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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Paine [2]

bornactivedied
1736, Jan 291761-18041809, Jun 8
an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, and he inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnat...
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Timeline (6)Links (8)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Luigi Palmieri

borndied
1807, Apr 221896, Sep 9
an Italian physicist and meteorologist. He was famous for his scientific studies of the eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, for his researches on earthquakes and meteorological phenomena and for improving the seismograph of the time. Using an electromagnetic seismometer for the detection and measurement of ground tremors, Palmieri was able to detect very slight mov...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Denis Papin

borndied
1647, Aug 221713 ca
a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the pressure cooker and of the steam engine. Born in Chitenay (Loir-et-Cher, Centre-Val de Loire Région), Papin attended a Jesuit school there, and from 1661 attended University at Angers, from which he graduated with a medical de...
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Links (1)


Alexander Parkes

borndied
1831, dec 291890, Jun 29
a metallurgist and inventor from Birmingham, England. He created Parkesine, the first man-made plastic. Parkes took out his first patent (No. 8905) in 1841 on a process for electroplating delicate works of art. His improved method for electroplating fine and fragile objects, such as flowers, was granted a patent in 1843. The patent involved electroplating a...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Blaise Pascal

borndied
1623, Jun 191662, Aug 19
a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work ...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Gustaf Erik Pasch

borndied
1788, Sep 31862, Sep 6
a Swedish inventor and professor of chemistry at Karolinska institute in Stockholm and inventor of the safety match. He was born in Norrköping, the son of a carpenter. He enrolled at Uppsala University in 1806 and graduated with a master's degree in 1821. Pasch is mostly known for the safety match, but he was also involved with making waterproof concrete fo...
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Links (1)


David Peacock

bornactivedied
unknown1800sunknown
from New Jersey, was granted a patent on 1 April 1807 for an iron plow. Charles Newbold, a previous plow inventor, sued for patent infringement winning $1500 in damages. Even so, Peacock's plow was an improvement, for the moldboard, share and point were cast ...
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Franklin Peale

borndied
1795, Oct 151870, May 5
an employee and officer of the Philadelphia Mint from 1833 to 1854. Although Peale introduced many innovations to the Mint of the United States, he was eventually dismissed amid allegations he had used his position for personal gain. In 1833, Peale was hired by the Mint, and was sent for two years to Europe to study and report back on coining techniques. He ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Dom Pierre Perignon

aka: Pérignon
borndied
1638, Dec1715, Sep 14
a French Benedictine monk who made important contributions to the production and quality of champagne wine in an era when the region's wines were predominantly still red. Popular myths frequently, but erroneously, credit him with the invention of sparkling champagne, which didn't become the dominant style of Champagne until the mid-19th century. The famous c...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ScientistsCommerce

William Henry Perrins

borndied
17931867
an English drug-store chemist who formed a business partnership with fellow pharmacist John Wheeley Lea, in 1823. They went on to create the Lea & Perrins brand of Worcestershire sauce. He lived in Lansdowne Crescent in the parish of Claines, and is buried in St John, Baptist Churchyard, Claines.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Stephen Perry

bornactivedied
unknown1840sunknown
a 19th-century British inventor and businessman. His corporation was the Messers Perry and Co, Rubber Manufacturers of London, which made early products from vulcanized rubber. On March 17, 1845, Perry received a patent for the rubber band.
Timeline (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Peter the Great

aka: Peter I, Peter Alexeyevich
bornactivedied
1672, May 301682-17251725, Jan 28
ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalis...
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Timeline (21)Links (15)


Cross-listed in ScientistsEducators

Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier

aka: Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier
borndied
1754, Mar 301785, Jun 15
a French chemistry and physics teacher, and one of the first pioneers of aviation. He and the Marquis d'Arlandes made the first manned free balloon flight on 21 November 1783, in a Montgolfier balloon. He later died when his balloon crashed near Wimereux in the Pas-de-Calais during an attempt to fly across the English Channel. He and his companion, Pierre Ro...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov

borndied
1810, Nov 131881, Nov 23
a prominent Russian scientist, medical doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1847). He is considered to be the founder of field surgery, and was one of the first surgeons in Europe to use ether as an anaesthetic. He was the first surgeon to use anaesthesia in a field operation (1847), invented various ...
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Links (1)


Hippolyte Pixii

borndied
18081835
an instrument maker from Paris, France. In 1832 he built an early form of alternating current electrical generator, based on the principle of magnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday. Pixii's device was a spinning magnet, operated by a hand crank, where the North and South poles passed over a coil with an iron core. A current pulse was experienced ea...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Joseph Plateau

borndied
1801, Oct 141883, Sep 15
a Belgian physicist. He was one of the first persons to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image. To do this he used counter rotating disks with repeating drawn images in small increments of motion on one and regularly spaced slits in the other. He called this device of 1832 the phenakistoscope. Plateau also studied the phenomena of capillary action and su...
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Links (1)


Petrache Poenaru

borndied
17991875
a Romanian inventor of the Enlightenment era. Poenaru attended the secondary school Obedeanu in Craiova and worked as a copyist at the office of the bishop of Râmnicu While a student in Paris, Petrache Poenaru invented the world's first fountain pen, an invention for which the French Government issued a patent on 25 May 1827.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Christopher Polhem

aka: Polhammar
borndied
1661, Dec 181751, Aug 30
a Swedish scientist, inventor and industrialist. He made significant contributions to the economic and industrial development of Sweden, particularly mining. One His greatest achievement was an automated factory powered entirely by water; automation was very unusual at the time. product from the factory was the Scandinavian padlock ("Polhem locks", Swedish:...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Oliver Pollock

borndied
17371823, Dec 17
a merchant and financier of the American Revolutionary War, of which he has long been considered a historically undervalued figure. He is often attributed with the creation of the U.S. Dollar sign in 1778. In 1777 he was appointed "commercial agent of the United States at New Orleans", making him the representative of the colonies in the city. He used his fo...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Ivan Polzunov

borndied
17281766, May 27
a Russian inventor. He created the first steam engine in Russia and the first two-cylinder engine in the world. In 1763 he proposed an original 1.8 h.p. (1.2kW) steam machine. The design used two cylinders on the same shaft that allowed its operations completely independently from water power even on dry places or in mountains. This design was a great step f...
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Links (1)


Ignazio Porro

borndied
1801, Nov 251875, Oct 8
an Italian inventor of optical instruments. Porro's name is most closely associated with the prism system which he invented around 1850 and which is used in the construction of Porro prism binoculars. He also developed a strip camera in 1853 for mapping, which was one of the earliest such.
Links (1)


Petro Prokopovych

borndied
17751850
the founder of commercial beekeeping. He introduced novelties in traditional beekeeping that allowed great progress in the practice. Among his most important inventions was a hive frame in a separate honey chamber of his beehive. He also invented a crude queen excluder between brood and honey chambers.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersLegal

James Puckle

borndied
16671724
an English inventor, lawyer and writer from London chiefly remembered for his invention of the Defence Gun, better known as the Puckle gun, a multi-shot gun mounted on a stand capable of (depending on which version) firing up to nine rounds per minute. The Puckle gun is one of the first weapons referred to as a machine gun (though its operation does not matc...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)

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