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John Joseph Abercrombie

bornactivedied
1798, Mar 41822-18651877, Jan 3
a career United States Army officer who served in numerous wars, finally reaching the rank of brigadier general during the American Civil War. Abercrombie began his long military career with garrison duty at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, until 1825. He became the adjutant of the 1st U.S. Infantry and was assigned administrative duty at regimental headquarters. He ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Sultan Agung of Mataram

aka: Adi Prabu Hanyakrakusuma
bornactivedied
15931613-16451645
A skilled soldier, he conquered neighbouring states and expanded and consolidated his kingdom to its greatest territorial and military power. Sultan Agung (literally, "Great Sultan" or "Majestic Sultan") is subject of a substantial amount of literature due to his legacy as a Javanese ruler, a fighter against the incursions of the Dutch East India Company, a ...
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Francisco Antonio de Agurto

aka: Francisco Antonio de Agurto y Salcedo, I Marqués de Gastañaga
borndied
16401702, Nov 2
aristocrat, viceroy and Spanish governor. Invested Marques de Gastañaga in 1676, was governor of the Netherlands of the Habsburg house , from 1685 to 1692, where he was at the head of the Spanish troops at the Battle of Fleurus, 1690. He was unsuccessful in defending Mons against the attack French. He promoted the construction of a royal chapel dedicated to...
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Timeline (1)


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Kopruluzade Fazil Ahmed Pasha

aka: Köprülüzade
borndied
16351676, Nov 3
a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire. He served as a grand vizier from 1661 to 1676 after he inherited the title from his father, Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, the founder of the Köprülü political family. Prior to this appointment, he served as the Ottoman governor of the Da...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


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Albert III of Saxony

aka: Duke of Saxony, Albert the Bold, Albert the Courageous
borndied
1443, Jan 271500, Sep 12
a Duke of Saxony. He founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. Regarded as a capable soldier by the emperor, Albert took a prominent part in the campaign against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1487 led an expedition against Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, which failed owing to lack of support on the part of the emperor. In 1488 he wa...
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Prince Albert of Prussia [2]

aka: Frederick Henry Albert
borndied
1809, Oct 41872, Oct 14
a Prussian colonel general. Albert was the fifth son and youngest child of King Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His parents had fled to East Prussia after the occupation of Berlin by Napoleon. Two of Albert's elder brothers were Frederick William IV, King of Prussia from 1840 till 1861, and William I, King of Prussia fro...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

Afonso de Albuquerque

aka: Aphonso, Duke of Goa
bornactivedied
1453 ca1471-15151515, Dec 16
a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror," a statesman, and an empire builder. He is generally considered a military genius, and "probably the greatest naval commander of the age" given his successful strategy. During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


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Ramon Alcaraz

aka: Ramón
bornactivedied
unknown1840sunknown
an officer in the Mexican Army who wrote many books about the Mexican-American War, including 1848's Apuntes para la historia de la guerra entre México y los Estados Unidos (which in 1850 Albert C. Ramsey translated into English as The Other Side, or: Notes for the History of the War Between Mexico and the United States, Written in Mexico).
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Alfonso II

aka: Alfonso of Aragon
borndied
1448, Nov 41495, Dec 18
King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem. As Duke of Calabria he was a patron of Renaissance poets and builders during his tenure as the heir to the throne of Naples. In 1463, when Alfonso was fifteen, his great-uncle Giovanni Antonio del Balzo Orsini, Prince of Taranto, died, and he obtained some l...
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Muhammad Ali

aka: Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, Mehmet Ali Pasha, Kavalal Mehmet Ali Pasa
borndied
1769, Mar 41849, Aug 2
an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wali, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted....
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Cross-listed in GovernanceWritersCommerce

Ethan Allen

bornactivedied
1737, Jan 101757-17891789, Feb 12
a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with more
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Fadrique Alvarez de Toledo [1 [1]

aka: Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba
borndied
1460 ca1531, Oct 19
a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician. He participated in the conquest of Granada, and already as Duke, he led the Spanish army against the French in Roussillon in 1503. When Ferdinand II as regent of Castilla, decided to invade and conquer the Kingdom of Navarre, supported by a Papal bull, he put the Duke of Alva at the head of his army. Fadriq...
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Fadrique Alvarez de Toledo [2 [2]

aka: Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Duke of Alba
borndied
1537, Nov 211583, Dec 11
a commander in the Spanish army during the Eighty Years' War. Don Fadrique, was commander of the Spanish troops during the most bloody phase of the war in the Netherlands. He was in charge of the Spanish troops that slaughered the populations of Mechelen, Zutphen and Naarden, as well as during the costly Siege of Haarlem. His army failed in the siege of Alkm...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Fernando Alvarez de Toledo

aka: Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Grand Duke of Alba, Iron Duke
bornactivedied
1507, Oct 291524-15821582, Dec 11
a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquis of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. His motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He...
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Jeffery Amherst

aka: 1st Baron Amherst
borndied
1717, Jan 291797, Aug 3
an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. Amherst is best known as the architect of Britain's successful campaign to conquer the territory of New France during the Seven Years' War. Under his command, British forces captured the cities of Louisbourg, Quebec City and Montreal, as well as several major fortresses. He was also the...
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John Andre

aka: André
bornactivedied
1750, May 21770-17801780, Oct 2
a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. He was a great favorite in colonial society, both in P...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


