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Hugh Mackay

borndied
1640 ca1692, Aug 3
a Scottish general best known for his service in the Revolution of 1688. He entered Douglas's (Dumbarton's) regiment of the English army (now the Royal Scots) in 1660 and accompanied it to France when it was lent by Charles II to Louis XIV. After the Restoration, in 1660, he became ensign in Douglas's or Dumbarton's regiment, subsequently the royal Scots, an...
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Mangkunegara I

aka: Raden Mas Said,
borndied
1725, Apr 71795, Dec 23
the founder of Praja Mangkunegaran , a great duchy in southern central Java, and Hero National Indonesia . His father was named Prince Arya Mangkunegara of Kartasura and his mother was named RA Wulan. RM Said was born in Kartasura with the father of KPA Mangkunegara, the eldest son of Sunan Amangkurat IV (Pakubuwana I), the ruler of Mataram-Kartasura Kesunan...
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Ernst von Mansfeld

borndied
1580 ca1626, Nov 29
a German military commander during the early years of the Thirty Years' War. He gained his earliest military experiences during the Long War in Hungary, where his elder half-brother Charles (1543–1595), also a soldier of renown, held a high command in the imperial army. While his brother succumbed to an epidemic within short time, young Ernst stayed at the...
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Manuel of Portugal

aka: Emanuel I, Prince of Portugal
borndied
1568 ca1638, Jun 22
the illegitimate son of António, Prior of Crato, pretender to the Portuguese throne during the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. He secretly married in 1597 Countess Emilia of Nassau, daughter of William the Silent and Anna of Saxony. Manuel was born in Tangier to Portuguese pretender António, Prior of Crato and one Anna Barbosa. Due to his religious offi...
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Francois Severin Marceau-Desgraviers

aka: François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers
borndied
1769, Mar 11796, Sep 21
a French general of the Revolutionary Wars. In March 1792, Marceau was elected lieutenant colonel of one of the French Revolutionary Army battalions of the Eure-et-Loir. He took part in the defence of Verdun in 1792, and it was his troop that was ordered to bear the proposals of capitulation to the Prussian camp. The defenders' lack of morale provoked the an...
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Francis Marion

aka: The Swamp Fox
borndied
1732 ca1795, Feb 27
a military officer who served in the American Revolutionary War. Acting with the Continental Army and South Carolina militia commissions, he was a persistent adversary of the British in their occupation of South Carolina in 1780 and 1781, even after the Continental Army was driven out of the state in the Battle of Camden. Due to his irregular methods of warf...
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Cross-listed in Pirates

Samuel Mason

aka: Meason, "Wolfman"
bornactivedied
1739, Nov 81790s-18031803
a Virginia militia captain on the American western frontier during the Revolutionary War, who subsequent to the war, became the leader of a gang of river pirates and highwaymen on the lower Ohio River and the Mississippi River in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He was associated with outlaws around Red Banks, Cave-in-Rock, Stack Island, and the Natch...
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Captain John Massey

bornactivedied
unknown1720s1723, Jul 26
As a lieutenant, he "served with great applause" in the army in Flanders, under the command of the Duke of Marlborough. He afterwards sailed from the Thames in the Gambia Castle, a ship of the African Company, in command of a company of soldiers which was being sent to garrison the fort. The merchants of Gambia were supposed to victual this garrison, but ...
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Cross-listed in PiratesGovernance

Matsura Takanobu

aka: Taqua Nombo
bornactivedied
15291550s-1560s1599, Apr 1
a 16th-century Japanese samurai and 25th hereditary lord of the Matsura clan of Hirado. He was one of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyushu and one of the first to allow trading with Europeans, particularly the Portuguese, through whom he amassed great profits in the import of western firearms. He was also an early host and patron to the Jesuits, who he ...
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Thomas Matulessy

aka: Pattimura, Kapitan Pattimura
borndied
1783, Jun 81817, Dec 16
an Ambonese soldier and National Hero of Indonesia. Born on the island of Saparua, Pattimura joined the British army after they took the Maluku islands from the Dutch colonials. When the islands were returned to the Dutch in 1816, he was dismissed. Concerned that the Dutch would implement programs that limited his people, Pattimura led an armed rebellion tha...
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Maurice of Orange

