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When you've got a lot of people together, it makes sense to pick someone to be in charge. As exploration expanded, individuals were chosen to oversee colonies and settlements. This section highlights those men (and some women), as well as the leaders and attendant ruling class -- nobles, peerage, wannabes and hangers-on --back home.
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Daniel O'Connell

aka: Dónall Ó Conaill
borndied
1775, Aug 61847, May 15
often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century. He campaigned for Catholic emancipation—including the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Act of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland. Throughout his career...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John L. O'Sullivan

borndied
1813, Nov 151895, Mar 24
an American columnist and editor who used the term "manifest destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States. O'Sullivan was an influential political writer and advocate for the Democratic Party at that time and served as US Minister to Portugal during the administration of President Franklin Pierce (1853–185...
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Cross-listed in Military

Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt

aka: Jorge de Darmstadt, Jordi Darmstadt
borndied
16691705, Sep 13
a Field Marshal in the Austrian army. He is known for his career in Habsburg Spain, as Viceroy of Catalonia (1698–1701), head of the Austrian army in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1705) and governor of Gibraltar in 1704. He was killed during the Siege of Barcelona the following year. Born in Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany in 1669, George Louis of H...
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Emperor Ogimachi

aka: Michihito
bornactivedied
1517, Jun 181557-15861593, Feb 6
the 106th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from October 27, 1557, to December 17, 1586, corresponding to the transition between the Warring States Era and the Azuchi–Momoyama period. In 1586, Emperor Ogimachi abdicated in favor of his grandson, Imperial Prince Katahito, who became the Emperor Go-Yozei. Ogimachi...
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Cross-listed in Military

James Oglethorpe

borndied
1696, Dec 221785, Jun 30
a British general, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's worthy poor in the New World, initially focusing on those in debtors' prisons. In 1728, three years before conceiving the Georgia colony, Oglethorpe chaired a Parliamentary committee on prison refo...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Andrew Oliver

borndied
1706, Mar 281774, Mar 3
a merchant and public official in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Born into a wealthy and politically powerful merchant family, he is best known as the Massachusetts official responsible for implementing the provisions of the Stamp Act, for which he was hanged in effigy. He never actually carried out those duties, and was later commissioned as the provinc...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Juan de Onate

aka: Oñate
bornactivedied
15501595-1620s1626/1630
a Novohispanic Conquistador, explorer, and colonial governor of the Santa Fe de Nuevo México province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains and Lower Colorado River Valley, encountering numerous indigenous tribes in their homelands there. Oñate founded settlements within the province and in the present day Am...
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Quint Ondaatje

aka: Pieter Philips Jurriaan Quint Ondaatje
borndied
17581818, Apr 18
a Dutch patriot and politician. He is called the champion of Dutch democracy. Ondaatje was born at Colombo on Ceylon, as the son of a minister. His mother came from Amsterdam. He had a dark complexion as his father was descended from Europeans on the island, known as "burghers". At the age of 14 year he came to Amsterdam, becoming a pupil at the Athenaeum Il...
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Opchanacanough

bornactivedied
1554 ca1500s-1600s1646
a tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia in the United States, and its leader from sometime after 1618 until his death in 1646. His name meant "He whose Soul is White" in the Algonquian Powhatan language. He was the famous Chief Powhatan's younger brother (or possibly half-brother). He led the Indian massacre of 1622.
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Francis Osborne

aka: 1st Baron Godolphin
borndied
1777, Oct 181850, Feb 15
a British politician. Osborne sat as Member of Parliament for Helston between 1799 and 1802, for Lewes between 1802 and 1806 and for Cambridgeshire between 1810 and 1831. On 14 May 1832 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Godolphin, of Farnham Royal in the County of Buckingham.
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Cross-listed in ComposersWriters

King Oscar I of Sweden

bornactivedied
1799, Jul 41844-18591859, Jul 8
King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. When, in August 1810, his father Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected Crown Prince of Sweden, Oscar and his mother moved from Paris to Stockholm (June 1811). Oscar's father was the first ruler of the current House of Bernadotte. n 1832-34 he completed the opera Ryno, the errant knight left unfinished on the ...
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Osceola

bornactivedied
18041830s1838
an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida. Of mixed parentage, Creek, Scots-Irish, and English, he was raised as a Creek by his mother, as the tribe had a matrilineal kinship system. They migrated to Florida when he was a child, with other Red Stick refugees, after their defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars. The principal leader of the Second Seminole War...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Osman II

bornactivedied
1604, Nov 31618-16221622, May 20
the Sultan and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Empire/Caliphate from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622. After securing the empire's eastern border by signing a peace treaty (Treaty of Serav) with Safavid Persia, he personally led the Ottoman invasion of Poland during the Moldavian Magnate Wars. Forced to sign a peace treaty with the Poles after the Bat...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Osman III

bornactivedied
1699, Jan 2/31754-17571757, Oct 30
the Sultan and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Empire/Caliphate from 1754 to 1757. His brief reign saw rising intolerance of non-Muslims (Christians and Jews being required to wear distinctive clothes or badges) and is also notable for a fire in Constantinople. Osman III lived most of his life as a prisoner in the palace, and as a consequence on becomin...
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Otto of Bavaria

aka: Otho
borndied
1815, Jun 11867, Jul 26
a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London. He reigned until he was deposed in 1862. The second son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended the newly created throne of Greece while still a minor. His government was initially run by a three-man regency council made up of Bavarian court officials. Upo...
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