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Manuel Jose Arce

aka: Manuel José
borndied
1787, Jan 11847, Dec 14
a decorated General and president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1825 to 1829, followed by Francisco Morazán. He strongly opposed the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide. In April 1822 Manuel Arzú, in command of Guatemalan troops supporting Mexico, occupied the cities of Santa Ana, El Salvador, and Sonsonate. On June 3, 1822, Arzú ente...
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Hernando Arias de Saavedra

aka: Hernandarias
borndied
1561, Sep 101634
a soldier and politician of criollo ancestry. He was the first person born in the Americas to become a governor of a European colony in the New World, serving two terms as governor of Governorate of the Río de la Plata, 1597–1599 and 1602–1609, and one of the Governorate of Paraguay 1615–1617.
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Cross-listed in Governance

Mariano Arista

aka: José Mariano Martín Buenaventura Ignacio Nepomuceno García de Arista Nuez
borndied
1802, Jul 261855, Aug 7
a noted veteran of many of Mexico's nineteenth-century wars. He served as president of Mexico from 15 January 1851 to 6 January 1853. In 1846, Arista was given command of the Army of the North and sent to expel American troops from territory claimed by Mexico in Texas. The resulting engagement ignited the bloody Mexican-American War of 1846–1848. Arista wa...
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Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg

aka: Johann
borndied
15831641, Apr 28
a German general. At different times during the Thirty Years' War, he was a Field Marshal for the Holy Roman Empire and Field Marshal for its opponent the Electorate of Saxony. He also pursued various diplomatic tasks. In 1626, although a Protestant, he was persuaded by more
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Benedict Arnold

bornactivedied
1741, Jan 31757-17811801, Jun 14
a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fortifications at West Point, New York (future site of the U.S. Military Academy after 1802), overlooking the cliffs at the Hudson River (upriver from Britis...
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Timeline (15)Links (20)


Cross-listed in InventorsPerformers

Philip Astley

bornactivedied
1742, Jan 81759-18141814, Jan 27
an English equestrian, circus owner, and inventor, regarded as being the "father of the modern circus". The circus industry, as a presenter of an integrated entertainment experience that includes music, domesticated animals, acrobats, and clowns, traces its heritage to Astley's Amphitheatre, a riding school that Astley founded in London following the success...
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Timeline (1)Links (10)Notes (3)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

David Atchison

bornactivedied
1807, Aug 111829-18621886, Jan 26
a mid-19th century Democratic United States Senator from Missouri. He served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate for six years. Atchison served as a Major General in the Missouri State Militia in 1838 during Missouri's Mormon War and as a Confederate Brigadier General during the Civil War under Major General Sterling Price in the Missouri Ho...
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Henry Atkinson

bornactivedied
17821808-18421842, Jun 14
a United States army officer. He was a native of Person County, North Carolina. He entered the United States Army in 1808 as a captain in the infantry, serving at various outposts on the Western frontier. He moved to New York and was promoted to colonel in the Regular Army, seeing considerable action during the War of 1812. He commanded the 6th U.S. Infantry...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Aurangzeb

aka: Alamgir, Abu'l Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad
borndied
1618, Nov 31707, Mar 3
the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal Emperor. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign, which lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. During his lifetime, victories in t...
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Diogo de Azambuja

bornactivedied
14321450s-15091518
a Portuguese noble. He was a knight of the Order of Aviz in the service of the Infante Dom Pedro, son of the Regent Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra. After Peter's defeat and death in the battle of Alfarrobeira (1449), he accompanied his master into exile. He was already over the age of 70 in 1506 when Manuel I placed him in charge of building a fortress calle...
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Babur

aka: Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad
borndied
1483, Feb 141530, Dec 26
a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamurlane) from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mothe...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Vicente Bacallar

borndied
1669, Feb 61726, Jun 11
a nobleman, military officer, linguist, historian, politician and Spanish ambassador. He was born to a noble Sardinian family when the kingdom of Sardinia was part of the Spanish crown. He wrote the short poem Las Tobias (The Tobies, 1709), the poem El Palacio de Momo (Momo's Palace, 1714), the treaty Monarchia Hebrea (The Hebrew Monarch...
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Felice Baciocchi

borndied
1762, May 181841, Apr 28
born at Ajaccio into a noble, but poor, Corsican family. He was second lieutenant in the French army in 1778, lieutenant in 1788, then Captain in 1794. Around 5 May 1797, he married Elisa Maria Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger sister, in Marseilles. Baciocchi was then promoted to colonel in 1802, to Brigadier General in 1804, and to Major General in 1809. He wa...
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Astorre Baglioni

borndied
1526, Mar1571, Aug 4
an Italian condottiero and military commander. In 1540 he fought under the latter at Pest against the Turks. In 1550 he was on a frigate in a Christian fleet led by Carlo Sforza, to fight against the northern African raider Dragut. In August Baglioni was at the siege of Mahdia with Giordano Orsini. In 1556-1558 he was hired by the Republic of Venice, for whi...
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Anne Bailey

borndied
17421825, Nov 22
a story teller and frontier scout who served in the fights of the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. Her single-person ride in search of an urgently needed powder supply for the endangered Clendenin's Settlement (present-day Charleston, West Virginia) was used as the template for Charles Robb's 1861 poem "Anne Bailey's Ride". She is kno...
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Sir David Baird

