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In a world without recorded music, talent with an instrument was a valuable gift. But even more admired were the people who actually composed the music others would play; those so endowed could aspire to attain unending renown...and if not, at least a lucrative career.
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Andrea Gabrieli

borndied
1532/331585
an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. The uncle of the somewhat more famous Giovanni Gabrieli, he was the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of composers, and was extremely influential in spreading the Venetian style in Italy as well as in Germany.
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Giovanni Gabrieli

borndied
1554/1557 ca1612
an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.
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Marco da Gagliano

borndied
1582, May 11643, Feb 25
an Italian composer of the early Baroque era. He was important in the early history of opera and the development of the solo and concerted madrigal. Gagliano wrote an enormous quantity of music, both sacred and secular, for the Medici, and in addition he was a singer and instrumentalist who entertained them privately. His works include fourteen published ope...
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Ernest Gagnon

borndied
18341915
a Canadian folklorist, composer, and organist. He is best known for compiling a large amount of French Canadian folk music which he published as Chansons populaires du Canada in 1865–1867. He was greatly admired for his virtuoso performances on the organ and was also considered an expert at plainsong accompaniment.
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Cross-listed in Performers

Sophie Gail

borndied
17751819
a French singer and composer. She studied piano as a child and published her first composition, a romance, at the age of 14. She and her husband divorced in 1801, and Sophie Garre toured as a singer in Europe. She studied with Fétis, Perne and Sigismund Neukomm and wrote an opera comique as her first work for theater. She died in Paris.
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Jan Adam Gallina

aka: Kalina
borndied
17241773
a Czech composer. In the archives of Count Jan Josef Pachta five symphonies have survived with his early classicist character. Gallina is also attributed to the anonymous Aria in C of cítolibského bark. His songs are now kept in the National Museum.


Baldassare Galuppi

borndied
1706, Oct 181785, Jan 3
an Italian composer, born on the island of Burano in the Venetian Republic. He belonged to a generation of composers whose works comprised the transition from Baroque to Classical-era music. He achieved international success, spending periods of his career in Vienna, London and Saint Petersburg, but his main base remained Venice, where he held a succession o...
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Cross-listed in Performers

Elisabetta de Gambarini

borndied
17311765
an English composer, singer, organist and harpsichordist of the 18th century born in London of an Italian father, Charles Gambarini. She took part as a soprano in Handel's oratorio Judas Maccabaeus at 1 April 1747. She left two books of harpsichord works, published in 1748.
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Jose Mauricio Nunes Garcia

aka: José Maurício
borndied
17671830
a Brazilian classical composer, one of the greatest exponents of Classicism in the Americas. His musical style was strongly influenced by Viennese composers of the period, such as Mozart and Haydn. Today, some 240 musical pieces written by Nunes Garcia survive, and at least 170 others are known to have been lost. Most of his compositions are sacred works, bu...
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Francesco Gardi

borndied
1760 ca1810 ca
an Italian composer. The town of his birth and death are unknown, as are also known information related to his musical training. Also uncertain are the dates of his birth and death. We know that in 1786 he made his debut in Modena as an opera composer with the opera seria Aeneas in Latium. From 1787 to 1791 he was director of the female choir and composer at...
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John Garth

borndied
17211810
an English composer, born in Harperley, near Witton-le-Wear, Co. Durham. Garth is chiefly remembered for his eight-volume edition with English text of The First Fifty Psalms Set to Music by Benedetto Marcello (1757–65). He also composed a set of cello concertos and five sets of harpsichord sonatas, among other works.
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Quirino Gasparini

borndied
17211778
an Italian composer, born in Gandino, near Bergamo, Italy. He studied for the priesthood, but largely devoted his life to music, becoming maestro de capello at Turin's cathedral. His compositions are mainly of church music, including a Stabat Mater which is still performed occasionally. He also wrote several operas, including a 1767 setting of Vittorio Amade...
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Florian Leopold Gassmann

borndied
17291774
a German-speaking Bohemian opera composer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras. From 1757 until 1762, he wrote an opera every year for the carnival season in Venice, and was also appointed choirmaster in the girls’ conservatory in Venice in 1757.
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Luigi Gatti