aka: Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
borndied
1567, Nov 141625, Apr 23
stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625. Before he became Prince of Orange upon the death of his eldest half-brother Philip William in 1618, he was known as Maurice of Nassau. Maurice spent his youth in Dillenburg in Nassau, and studied in Heidelberg and Leiden. He succeeded h...
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John Maurice

aka: Prince of Nassau-Siegen, The Brazilian
borndied
1604, Jun 171679, Dec 20
was count and (from 1674) prince of Nassau-Siegen, and Grand Master of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg). John Maurice joined the Dutch army in 1621, at a very early age. He distinguished himself in the campaigns of his cousin, the stadtholder Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. In 1626 he became captain. He was involved in 1629 in the captur...
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Maximilian II Emanuel

aka: Max Emanuel, Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
borndied
1662, Jul 111726, Feb 26
a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a Kurfürst of the Holy Roman Empire. He was also the last governor of the Spanish Netherlands and duke of Luxembourg. An able soldier, his ambition led to conflicts that limited his ultimate dynastic achievements. By 1683 he was already embarked on a military career, fighting in the defense of Vienna against the attempt o...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Joseph McDowell

aka: Pleasant Gardens Joe
borndied
1758, Feb 251799, Mar 7
an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Morganton, North Carolina. His estate was named "Pleasant Gardens", and he was nicknamed "Pleasant Gardens Joe" to distinguish him from his cousin, Joseph "Quaker Meadows" McDowell. The two men are not always clearly distinguished in historical records: both were at the 1780 Battle of Kings Mountain, one as ...
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Joseph McDowell Jr.

aka: Quaker Meadows Joe
borndied
17561801, Feb 5
an American planter, soldier, and statesman from North Carolina. He was known as "Quaker Meadows Joe" to distinguish him from his cousin Joseph "Pleasant Gardens" McDowell, who was also a legislator and American Revolutionary War officer from North Carolina. The two men are not always clearly distinguished in historical records; both were in the 1780 Battle ...
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Lachlan McIntosh

borndied
1725, Mar 171806, Feb 20
a Scottish American military and political leader during the American Revolution and the early United States. In a 1777 duel, he fatally shot Button Gwinnett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. By 1770, McIntosh had become a leader in the independence movement in Georgia. In January 1775 he helped organize delegates to the Provincial Congress from ...
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John Meldrum

bornactivedied
unknown1609-16451645
a soldier of Scottish origin who spent 36 years in the service of the Stuart kings of Scotland and England, James VI and I and Charles I. In 1636, Meldrum was granted by letters-patent from the king licence to continue and renew the lighthouses erected by Charles I on the North and South Forelands. In 1642, he found himself opposed to the policies of Charles...
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Francisco de Melo

borndied
15971651, Dec 18
a Portuguese nobleman and general. Melo was born in Estremoz, Portugal. He was marquis of the Portuguese Tor de Laguna, count of Assumar, and, from 1641 to 1644, interim governor of the Southern Netherlands. When Francisco de Melo came to the Southern Netherlands, he already had an impressive political career. From 1632 to 1636 he had been Spanish ambassador...
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Bernardino de Mendoza

borndied
1540 ca1604, Aug 3
a Spanish military commander, a diplomat and a writer on military history and politics. Many of Mendoza's dispatches to Madrid were first deciphered only in the Simancas archives by De Lamar Jensen; they revealed for the first time Mendoza's role in organizing and coordinating the Paris riots led by the duc de Guise, known as the Day of the Barricades (12 Ma...
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Pedro de Mendoza

borndied
1487 ca1537, Jun 23
a Spanish conquistador, soldier and explorer, and the first adelantado of New Andalusia. In 1529, he offered to explore South America at his own expense and establish colonies. Thanks to the efforts of his mother María de Mendoza, in 1534 his offer was accepted: he was made adelantado governor, captain general, and chief justice over New Andalusia. This gra...
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Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov

bornactivedied
1787, Aug 261809-18561869, May 2
a Finno-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman. He was made adjutant general in 1817 and admiral in 1833. Menshikov entered the Russian service as attaché to the embassy at Vienna in 1809. He became close with Tsar Alexander I and accompanied him throughout his campaigns against Napoleon. In 1817 Menshikov was appointed acting Quartermaster gene...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Hugh Mercer