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
1757, Dec 61829, Aug 18
a British military leader. He was sent to India in 1779 with the 73rd (afterwards 71st) Highlanders, in which he was a captain. Immediately on his arrival, Baird was attached to the force commanded by Sir Hector Munro, which was sent forward to assist the detachment of Colonel Baillie, threatened by Hyder Ali. In the action which followed the whole force was...
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Robert Barnwell

borndied
1761, Dec 211814, Oct 24
a South Carolina revolutionary and statesman who was a delegate to the Confederation Congress and a United States Congressman. His education was by a private tutor after he had exhausted the resources of the Beaufort common school. But he interrupted this and entered the revolutionary war at the age of 16 as a private in the militia. By the end of the war ha...
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Francois Baron de Tott

aka: François Barbé-Marbois
borndied
1733, Aug 171793, Sep 24
an aristocrat and a French military officer of Hungarian origin. Born in Chamigny, a village in northern France, the descendant of a Hungarian nobleman, who had emigrated to the Ottoman Empire and then moved on to France with the cavalry of Count Miklós Bercsényi, and was later raised to the rank of baron. François Baron de Tott's Memoirs were published i...
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Antoine Joseph Barruel-Beauvert

borndied
17561817
a French military officer and journalist. He was born Comte de Barruel-Beauvert, at the castle of Beauvert, in Languedoc, but was impoverished by the Revolution. He took part in some events of the French Revolution. He was also the first biographer of Jean-J...
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Jean de Beaugue

aka: Beaugué
bornactivedied
unknown1540s-1550sunknown
a French soldier who served in Scotland in the 1540s during the war of the Rough Wooing. He wrote a memoir of the fighting which, first published in 1556, is still an important source for historians. Much of the book concerns the activities of the French commander in Scotland, André de Montalembert, who is often called d'Esse in British histories.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Francois-Joseph de Beaupoil de Sainte-Aulaire

aka: François-Joseph, marquis de Sainte-Aulaire
borndied
1643, Sep 61742, Dec 17
a French poet and army officer. After a botched education, St. Aulaire entered the army and distinguished himself by his bravery, which led him to Lieutenant General rank. He also frequently fought a duel over a restless youth. He left the military career and came to live in Paris. He was a man of pleasant manners, delicate and sharp. He was welcomed in livi...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceCommerce

William Becknell

borndied
1787/881865, Apr 30
an American soldier, politician, and freight operator who is credited with opening the Santa Fe Trail in 1821, which became an early major transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. It served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880. Beckn...
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Francois-Marie Picote de Belestre

aka: François-Marie Picoté
borndied
1716, Nov 171793, Mar 30
a colonial soldier for both New France and Great Britain. As a soldier in the French troupes de la marine, Belestre fought against British and American colonial troops for 30 years, from Nova Scotia to the Mississippi River valley. Belestre became famous during the wars between France and Great Britain, serving in the North American theater of the Seven Year...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Richard Bellingham

borndied
1592 ca1672, Dec 7
a colonial magistrate, lawyer, and several-time governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the last surviving signatory of the colonial charter at his death. A wealthy lawyer in Lincolnshire prior to his departure for the New World in 1634, he was a liberal political opponent of the moderate John Winthrop, arguing for expansive views on suffrage and lawma...
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Cross-listed in PiratesExplorersWriters

Maurycy Beniowski

aka: Baron Maurice de Benyowski, Móric Benyovszky, Móric Benyovszky
bornactivedied
1746, Sep 201762-17861786, May 23
a Hungarian nobleman of Polish and Hungarian ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, the self-declared King of Madagascar, and a military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. He is considered a national hero in Hungary, Slovakia and Poland.
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William Beresford

aka: 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior
borndied
1768, Oct 21854, Jan 8
an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. A general in the British Army and a Marshal in the Portuguese Army, he fought alongside The Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and held the office of Master-General of the Ordnance in 1828 in Wellington's first ministry. Beresford entered the British Army in 1785 as an ensign in the 6th Regiment of Foot and the ne...
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John Berkeley

aka: 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton
borndied
16021678, Aug 26
an English royalist soldier, of the Bruton branch of the Berkeley family. From 1648 he was closely associated with James, Duke of York, and rose to prominence, fortune, and fame. He and Sir George Carteret were the founders of the Province of New Jersey, a British colony in North America that would eventually become the U.S. state of New Jersey.
Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Gillis van Berlaymont

borndied
1545 ca1579, Jun 18
stadtholder for the Spanish Crown of Drenthe, Friesland, Groningen and Overijssel (1572-1573), stadtholder of Guelders (1572-1577), substitute stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht (1574-1577), stadtholder of Namur and Artois (after 1578) and baron of Hierges. In 1567 Gilles commanded the Siege of Valenciennes, the first siege of the Eighty Years' War....
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Pierre-Joseph Bernard

aka: Gentil-Bernard
borndied
1708, Aug 261775, Nov 1
a French military man and salon poet with the reputation of a rake, the author of several libretti for Rameau. Mme de Pompadour arranged to have him appointed a royal librarian, at the château de Choisy, where she had a little pavilion built for him. He received a Jesuit education at Lyon and joined the staff of Marshal François de Franquetot de Coigny, ri...
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

aka: Bernardin de St. Pierre
borndied
1737, Jan 191814, Jan 21
a French writer and botanist. He is best known for his 1788 novel Paul et Virginie, now largely forgotten, but in the 19th century a very popular children's book. He was educated as an engineer at the École des Ponts ParisTech. Then he joined the French Army and was involved in the Seven Years' War against Prussia and England. In 1768 he traveled to Mauriti...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Ali Bey al-Abbasi

aka: Domingo Francisco Jorge Badía y Leblich
borndied
17671818
a Spanish explorer, soldier, and spy in the early 19th century. He supported the French occupation of Spain and worked for the Bonapartist administration, but he is principally known for his travels in North Africa and the Middle East. He witnessed the Saudi conquest of Mecca in 1807. In 1814, he published a French account of his travels in three volumes. An...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersWriters

Wilhelm Freiherr von Biela

bornactivedied
1782, Mar 191802-1840s1856, Feb 18
a German-Austrian military officer and amateur astronomer. In the field of astronomy, he specialized in observing and calculating the orbits of comets. He also did some sunspot observations and published a series of articles, mostly in the Astronomische Nachrichten, on subjects such as comets, the theoretical considerations of comets "falling into the Sun," ...
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Timothy Bigelow

borndied
1739, Aug 21790, Mar 31
a Patriot in the American revolution. Timothy Bigelow plays an important part in the well-known story concerning the visit of the two British spies at the tavern of "Tory" Jones which once stood on Main Street, opposite Chatham in Worcester. It seems that British General Gage, about a month before the battles of Lexington and Concord, concluded that it would...
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Colonel Thomas Blood

borndied
16181680, Aug 24
an Anglo-Irish officer and self-styled colonel best known for his attempt to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671. Described in an American source as a "noted bravo and desperado," he was known for his attempt to kidnap and, later, to kill, his enemy, the Duke of Ormonde. He had switched allegiances from Royalist to Roundhead du...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Joseph Bloomfield

bornactivedied
1753, Oct 181775-18231823, Oct 3
the fourth Governor of New Jersey. The township of Bloomfield, New Jersey is named for him. He attained the rank of major on November 28, 1776, and was appointed judge advocate of the northern army. He was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777. He resigned from the Continental Army on October 28, 1778, after he was elected clerk of the New Je...
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Charles Blount [2 [2]

aka: 8th Baron Mountjoy, 1st Earl of Devonshire
borndied
15631606, Apr 3
an English nobleman and soldier who served as Lord Deputy of Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I, then as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under King James I. He succeeded to the family title of Baron Mountjoy in 1594, before commanding the Crown's forces during the final years of Tyrone's Rebellion. He was able to defeat Tyrone at the Battle of Kinsale, and captured ...
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Timeline (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Mountjoy Blount

aka: 1st Earl of Newport
borndied
1597 ca1666
created Baron Mountjoy in the Irish peerage (1617), baron Mountjoy of Thurveston in the English peerage (1627) and Earl of Newport (1628) was appointed master of ordnance to Charles I of England (1634) and played an ambiguous part in the early years of the English Civil War. When the Civil War broke out, however, Newport served in the royalist army, and took...
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Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher

aka: Blücher
borndied
1742, Dec 161819, Sep 12
a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal). He earned his greatest recognition after leading his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Blücher was born in Rostock, the son of a retired army captain. His military career began in 1758 as a hussar in the Swedish Army. He was captured by...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Simon Bolivar

aka: Simón Bolívar
bornactivedied
1783, Jul 241807-18301830, Dec 17
a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and, like others of his day, was educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and...
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Timeline (9)Links (5)


Cross-listed in Governance

Napoleon Bonaparte

aka: Napoleon I
bornactivedied
1769, Aug 151799-18151821, May 5
a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coali...
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Timeline (77)Links (21)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Benjamin Bonneville

borndied
1796, Apr 141878, Jun 12
a French-born officer in the United States Army, fur trapper, and explorer in the American West. He is noted for his expeditions to the Oregon Country and the Great Basin, and in particular for blazing portions of the Oregon Trail. During his lifetime, Bonneville was made famous by an account of his explorations in the West written by Washington Irving.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyGovernance

Cesare Borgia

aka: Duke of Valentinois
bornactivedied
1475, Sep 131490-15071507, Mar 12
an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Machiavelli. He was the illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503, born Rodrigo Borgia) and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei...
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Henry Bouquet

borndied
17191765, Sep 2
a prominent British Army officer in the French and Indian War and Pontiac's War. Bouquet is best known for his victory over a Native American force at the Battle of Bushy Run, lifting the siege of Fort Pitt during Pontiac's War. Like many military officers of his day, Bouquet traveled between countries serving as a professional soldier. He began his military...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Armand de Bourbon

aka: Prince of Conti
borndied
1629, Oct 111666, Feb 26
a French nobleman, the younger son of Henri, Prince of Condé and brother of le Grand Condé and Anne Geneviève, Duchess of Longueville. He played a conspicuous part in the intrigues and fighting of the Fronde, became in 1648 commander-in-chief of the rebel army, and in 1650 was with his brother (Condé) and brother-in-law (Longueville) imprisoned at Vincen...
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Henry Bourchier

aka: 2nd Earl of Essex, 6th Baron Bourchier, 3rd Count of Eu and 2nd Viscount Bourchier
borndied
unknown1540, Mar 13
an English soldier, peer and courtier at the courts of Henry VII and Henry VIII. He married Mary Say, by whom he had one daughter, Anne, who became his heir. Bourchier was a member of Henry VII's privy council and was present at the siege of Boulogne in 1492. Five ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Bourchier

aka: 2nd Baron Berners, Lord Berners
bornactivedied
14671520-15331533, Mar 19
an English soldier, statesman and translator. He was educated at Oxford University. Bourchier held various offices of state, including Lieutenant of Calais from 28 November 1520 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 14 July 1524 that of to King Henry VIII. He transl...
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Links (5)


Cross-listed in Writers

Pierre de Bourdeille

aka: seigneur de Brantôme, abbé de Brantôme
borndied
1540 ca1614, Jul 15
a French historian, soldier and biographer. He was given several benefices, the most important of which was the abbey of Brantôme, but had no inclination for an ecclesiastical career. He became a soldier and came into contact with many of the great leaders of the continental wars. A fall from his horse compelled him to retire into private life about 1589, a...
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Links (1)