borndied
17401817
a classical composer. He was born in Lazise in 1740, the son of an organist, Francesco della Gatta. He was ordained a priest in Mantua. In the 1780s he became Hofkapellmeister in Salzburg and Leopold Mozart showed his irritation at not receiving it himself. Between 1801 and 1804 Gatti helped Mozart's sister, Nannerl to locate unknown pieces by Mozart. He die...
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Denis Gaultier

borndied
16031672
a French lutenist and composer. He was a cousin of Ennemond Gaultier. Three published collections of Gaultier's music have come down to us, all from his late years. An adequate assessment of Gaultier's music and influence is difficult due to attribution problems.
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Pierre Gaveaux

borndied
17611825
a French operatic tenor and composer, notable for creating the role of Jason in Cherubini's Médée and for composing Leonore ou l'amour conjugal, the first operatic version of the story that later found fame as Fidelio.
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Gay

borndied
1685, Jun 301732, Dec 4
an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club. He is best remembered for The Beggar's Opera (1728), a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachum, became household names. He wrote a sequel, Polly, relating the adventures of Polly Peachum in the West Indies; its production was forbidden by the Lord Chamberlain,...
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Giuseppe Gazzaniga

borndied
17431818
a member of the Neapolitan school of opera composers. He composed fifty-one operas and is considered to be one of the last Italian opera buffa composers.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Erik Gustaf Geijer

bornactivedied
1783, Jan 121803-18461847, Apr 23
a Swedish writer, historian, poet, philosopher, and composer. His writings served to promote Swedish National Romanticism. He also was an influential advocate of Liberalism. Geijer was also a noted historian, although he did not complete any one of the vast undertakings which he planned.
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Francesco Geminiani

borndied
16871762
an Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist. Geminiani's most well-known compositions are three sets of concerti grossi. Geminiani's significance today is largely due to his 1751 treatise Art of Playing the Violin, published in London, which is the best known summation of the 18th-century Italian method of violin playing and is an invaluable source fo...
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Pietro Generali

borndied
17731832
an Italian composer primarily of operas and vocal music. After graduation in Rome Generali began composing sacred music. Having produced his first opera in 1800, his first success came with Pamela nubile (Venice, 1804), followed by other farse, such as Adelina in 1810.
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Hans Gerle

borndied
1498 ca1570
a German lutenist and arranger of the Renaissance. Gerle published three volumes of lute music through Hieronymus Formschneider, a Nuremberg publisher.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Carlo Gesualdo

borndied
15661613
a Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza. As a musician he is best known for writing intensely expressive madrigals and sacred music that use a chromatic language not heard again until the late 19th century. He is also known for vicious murder of his first wife and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. The fascination for his extraordinary music a...
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Gery de Ghersem

aka: Géry Gersem
borndied
1573/751630
a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance, active both in Spain at the court of Philip II and Philip III, and in his native Netherlands. He was a prolific and highly regarded composer at the time, but little of his work survives, almost all having been destroyed in the Lisbon earthquake and fire of 1755.
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Mathias van den Gheyn

borndied
17211785
a Flemish composer. Born in Tirlemont, Austrian Netherlands (now Tienen, Belgium), he lived and worked in Leuven.He is known first and foremost for his compositions for the carillon and the organ, though he wrote for the harpsichord as well. His eleven preludes (Preludio I-X and Preludio Coucou) are among the most frequently performed pieces on the carillon ...
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Johannes Ghiselin

aka: Verbonnet
bornactivedied
unknown1490s1507
a Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active in France, Italy and in the Low Countries. He was a contemporary of Josquin des Prez, and a significant composer of masses, motets, and secular music. His reputation was considerable, as shown by music printer Ottaviano Petrucci's decision to print a complete book of his masses immediately after his similar publ...
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Links (1)


