells, Exeter; then rector of Shirland, Derbyshire; he subsequently resided at Clifton, Bristol, and was for twenty-three years curate in charge of St Mary le Port Church, Bristol. Though he published little, his compositi...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Alexander Griswold

bornactivedied
1766, Apr 221836-18431843, Feb 15
the 5th Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church from 1836 till 1843. He was also the Episcopal Bishop of the Eastern Diocese, which included all of New England with the exception of the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut. Griswold wrote the hymn Holy Father, great Creator. He also published Discourses on the Most Important Doctrines and Duties of the Christia...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Groome

borndied
1678 ca1760
an English clergyman. In July 1709 he was presented to the vicarage of Childerditch, Essex, and also became chaplain to Robert Darcy, 3rd Earl of Holderness. Grieved by unjust reflections cast upon the clergy, he wrote The Dignity and Honour of the Clergy represented in an Historical Collection: shewing how useful and serviceable the Clergy have been to this...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Nikanor Grujic

borndied
1810, Dec 121887, Apr 26
the Serbian Orthodox bishop of Pakrac, the locum tenens Serbian Patriarch, the Austro–Hungarian emperor's Privy Councilor, knight of the Grand Cross of the Franz Joseph order, member of Houses of Magnates at Hungarian and Croatian–Slavonian parliaments, member of Serbian Learned Society, writer, poet, orator and translator. Nikanor Grujic was also a well...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig

aka: N. F. S. Grundtvig
borndied
1783, Sep 81872, Sep 2
a Danish pastor, author, poet, philosopher, historian, teacher and politician. He was one of the most influential people in Danish history, as his philosophy gave rise to a new form of nationalism in the last half of the 19th century. It was steeped in the national literature and supported by deep spirituality. Grundtvig holds a unique position in the cultur...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Gumble

borndied
unknown1676
an English clergyman and biographer. In 1661 he was made D.D. of the University of Cambridge by royal mandate, and on 6 July of the same year was collated to the twelfth prebendal stall in Winchester Cathedral. In 1663 he received the rectory of East Lavant, Sussex. His only published work was a Life of General Monck, Duke of Albemarle, &c., with Remarks upo...
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Cross-listed in Writers

William Gunn

borndied
1750, Apr 71841, Apr 11
an English clergyman and miscellaneous writer. He took holy orders, in 1784 became rector of Sloley, Norfolk, and in 1786 obtained the consolidated livings of Barton Turf and Instead. During a residence in Rome he obtained permission to search the Vatican and other libraries for manuscripts relating to the history of England, and published anonymously, as th...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in AstronomersScientistsEducators

Edmund Gunter

bornactivedied
15811614-16261626, Dec 10
an English clergyman, mathematician, geometer and astronomer of Welsh descent. He is best remembered for his mathematical contributions which include the invention of the Gunter's chain, the Gunter's quadrant, and the Gunter's scale. In 1620, he invented the first successful analog device which he developed to calculate logarithmic tangents. He was mentored ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Sunan Gunungjati

aka: Syarif Hidayatullah
bornactivedied
14481479-15681568, Sep 19
one of the Wali Songo, or nine saints of Islam revered in Indonesia. He founded the Sultanate of Banten, as well as the Sultanate of Cirebon on the north coast of Java. There is much historical uncertainty as to his early life and later career in the Indonesian Archipelago. Some say that he was born in Pasai, one of the earliest centres of Islam in Southeas...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Brampton Gurdon

borndied
1672 ca1741, Nov 20
an English clergyman and academic, Boyle lecturer in 1721. By 1696 he had been elected fellow of his college. His Boyle lectures were published as The Pretended Difficulties in Natural or Reveal'd Religion no Excuse for Infidelity. Sixteen Sermons preach'd in the Church of St. Mary le Bow, London, in 1721 and 1722, 8vo, London, 1723. Gurdon was a favourite o...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in InventorsScientists