James Bowie

aka: Jim
bornactivedied
1796, Apr 101814-18361836, Mar 6
a 19th-century American pioneer, who played a prominent role in the Texas Revolution, culminating in his death at the Battle of the Alamo. Stories of him as a fighter and frontiersman, both real and fictitious, have made him a legendary figure in Texas history and a folk hero of American culture.
Timeline (1)Links (8)


Cross-listed in Governance

David Brearley

aka: Brearly
bornactivedied
1745, Jun 111776-17901790, Aug 16
a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signed the U.S. Constitution on behalf of New Jersey. With the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Brearley was at first a captain in the Monmouth County militia after having spent many years speaking out against the Parliamentary absolutism. He eventually rose to the rank of colonel in Nathaniel H...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

John C. Breckinridge

bornactivedied
1821, Jan 161841-18751875, May 17
a lawyer, politician, and soldier from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861. After non-combat service during the Mexican–American War, Breckinridge was elected as a Democrat to the Kentucky House of Representatives...
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Links (9)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Abbott Hall Brisbane

borndied
1804, Dec 41861, Sep 28
a prominent South Carolinian whose accomplishments included an extensive military career, engineering work, a professorship, authorship of a major Roman Catholic inspirational novel, and eventually, in retirement, a slave-holding plantation owner before the U.S. Civil War. He authored what on expert described as "the only Catholic [inspirational] novel from ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Sir James Brooke

aka: Rajah of Sarawak
bornactivedied
1803, Apr 291819-18681868, Jun 11
a British soldier and adventurer who founded the Raj of Sarawak in Borneo. He ruled as the first White Rajah of Sarawak from 1841 until his death in 1868. Brooke was born and raised under the Company Raj of the British East India Company in India. After a few years of education in England, he served in the Bengal Army, was wounded, and resigned his commissio...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernancePhysicians

John Brooks

borndied
1752, May1825, Mar 1
a doctor, military officer, and politician from Massachusetts. He served as the 11th Governor of Massachusetts from 1816 to 1823, and was one of the last Federalist officials elected in the United States. Trained as a doctor, Brooks was an officer of the Reading, Massachusetts militia when the American Revolutionary War broke out, and led his troops in the B...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Duer Broughton

borndied
17781835
an English soldier and writer on India. In 1802 he was appointed military resident with the Mahrattas. He published his experiences in a book entitled Letters Written in a Mahratta Camp During the Year 1809, descriptive of the character, manners, domestic habits, and religious ceremonies of the Mahrattas (1813). During this period he also collected Hindi poe...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

John Brown [3 [3]

bornactivedied
1800, May 91820-18591859, Dec 2
an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. Brown first gained attention when he led small groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis of 1856. Dissatisfied with the pacifism of the organized abolitionist movement, he said, "These men are al...
more
Timeline (5)Links (18)


William Brown

borndied
17591808
was a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He was born in Stamford and enlisted in the 5th Connecticut Regiment as a corporal on 23 May 1775, and re-enlisted as a private on 9 April 1777, for the duration of the war in the 8th Connecticut Regiment. He was promoted to corporal on 8 May 1779, and to sergeant on 1 August 1780,...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Archibald Bulloch

borndied
1730, Jan 11777, Feb 22
a lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Georgia during the American Revolution. He was also the great-grandfather of Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, and the great-great-grandfather of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States. In 1776, Bulloch fought under the command of Colonel Lachlan McIntosh in the Battle of the Rice Boats and the Battle of Tyb...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bulow

aka: Bülow
borndied
1755, Feb 161816, Feb 25
a Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars. Throughout his life Bülow was devoted to music, his great musical ability bringing him to the notice of King Frederick William II of Prussia, and c. 1790 he was conspicuous in the most fashionable circles of Berlin. He did not, however, neglect his military studies, and in 1792 he was made military instructor to th...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

John Burgoyne

bornactivedied
1722, Feb 241743-17921792, Aug 4
a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, most notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762. John Burgoyne is best known for his role in the American Revolutionary War. He designed an invasion scheme and was appointed to command a force moving south from Canada t...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Robert O'Hara Burke

bornactivedied
1821, May 61841-18611861, Jun 28 ca
an Irish soldier and police officer, who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the leader of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The expedition party was well equipped, but ...
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Links (12)Notes (3)


Cross-listed in GovernanceScientistsCommerce

Ambrose Burnside

aka: Ambrose Everett
bornactivedied
1824, May 231843-18811881, Sep 13
an American soldier, railroad-executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island. He served as Governor of Rhode Island and as a United States Senator. In October 1853, Burnside resigned his commission in the United States Army, and was appointed commander of the Rhode Island state militia with the rank of major general. He held this positi...
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Links (5)


Cross-listed in ExplorersWritersCartographers

Richard Burton

aka: Richard Francis
bornactivedied
1821, Mar 191842-18901890, Oct 20
a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African la...
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Timeline (1)Links (15)


Cross-listed in Governance

Pierce Butler

borndied
1744, Jul 111822, Feb 15
recognized as one of United States' Founding Fathers and was a soldier, planter, and statesman. He represented South Carolina in the Continental Congress, the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and the U.S. Senate. One of the largest slaveholders in the United States, Butler defended American slavery for both political and personal motives even though he had p...
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Links (1)