Francesco Saverio Giai

aka: Francesco Saverio Giaj
borndied
1729, Sep 271801, Aug 12
an Italian composer, son of giovanni antonio Giay. He studied initially in Turin, probably at the Collegium Puerorum Innocentium at the cathedral, under the direction of F.M. Montalto. Between 1759 and 1762 he continued his studies, spending a year each in Bologna, with Padre Martini, Naples, with Giuseppe de Majo, and Rome, where his compositions were recei...
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Giovanni Antonio Giai

aka: Giay, Giaj
borndied
16901764
an Italian composer. In 1770 he entered the Collegio degli Innocenti at the Turin Cathedral where he studied music with Francesco Fasoli. His compositional output includes 15 operas, 5 symphonies, and a significant amount of sacred music.
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Christopher Gibbons

borndied
16151676
an English composer and organist. His music is little known - and few examples exist of any - but it is as a teacher and upholder of the English musical tradition that secures for him a substantial role in the rebirth of English music, particularly church music, during the second half of the 17th century.
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Ellis Gibbons

borndied
15731603
an English composer and one of the older brothers of Orlando Gibbons. Ellis Gibbons was evidently counted as having promise by his contemporaries: at the age of 28 he became the only composer, other than the editor Thomas Morley himself, to contribute two madrigals to The Triumphs of Oriana, a collection of 25 madrigals published in 1601
Links (1)


Orlando Gibbons

borndied
15831625
an English composer, virginalist and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. He was a leading composer in England in the early 17th century. One of the most versatile English composers of his time, Gibbons wrote a large number of keyboard works, around thirty fantasias for viols, a number of madrigals, and many popular verse anthems.
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Joseph Gibbs

borndied
16991788
an English composer. Joseph Gibbs was not a prolific composer, but he was a not entirely unknown. he was appointed organist at the Church of St. Mary-le-Tower, Ipswich, and his first published work Eight solos for violin with a thorough bass, also appeared. Only one other work (six quartettos) is known to have been published in the remaining forty years of h...
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Patrick Gilmore

borndied
18291892
an Irish-born American composer and bandmaster who lived and worked in the United States after 1848. Whilst serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, Gilmore wrote the lyrics to the song "When Johnny Comes Marching Home." This was published under the name Louis Lambert.
Links (1)


Giuseppe Giordani

aka: Giordanello
borndied
17511798
an Italian composer, mainly of opera. His first opera (L'Epponina) was released in 1779. His sacred drama La distruzione di Gerusalemme was a notable success at the Teatro San Carlo of Naples in 1787. He became maestro di cappella at the Cathedral of Fermo in 1791.
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Tommaso Giordani

borndied
1738 ca1806
an Italian composer active in England and particularly in Ireland. Among Giordani's compositions are a number of operas and theatrical pieces, the oratorio Isaac (1767), and a large quantity of overtures, sonatas, concertos, quartets (mostly string quartets, though some with flute, keyboard or guitar), trios for violin, flute and basso continuo, songs, etc....
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Giovanni Giorgi

bornactivedied
unknown1719-17621762
a priest and an Italian composer. His style of polychoral church compositions are influenced by earlier Roman School composers such as Orazio Benevoli, but also incorporate later Roman Baroque features and (after about 1758) some elements of early Classical style.
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Maria Brizzi Giorgi

borndied
17751822
an Italian organist, composer and pianist noted for her improvisational ability. She was born in Bologna into a musical family, and began to perform in public at an early age. She served as organist and choral director from 1787–89 with the Sisters of St. Bartholomew in Ancona, and then returned to Bologna where she continued her studies in music.
Links (1)


Paolo Giorza

bornactivedied
1832, Nov 111852-18821914, May 4
a musician, was born in Milan, Italy, son of Luigi Giorza, baritone, organist and itinerant painter. Having studied first with his father and Enrico La Croix, at the age of 10 Paolo won a scholarship to the Royal Conservatory of Music, Milan; Luigi's political activities, however, forced the family to move to nearby Desio. Eventually Paolo heard Rossini's Mo...
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Cross-listed in Performers

Mauro Giuliani

borndied
17811829
an Italian guitarist, cellist, singer, and composer. He was a leading guitar virtuoso of the early 19th century. As a guitar composer he was very fond of the theme and variations— an extremely popular form in Vienna. He had a remarkable ability to weave a melody into a passage with musical effect while remaining true to the idiom of the instrument.
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Thomas Gladwin

borndied
17101799
an English composer and musician. He was an organist at Vauxhall Gardens, London, England for some time. Like many English musicians of the time, he seems to have been influenced by Domenico Scarlatti. Some of his harpsichord works have been recorded.
Links (1)