borndied
1726, Jan 171777, Jan 12
a Scottish soldier and physician. He initially served with the Jacobite forces of Bonnie Prince Charlie, and with the British forces during the Seven Years' War, but later became a brigadier general in the Continental Army and a close friend to George Washingto...
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Franz von Mercy

aka: Merci, Lord of Mandre and Collenburg
bornactivedied
1595 ca1606-16451645, Aug 3
a German general in the Thirty Years' War. From 1606 to 1630 he was engaged in the imperial service. By the latter year he had attained high military rank, and after distinguishing himself at the first Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) he commanded a regiment of foot on the Rhine and defended Rheinfelden against the Swedes with the utmost bravery, surrendering on...
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Hendrik Merkus de Kock

aka: Baron de Kock
borndied
1779, May 251845, Apr 12
a Dutch military general, minister, and senator. In 1801, he joined the Batavian navy, and by 1807 was posted to the Dutch East Indies. In 1821 he commanded a military expedition to Palembang to suppress a local uprising. Later, as Lieutenant Governor-General (1826–1830), De Kock led the fight against Prince Diponegoro in the Java War.
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Cross-listed in Governance

Metacomet

aka: King Philip, Pokanoket, Pometacomet, Pometacom, Metacom
bornactivedied
1639 ca1660s-1670s1676
Wampanoag; The second son of Massasoit, Metacomet (or King Philip) led an open rebellion against the English Massachusetts Bay Colony known as King Philip's War.
Timeline (1)Links (15)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyWriters

William Miller

bornactivedied
1782, Feb 151809-18491849, Dec 20
an American Baptist preacher who is credited with beginning the mid-19th century North American religious movement known as the Millerites. After his prophecies of the Second Coming did not occur as expected in the 1840s, new heirs of his message emerged, including the Advent Christians (1860), the Seventh-day Adventists (1863) and other Adventist movements....
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Francisco Javier Mina

aka: Martín Francisco Javier Mina y Larrea, El Mozo
borndied
1789, Jul 11817, Nov 11
a Spanish lawyer and army officer, who later became a Mexican revolutionary figure. Mina started the resistance war, a period of the Mexican War of Independence. On May 24 of 1817, Mina left his base with 300 men, moving to several villages on his way to Fuerte del Sombrero, a fortification defended by Pedro Moreno. General Mina published a letter stating th...
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Martín Javier Mina

aka: Martín Javier Mina y Larrea, El Mozo
borndied
1789, Jul 11817, Nov 11
a Spanish lawyer and army officer, who later became a Mexican revolutionary figure. During the Peninsular War in early 1808, Spain was under occupation by French troops, prompting Mina to flee to the hills and forests of his native region. There he formed a small guerrilla force of ten men. Under his leadership, the small force quickly grew to over 200 men. ...
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Miguel Miramon

aka: Miramón, Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo
borndied
1832, Sep 291867, Jun 19
a Mexican conservative general and politician. He served as anti-constitutional interim conservative President of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president, Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party. He was a staunch conservative, a supporter of monarchy, aristocracy and religious privileges for the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church supported his mil...
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Pierre Alexandre Jean Molliere

aka: Mollière
borndied
18001850, Jul 6
a French general and writer. Participated in the expedition sent by Louis Napoleon to suppress the Roman Republic, ended with the long siege of Rome. From his experience of Algeria he authored a remarkable text of military theory, entitled fort remarquable mémoire sur l'organization des corps auxiliaires en Algérie .
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George Monck

aka: 1st Duke of Albemarle
borndied
1608, Dec 61670, Jan 3
an English soldier, politician and a key figure in effecting the Restoration of the Monarchy to King Charles II in 1660. During the operations on the Scottish border in the Bishops' Wars (1639–1640) he showed his skill and coolness in the dispositions by which he saved the English artillery at the Battle of Newburn (1640). At the outbreak of the Irish rebe...
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Cristobal de Mondragon