Walter Butler

aka: of Ballinakill Castle, Roscrea
borndied
1600 ca1634, Dec 25
a military officer, who served as a Colonel (Oberst) in the Imperial Army under Albrecht von Wallenstein and was involved in Wallenstein's murder in 1634. When his family estates in Roscrea, County Tipperary were confiscated in 1616, Walter became a ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Juan Guillen Buzaran

aka: Juan Guillén Buzarán
borndied
1819, Sep 291892, Jan 8
a Spanish military officer, writer and literary collaborator in the press of the time. Author of Historia anecdótica de la corte de Felipe III, Fray Pablo de Salamanca, and La torre de los espíritus. He moved to Madrid in 1833, where he studied at San Fulgencio de Murcia, joining the Spanish army from 1839 until 1859.
Links (1)


George Byng

aka: 1st Viscount Torrington
borndied
16631733
He was born at Wrotham in Kent and at the age of 15 entered the navy, and in 1688, recommended himself to William of Orange by his zeal in the cause of the Revolution. He was made Rear-admiral in 1703, and in 1704 captured Gibraltar, and for his gallant conduct at the sea-fight of Malaga, he was knighted by Queen Anne. In 1708 he commanded a squadron fitted ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac

aka: de la Motte, Sieur de Cadillac
borndied
1658, Mar 51730, Oct 16
a French explorer and adventurer in New France, an area of North America that stretched from present-day Eastern Canada in the north to Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico in the south. Rising from a modest beginning in Acadia in 1683 as an explorer, trapper, and a trader of alcohol and furs, he achieved various positions of political importance in the colony. H...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Brother Francesco Maria Carafa

bornactivedied
unknown1669-1672 caunknown
an Italian nobleman, 5th Duke of Nocera, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece and was viceroy of Aragon and Navarre and a military commander who commanded troops loyal to King Philip IV of Spain. In 1639, Carafa was named viceroy and Captain General of Aragon and was named a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. The following year he was named vice...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Ottone Enrico del Caretto

aka: Marquis of Savona
borndied
16291685, Jun 15
an Imperial Army commander and political figure. He became a Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1678, Field Marshal of the Empire, Imperial embassador in Madrid and General Captain and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands in April 1682.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in NavalWriters

Christopher Carleill

bornactivedied
1551 ca1573-15931593
an English military and naval commander. In 1588, he was appointed constable of Carrickfergus, County Antrim, and later, he was governor of Ulster. In 1590, he wrote to Lord Burghley, requesting a commission from the queen to seize for lawful prize any goods which might be found in England belonging to Spanish subjects, and complaining of his monetary losses...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Guy Carleton

aka: 1st Baron Dorchester, The Lord Dorchester
borndied
1724, Sep 31808, Nov 10
an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator. He twice served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, from 1768 to 1778, concurrently serving as Governor General of British North America in that time, and again from 1785 to 1795. The title Baron Dorchester was created on 21 August 1786. He commanded British troops in the American War of Independence, first leadin...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Ernest Casimir I

aka: Count of Nassau-Dietz
borndied
1573, Dec 221632, Jun 2
count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe. Ernst Casimir was primarily known as an outstanding military leader during the Eighty Years War. He served under Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange in the siege of the cities of Steenwijk and Oldenzaal, and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange during the Siege of Groenlo (1627) and the ...
more
Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

John Casimir of Simmern

borndied
1543, Mar 71592, Jan 6
a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine. A firm Calvinist, he was a leader of mercenary troops in the religious wars of the time, including the Dutch Revolt. From 1583–1592 he acted as regent for his nephew, Elector Palatine Frederick IV. ohn Casimir was in regular contact with Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and his nephe...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Lewis Cass

bornactivedied
1782, Oct 91806-18601866, Jun 17
an American military officer, politician, and statesman. He represented Michigan in the United States Senate and served in the Cabinet of Andrew Jackson and James...
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Links (15)


Cross-listed in Writers

Miguel de Cervantes

bornactivedied
1547, Sep 291569-16161616, Apr 22
a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so ...
more
Timeline (2)Links (20)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles II of Guelders

borndied
1467, Nov 91538, Jun 30
a member of the House of Egmond who ruled as Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1492 until his death. He was the son of Adolf of Egmond and Catharine of Bourbon. He had a principal role in the Frisian peasant rebellion and the Guelders Wars. He fought in several battles against the armies of more
Timeline (2)Links (1)


Charles III of Bourbon

aka: Duke of Bourbon, Constable of Bourbon
bornactivedied
1490, Feb 171515-15271527, May 6
a French military leader, the Count of Montpensier, Clermont and Auvergne, and Dauphin of Auvergne from 1501 to 1523, then Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Forez and La Marche, and Lord of Beaujeu from 1505 to 1521. He was also the Constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the Constable of Bourbon, he was the last of ...
more
Timeline (2)Links (6)


Archduke Charles of Austria

aka: Duke of Teschen,Carl Ludwig Johann Joseph Laurentius von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen
bornactivedied
1771, Sep 51792-18091847, Apr 30
an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain. He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army. He was considered one of Napoleon's more formidable opponents. He began his career f...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles XII

bornactivedied
1682, Jun 171697-17181718, Nov 30
the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government, at the age of fifteen. Charles was an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactic...
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Timeline (9)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles XIV John

aka: Charles III John of Norway, Carl John, Jean Bernadotte
bornactivedied
1763, Jan 261818-18441844, Mar 8
King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in south-central Italy, from 1806 until 1810. He was born Jean Bernadotte in France and served a long career in the French Army. He subseque...
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Links (1)