Franz Gleissner

aka: Gleißner
borndied
17611818
a German lithographer and composer. In the late 18th century, he met Alois Senefelder, with whom he collaborated for approximately 30 years using lithography as a method of reproduction to print music scores. Using the songs composed by Gleißner, Senefelder demonstrated that lithography could be successfully used for music publication.
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Mikhail Glinka

borndied
18041857
the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music. Glinka's compositions were an important influence on future Russian composers, notably the members of The Five, who took Glinka's lead and produced a distinctive Russian style of music.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Christoph Willibald Gluck

borndied
17141787
a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period. Born in the Upper Palatinate (now part of Germany) and raised in Bohemia, he gained prominence at the Habsburg court at Vienna, where he brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices that many intellectuals had been campaigning for over the years. With a series of r...
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Francesco Gnecco

borndied
17691810 ca
an Italian composer. Gnecco began studying the violin with Giacomo Costa (known conductor and choirmaster at S. Lorenzo, teacher of Paganini, Serra and Sivori), and later studied composition with GL Mariani (1737-1793), Kapellmeister in Cathedral of Savona. Gnecco's output consists of a number of compositions, mostly for chamber ensembles. He achieved inter...
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Pietro Gnocchi

borndied
16891775
an Italian composer, choir director, historian, and geographer of the late Baroque era, active mainly in Brescia, where he was choir director of Brescia Cathedral. In addition to composing an abundance of eccentrically-titled sacred music, all of which remains in manuscript, he wrote a 25-volume history of ancient Greek colonies.
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Felix Godefroid

aka: Félix
borndied
18181897
a Belgian harpist, who composed for his instrument and for the piano. Besides his pieces for harp and for piano, on which he was also a virtuoso performer, Godefroid composed masses and two operas, La Harpe d'or and La Fille de Saül. His didactic work Mes exercices pour la harpe was employed by several generations of harpists.
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Carl Andreas Goepfert

aka: Göpfert
borndied
17681818
a German virtuoso clarinettist, and composer. Göepfert composed in several genres, including symphonies, concerti, wind ensembles, sonatas, and songs. Göepfert was an excellent composer and arranger and he may very well have been the house arranger for Simrock in Bonn.
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Johann Gottlieb Goldberg

aka: Gollberg, Goltberg
borndied
1727, Mar1756, Apr 13
a German virtuoso harpsichordist, organist, and composer of the late Baroque and early Classical period. He is best known for lending his name, as the probable original performer, to the renowned Goldberg Variations of J.S. Bach.
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Nicolas Gombert

borndied
1495 ca1560 ca
a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. He was one of the most famous and influential composers between Josquin des Prez and Palestrina, and best represents the fully developed, complex polyphonic style of this period in music history.
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John Goss

borndied
18001880
an English organist, composer and teacher. As a composer, Goss wrote little for the orchestra, but was known for his vocal music, both religious and secular. Goss died at his home in Brixton, south London at the age of 79.
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Francois-Joseph Gossec

aka: François-Joseph
borndied
17341829
a French composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works. He was little known outside France, and his own numerous compositions, sacred and secular, were overshadowed by those of more famous composers; but he was an inspiration to many, and powerfully stimulated the revival of instrumental music.
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Louis Moreau Gottschalk

borndied
18291869
an American composer and pianist, best known as a virtuoso performer of his own romantic piano works. He was recognized as a prodigy by the New Orleans bourgeois establishment, making his informal public debut in 1840 at the new St. Charles Hotel. He spent most of his working career outside of the United States.
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Edgar Gould

borndied
18211875
a composer and publisher of hymns. He was born in Bangor, Maine and died in Algiers, Algeria while traveling. Gould managed music stores in New York and Philadelphia (where he lived), and collaborated with composer William Fischer.
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Charles Gounod

borndied
18181893
a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust. Another opera by Gounod, occasionally still performed, is Roméo et Juliette. Gounod died at Saint-Cloud in 1893, after a final revision of his twelve operas.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Louis Theodore Gouvy