Bartolomeu de Gusmao

aka: Gusmão
bornactivedied
1685, Dec1709-17241724, Nov 18
a Portuguese priest and naturalist, noted for his early work on lighter-than-air airship design. He completed his course of study at the University of Coimbra, devoting his attention principally to philology and mathematics, but received the title of Doctor of Canon Law (related to Theology). He is said to have had a remarkable memory and a great command of ...
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Timeline (1)Links (7)


Cross-listed in Writers

John Guyse

borndied
16801761
an English independent minister. Two Coward lectures, which he published in 1729 under the title of 'Christ the Son of God,' were attacked by Samuel Chandler in 'A Letter to the Rev. John Guyse.' Guyse replied with 'The Scripture Notion of preaching Christ further cleared and vindicated in a letter to the Rev. Mr. Samuel Chandler,' 1730. Chandler then wrote ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Robert Gwin

bornactivedied
unknown1590sunknown
a Welsh Roman Catholic priest and author. Gwin, who appears to have been alive in 1591, wrote several religious works in the Welsh language, according to Antonio Possevino, who gives no titles. He also translated from English into Welsh A Christian Directory or Exercise guiding men to eternal Salvation, commonly called The Resolution, written by Robert Perso...
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Lobsang Chökyi Gyalsten

aka: Lobsang Chökyi, Losang Chö kyi
bornactivedied
15701570-16621662
the fourth Panchen Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat sect) school of Tibetan Buddhism from 1570-1662 and the first to be accorded this title during his lifetime. Losang Chö kyi Gyaltsen was the teacher and close ally of the 5th Dalai Lama, called "the Great". The "Great Fifth" gave him Tashilhunpo Monastery as a living place and declared him to be an incarnatio...
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Kelzang Gyatso

aka: Kelsang, Kezang
bornactivedied
17081720-17571757
the 7th Dalai Lama for the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. Kelzang Gyatso was born in Lithang of Eastern Tibet, in the present-day Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of present-day Sichuan province. While still a boy, Kelzang Gyatso demonstrated himself a prodigy of profound wisdom. Kelzang Gyatso became famous for his ability to spontaneously compos...
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Khendrup Gyatso

bornactivedied
1838, Nov 11842-18561856, Jan 31
the 11th Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. He was recognised as the Eleventh Dalai Lama in 1840, having come from the same village as Kelzang Gyatso, the seventh Dalai Lama, had in 1708. In 1841, Palden Tenpai Nyima, 7th Panchen Lama, gave him the pre-novice ordination, cut his hair and gave him the name Khedrup Gyatso. In 1842, he was ...
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Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso

bornactivedied
16171642-16821682
the Fifth Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. Gyatso is credited with unifying all Tibet after a protracted era of civil wars. As an independent head of state, he established diplomatic relations with China and other regional countries and also met early European explorers. Gyatso – who wrote 24 volumes' worth of scholarly and religious...
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Tsangyang Gyatso

bornactivedied
1683, Mar 11697-17061706, Nov 15
the sixth Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. He was a Monpa by ethnicity and was born at Urgelling Monastery, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Tawang Town, India and not far from the large Tawang Monastery in the northwestern part of present-day Arunachal Pradesh. He had grown up a youth of high intelligence, liberal to a fault, fond of pleasu...
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Tsultrim Gyatso

bornactivedied
1816, Mar 291822-18371837
the 10th Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. Born to a modest family in Chamdo (eastern Tibet), he was recognised as the reincarnation of Lungtok Gyatso, the 9th Dalai Lama, in 1820. At the time his family did not even have an heir to their land, but he took the name Tsultrim Gyatso and was enthroned at the Potala Palace in 1822.
Links (1)


Yonten Gyatso

aka: Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho
bornactivedied
15891601-16171617, Jan
a jinong and the 4th Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet, born in Mongolia on the 30th day of the 12th month of the Earth-Ox year of the Tibetan calendar. (Other sources, however, say he was born in the 1st month of the Earth Ox Year). As the son of the Khan of the Chokur tribe, Tsultrim Choeje, and great-grandson of Altan Khan of the Tüm...
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