David Hendrik Chasse

aka: Chassé
borndied
1765, Mar 181849, May 2
a Dutch soldier who fought both for and against Napoleon. He commanded the Third Netherlands Division that intervened at a crucial moment in the Battle of Waterloo. In 1830 he bombarded the city of Antwerp as commander of Antwerp Citadel during the Belgian Revolution. Chassé entered the Dutch army as a ten-year-old cadet in his father's regiment in 1775. He...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henri Christophe

aka: Henry Christopher, Henry I, King of Haiti
borndied
1767, Oct 61820, Oct 8
a former slave of Bambara ethnicity, and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804. In 1805 he took part under Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the capturing of Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic), against French forces who acquired the colony from Spain in the Treaty of Basel. After Dessalines was assassi...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Thomas Chudleigh [1 [1]

borndied
unknown1726
Colonel.


Elijah Churchill

borndied
17551841
a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Born in Enfield, Connecticut, a carpenter, he entered the 8th Connecticut Regiment as a private on 7 July 1775. On 7 May 1777, he re-enlisted for the duration of the war as a corporal in the 2nd Continental Light Dragoons, later the 2nd Legionary Corps, and was promoted to sergeant on ...
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Links (1)


John Churchill [1 [1]

aka: 1st Duke of Marlborough
borndied
1650, May 261722, Jun 16
an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he served James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill.
Timeline (6)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Pedro Cieza de Leon

aka: Cieza de León
borndied
1520 ca1554, Jul 2
a Spanish conquistador and chronicler of Peru. He is known primarily for his history and description of Peru, Crónicas del Perú. He wrote this book in four parts, but only the first was published during his lifetime; the remaining sections were not published until the 19th and 20th centuries. Cieza de León participated in various expeditions and helped fo...
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Links (1)


George Rogers Clark

bornactivedied
1752, Nov 191774-18091818, Feb 13
a surveyor, soldier, and militia officer from Virginia who became the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the militia in Kentucky (then part of Virginia) throughout much of the war. Clark is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia (1778) and Vincennes...
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Timeline (1)Links (16)


Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

William Clark [2 [2]

bornactivedied
1770, Aug 11789-18291838, Sep 1
an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the U...
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Timeline (18)Links (15)Notes (5)


Cross-listed in Writers

Carl von Clausewitz

borndied
1780, Jun 11831, Nov 16
a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege (On War), was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist in many different senses and, while in some respects a romantic, also drew heavily on the rationalist ideas of the European ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Moses Cleaveland

borndied
1754, Jan 291806, Nov 16
a lawyer, politician, soldier and surveyor, from Connecticut who founded the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, while surveying the Western Reserve in 1796. He studied law at Yale University, graduating in 1777. That same year, with the American Revolutionary War in progress, he was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

William Cleland

borndied
1661 ca1689, Aug 21
a Scottish poet and soldier. Immediately on leaving college he joined the army of the Covenanters, and was present at the Battle of Drumclog, where, says Robert Wodrow, some attributed to Cleland the manoeuvre which led to the victory. He also fought at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. His Collection of several Poems and Verses composed upon various occasions ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

George Clinton [2 [2]

bornactivedied
1739, Jul 261754-18121812, Apr 20
an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795, and again from 1801 to 1804, then served as the fourth Vice President of the United States from 1805 to 1812, under Presidents more
Timeline (3)Links (12)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henry Clinton

bornactivedied
1730, Apr 161751-17931795, Dec 23
a British army officer and politician, best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many y...
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Timeline (3)Links (16)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Robert Clive

aka: 1st Baron Clive, Clive of India
borndied
1725, Sep 291774, Nov 22
a British officer and adventurer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan) and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process he also turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren...
more
Timeline (3)Links (19)


Cross-listed in Governance

John Clopton

bornactivedied
1756, Feb 71776-18161816, Sep 11
a United States Representative from Virginia. He served as first lieutenant and as captain in the Virginia militia during the American Revolutionary War, and was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine. Clopton was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1789 to 1791, and was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, serving...
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Links (3)


Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Coningsby

borndied
unknown1625
an English soldier and Member of Parliament, notable for his diary of military action in France in 1591. Coningsby went to Normandy in attendance on the Earl of Essex in 1591, and took part in the siege of Rouen, fighting against the forces of the league. He acted as muster-master to the English detachment, was in frequent intercourse with Henry of Navarre b...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PiratesWriters

Alonso de Contreras

bornactivedied
unknown1580 caunknown
a Spanish sailor (captain of a frigate), soldier (captain of infantry and then of cavalry), privateer, adventurer and writer, best known as the author of his autobiography; one of the very few autobiographies of Spanish soldiers under the Spanish Habsburgs and possibly one of the finest, together with the True History of the Conquest of New Spain (Historia V...
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Links (1)


Thomas Conway

borndied
1735, Feb 271800 ca
served as a major general in the American Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He became involved with the alleged Conway Cabal with Horatio Gates. Conway was born in Ireland, but was educated in France. With twenty years experience in the French Army, he rose to Colonel. He later served with Émigré forces during the French Revolutionary...
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Timeline (1)Links (2)