aka: Cristóbal de Mondragón
borndied
15141596
a Spanish general during the Eighty Years' War. He was a prominent military figure of the sixteenth century, and was colonel of one of the Tercios of Flanders under the Duke of Alva, Luis de Requesens, Alexander Farnese and Count Mansfeld. He fought during the Eighty Years' War against the armies of William of Orange first and after Maurice of Nassau.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Raimondo Montecuccoli

aka: Count of Montecúccoli, Montecucculi, Raimondo Graf Montecúccoli
bornactivedied
1609, Feb 211628-16781680, Oct 16
an Italian military commander who also served as general for the Habsburg Monarchy, and was also a prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan Duke of Melfi. At the age of sixteen Montecuccoli began as a private soldier under his uncle, Count Ernest Montecuccoli (died 1633), a distinguished Austrian general. Four years later, after much active service in ...
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Richard Montgomery

borndied
1738, Dec 21775, Dec 31
an Irish-born soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and he is most famous for leading the failed 1775 invasion of Canada. Montgomery was born and raised in Ireland. In 1754, he enrolled at Trinity College, Dublin, and two years later joined the British Army...
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Anne de Montmorency

aka: duc de Montmorency
borndied
1493, Mar 151567, Nov 12
a French soldier, statesman and diplomat. He became Marshal of France and Constable of France. When King Francis I acceded to the throne in January 1515, Montmorency became an influential member of his court. When the king reasserted the French claim to Milan the same year, Montmorency followed his king into Italy and distinguished himself at Marignano.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


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Charles Mordaunt

aka: 3rd Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth
borndied
16581735, Oct 25
an English nobleman and military leader. He was the son of John Mordaunt, 1st Viscount Mordaunt, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Carey, the second son of Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth. Mordaunt's father, John Mordaunt, was created Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon and Baron Mordaunt of Reigate, Surrey, in 1659.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Daniel Morgan

bornactivedied
1736, Jul 61775-17991802, Jul 6
an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. One of the most gifted battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), he later commanded troops during the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion (1791–1794).
Timeline (1)Links (15)


Gilbert du Motier

aka: Marquis de Lafayette
borndied
1757, Sep 61834, May 20
in the U.S. often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War. A close friend of George Washington, more
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Cross-listed in Governance

Muhammad XII

aka: Boabdil
borndied
1460 ca1533
the twenty-second and last Nasrid ruler of Granada in Iberia. In 1491, Muhammad XII was summoned by Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, which was besieged by the Castilians. Eventually, on 2 January 1492, Granada was surrendered. In most sumptuous attire the royal procession moved from Santa Fe to a place a little more than a mile from G...
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Cross-listed in ClergyGovernance

Peter Muhlenberg

borndied
1746, Oct 11807, Oct 1
an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly independent United States. A Lutheran minister, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania. Muhlenberg was elected to the 1st Congress (1789–1791) as one of the at-large representat...
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Hector Munro

aka: 8th laird of Novar
borndied
17261805, Dec 27
a British soldier who became the ninth Commander-in-Chief of India (1764–1765). Hector is said to have got his first commission in the army after helping the Duchess of Gordon who was travelling alone in Sutherland. Hector took over from a drunken coachman and brought her to safety, the Duchess later used her influence to procure him a Lieutenants commissi...
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Cross-listed in NavalGovernance

Joachim Murat

borndied
1767, Mar 251815, Oct 13
a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. He received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his youngest sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring,...
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Timeline (6)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Naval

Alexander Murray

borndied
1755, Jul 121821, Oct 6
an officer who served in the Continental Navy, the Continental Army, and later the United States Navy, during the American Revolutionary War, the Quasi-War with France and the First Barbary War in North Africa. From July 1805 until late 1806, Murray commanded the frigate Adams, cruising along the eastern coast of the United States from New York to Florida pr...
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Kara Mustafa Pasha

bornactivedied
1634/351660s-16831683, Dec 25
an Ottoman military leader and grand vizier who was a central character in the Ottoman Empire's last attempts at expansion into both Central and Eastern Europe. He served as a commander of ground troops in a war against Poland, negotiating a settlement with Jan Sobieski in 1676 that added the province of Podolia to the empire. The victory enabled the Ottoman...
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