aka: Louis Théodore
borndied
18191898
a French composer. Although his work comprises more than two hundred compositions, including 90 opuses published in his lifetime, it largely remains ignored. In particular, he wrote twenty-four compositions for a full orchestra, including nine symphonies, as well as overtures and variations. Chamber music comprises a large portion of Gouvy's work and account...
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Christian Ernst Graf

aka: Graaf
borndied
17231804
a German Kapellmeister and composer. He was Kapellmeister to William V, Prince of Orange and resident in the Netherlands from 1762, where he changed the spelling of his name to Graaf. He was the son of Kapellmeister de:Johann Graf (1684–1750) and brother of the flautist Friedrich Hartmann Graf.
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Friedrich Hartmann Graf

borndied
17271795
a German flautist and composer. He was trained by his father Johann Graf and then served as a drummer in a Dutch army regiment where he was taken as a prisoner of war by the English. After he returned in 1759 he became a flautist and conductor in Hamburg for five years. During that time he toured England, the Dutch Republic, Italy, Switzerland and Germany.
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Johann Graf

aka: Graaf, Graff
borndied
1684, Mar ca1750, Feb 2
a German composer. Johann Graf was first orchestral musician and then came as an oboist for spoon Holtz's Regiment after Hungary . In 1718 he joined as an oboist and violinist in the service of the Elector of Mainz, then the bishop of Bamberg. 1723 he became concertmaster and in 1739 Kapellmeister to Prince Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Graf composed twelve melodi...
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Filippo Gragnani

borndied
17681820
an Italian guitarist and composer. Gragnani first published works for guitar and chamber music in Milan around the beginning of the 19th century with the publishers Ricordi and Monzino. During these times he travelled to Germany and eventually settled in Paris by 1810.
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Carl Heinrich Graun

borndied
17041759
a German composer and tenor singer. Along with Johann Adolph Hasse, he is considered to be the most important German composer of Italian opera of his time. Graun wrote a number of operas. His works are rarely played today, though his passion cantata Der Tod Jesu (The Death of Jesus, 1755) was frequently performed in Germany for many years after his death. Hi...
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Johann Gottlieb Graun

borndied
1703 ca1771
a German Baroque/Classical era composer and violinist, born in Wahrenbrück. Graun's compositions were highly respected, and continued to be performed after his death. Despite the popularity of his works, Graun was not free from criticism. Burney noted that some critics complained that, "In his concertos and church music ... the length of each movement is mo...
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Christoph Graupner

borndied
16831760
a German harpsichordist and composer of high Baroque music. Graupner was hardworking and prolific. There are about 2,000 surviving works in his catalog, including 113 sinfonias, 85 ouvertures (suites), 44 concertos, 8 operas, 1,418 religious and 24 secular cantatas, 66 sonatas and 40 harpsichord partitas.
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Carlo Graziani

borndied
1710 ca1787
a cellist and Italian composer, presumably born in the first half of the eighteenth century. He left some collected Sonatas for cello and continuo published in Paris and in Germany. There are also Concerts for cello and orchestra whose manuscripts are preserved in Berlin. His sonatas show more clearly the path of the composer's maturity, from a decidedly bar...
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Maurice Greene

borndied
16961755
an English composer and organist. He wrote very competent music in the Georgian style, particularly long Verse Anthems. Greene wrote a good deal of both sacred and secular vocal music.
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Eduard Grell

borndied
18001886
a German composer, organist, and music teacher. Grell's oeuvre includes three symphonies, three string quartets, and large amounts of vocal music. He is considered one of the leaders of the Palestrina renaissance in Europe.
Links (1)


Antoine-Frederic Gresnick

aka: Antoine-Frédéric
borndied
17551799
a Belgian classical composer. He was born in Liège. He studied music in Naples. By 1780 Gresnick was working in Lyons and, after visiting Berlin and London, he moved in 1794 to Paris where he died in 1799. He is chiefly remembered for writing opera buffa, of which he wrote at least twenty-three.
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Andre Ernest Modeste Gretry

aka: André Grétry
bornactivedied
17411759-18031813
a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality. He is most famous for his opéras comiques. Altogether he composed some fifty operas. Grétry also made use of the mandolin in his compositions.
Links (6)


Lucile Gretry

aka: Grétry
borndied
17721790
a French composer. The second daughter of the famous composer André Grétry and the painter Jeanne-Marie Grandon, Lucile was trained by her father who introduced her to the court of Versailles where she made the acquaintance of Marie Antoinette. Lucile Grétry wrote two opéras comiques for the Comédie-Italienne theatre.
Links (1)


Nicolas de Grigny

borndied
1672, Sep1703, Nov 30
a French organist and composer. He died young and left behind a single collection of organ music, which together with the work of François Couperin, represents the pinnacle of French Baroque organ tradition. Nicolas de Grigny's only surviving music is a large volume of organ works.
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Franz Grill

borndied
1756 ca1793
a composer of the Classical Era. He was a composer of piano and chamber music. Little is known of his life, but he died on 18 August 1793 in Ödenburg also known as Sopron, Hungary.
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Albert Grisar

borndied
18081869
a Belgian composer. Grisar studied in Antwerp, Paris , and Naples. He was a successful comic opera composer, first winning success in Brussels in 1833 and in Paris later in the decade. He collaborated with Flotow on L'eau merveilleuse (1839) and with François-Adrien Boieldieu on L'opéra à la cour (1840). His Parisian works of the late 1840s and early 185...
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Mlle Guedon de Presles

aka: Guédon de Presles
borndied
1700 ca1754
a French singer, composer and actress. She was probably the daughter of Honoré Claude Guédon de Presles who often performed at court. Mlle Guédon de Presles performed for the first time in court before the queen in 1748. During the 1740s and 1750s, she sang at the Paris Thèâtre de la Reine in secondary roles. Between 1742 and 1747, a number of her songs...
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Mlle Guerin

bornactivedied
1739 ca1755unknown
a French composer. She composed an opera at age 16, titled Daphnis et Amalthée which was performed in Amiens in 1755. An anonymous writer reporting the event in the Mercure de France described her as coming from the "provinces" and having a good education.
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Francisco Guerrero

borndied
15281599
a Spanish composer of the Renaissance. He was born and died in Seville. Guerrero's music was both sacred and secular. He wrote numerous secular songs and instrumental pieces, in addition to masses, motets, and Passions.
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Jane Mary Guest

aka: Jenny Guest, Jane Mary Miles
borndied
1762 ca1846, Mar 20
an English composer and pianist. A pupil of Johann Christian Bach, and initially composing in the galante style, she composed keyboard sonatas, other keyboard works and vocal works with keyboard accompaniment. She was piano teacher to Princess Amelia and Princess Charlotte of Wales.
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Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi

borndied
1728, Dec 91804, Nov 19
an Italian opera composer. He was a very prolific composer of Italian dramma giocoso and commedia per musica operas. In opera seria he was less successful. But here also he shows at least the qualities of a competent musician. Considering the enormous number of his works, his unequal workmanship and the frequent instances of mechanical and slipshod writing i...
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Louis-Gabriel Guillemain

borndied
1705, Nov 51770, Oct 1
a French composer and violinist. At the age of 24, Guillemain quickly established himself as one of the most sought-after performers, and was appointed first violinist of the Acadèmie de Musique. His career was progressing rapidly, and by the early 1740s the composer was among the highest-paid musicians at the court, regularly performing in private concert...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Gwynneth

bornactivedied
unknown1550sunknown
a Welsh Catholic divine and musician. He was educated at Oxford. In due course he was ordained priest, and on 9 December 1531 he supplicated the university for leave to practise in music and for the degree of doctor of music, as he had composed all the responses for a whole year 'in cantis chrispis aut fractis, ut aiunt,' and many masses, including three mas...
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Adalbert Gyrowetz

borndied
17631850
a Bohemian composer. He mainly wrote instrumental works, with a great production of string quartets and symphonies; his operas and singspiele numbered more than 30, including Semiramide (1791), Der Augenarzt (1811), and Robert, oder Die Prüfung (1815).
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