Margaret Corbin

borndied
1751, Nov 121800, Jan 16
a woman who fought in the American Revolutionary War. On November 16, 1776, her husband, John Corbin, was one of some 600 American soldiers defending Fort Washington in northern Manhattan from 4,000 attacking Hessian troops under British command. Margaret, too nervous to let her husband go into battle alone, decided she wanted to go with him. Since she was a...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba [1 [1]

aka: Francisco Hernández de Córdoba
borndied
1475 ca1526
reputed as the founder of Nicaragua, and in fact he founded two important Nicaraguan cities, Granada and León. The currency of Nicaragua is named the córdoba in his memory. Cordoba was an officer of Pedro Arias Dávila, known also as Pedrarias Dávila. Hernán Cortés and Hernan Ponce de Leon supported Cordoba during the conquest of Nicaragua in 1524. in r...
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Links (1)


Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba [2 [2]

aka: Francisco Hernández de Córdoba
bornactivedied
unknown1510s1517
a Spanish conquistador, known to history mainly for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the first European accounts of the Yucatán Peninsula were compiled. Together with some 110 discontented Spanish settlers in early colonial Cuba, Hernández de Córdoba petitioned the governor, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, for permission to la...
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Links (1)


Gonzalo de Cordoba

aka: Córdoba, Duke of Terranova and Santangelo, Andria, Montalto and Sessa
borndied
1453, Sep 11515, Dec 2
a Spanish general who fought in the Conquest of Granada and the Italian Wars. He reorganized the emerging Spanish army and its tactics, and was regarded as the "father of trench warfare". He was also called "The Great Captain" (Spanish: El gran capitán). Many influential men fought under him (including Francisco Pizarro's father), and he was admired by the ...
more
Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles Cornwallis [2 [2]

aka: 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Viscount Brome, The Earl Cornwallis
borndied
1738, Dec 311805, Oct 5
a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a civil and mi...
more
Timeline (7)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Edward Cornwallis

borndied
1713, Mar 51776, Jan 14
a British military officer who was the first Governor of Nova Scotia at Halifax, Nova Scotia. He later served as the Governor of Gibraltar. He was also the twin brother of Frederick Cornwallis.
Links (1)


Stephen Cornwallis

borndied
1703, Dec 231743, May 12
a British Army officer who served as Member of Parliament for Eye from 1727 to his death. He was the third son of Charles Cornwallis, 4th Baron Cornwallis; his elder brother was Charles Cornwallis, 1st Earl Cornwallis, and his younger brothers were Edward Cornwallis, and Frederick Cornwallis. His nephews were Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Jame...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

William Cosby

bornactivedied
16901710-17361736
an Irish soldier who served as the British royal governor of New York from 1732 to 1736. During his short term as governor, Cosby was portrayed as one of the most oppressive royal placeholders in British Colonial America. In 1735, Cosby accused publisher John P...
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Links (5)


William Crawford

bornactivedied
1722, Sep 21749-17821782, Jun 11
an American soldier and surveyor who worked as a western land agent for George Washington. Crawford fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. He was tortured and burned at the stake by American Indians in retaliation for the Gn...
more
Timeline (1)Links (5)


Cross-listed in Governance

Davy Crockett

bornactivedied
1786, Aug 171813-18361836, Mar 6
a 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician. He is commonly referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier". He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives and served in the Texas Revolution. During his last term in Congress, Crockett collaborated with Kentucky Congressman more
Timeline (2)Links (20)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyGovernance

Oliver Cromwell

bornactivedied
1599, Apr 251628-16581658, Sep 3
an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and the Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1653 until his death in1658. Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagu family of Hinchingbrooke House. He made ...
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Timeline (10)Links (22)


Francois Laurent d'Arlandes

aka: François Laurent d'Arlandes
borndied
17421809, May 1
a French marquis, soldier and a pioneer of hot air ballooning. He and Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier made the first manned free balloon flight on 21 November 1783, in a Montgolfier balloon. D'Arlandes was born in Anneyron in the Dauphiné. He...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Sancho d'Avila

borndied
1523, Sep 211583
a Spanish general. When the Eighty Years' War started, d'Avila suffered a defeat in the Battle of Quesnoy. He was also involved in the 1572 Siege of Middelburg and the Battle of Flushing a year later. In 1574, d'Avila defeated Louis and Henry, brothers of Will...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Naval

Jean II d'Estrees

aka: d'Estrées
bornactivedied
1624, Nov 31640s-1680s1707, May 19
a Marshal of France, and an important naval commander of Louis XIV. He was born to a noble family from Picardie. His aunt was Gabrielle d'Estrées, lover of King Henry IVmore
Timeline (1)Links (1)


William Lee Davidson

borndied
17461781
a North Carolina militia general during the American Revolutionary War. Active in the war from its inception as adjutant to General Griffith Rutherford during the Snow Campaign in December 1775, he was promoted to major of the Fourth Regiment of the North Carolina line in 1776. He marched with the North Carolina line to the north and was at the Battle of Ger...
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Denis Davydov

borndied
1784, Jul 271839, May 4
a Russian soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars who invented a specific genre -- hussar poetry noted for its hedonism and bravado – and spectacularly designed his own life to illustrate such poetry. Davydov's poems read like a diary of the hussar and bon-vivant that he was. Admired by Belinsky for their organic quality and Russianness, they address such them...
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William Dawes Jr.

bornactivedied
1745, Apr 61768-17901799, Feb 25
one of several men and a woman who alerted colonial minutemen of the approach of British army troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord at the outset of the American Revolution. On April 8, 1768, Dawes was elected as a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. He was appointed as the Company's second sergeant in 1770....
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Louis-Leon de Brancas

aka: Louis-Léon, 3rd duc de Lauraguais, 6th duc de Villars
borndied
1733, Jul 31824, Oct 9
a French general and author, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. He was the son of Louis de Brancas-Villars and Adelaide-Genevieve d'O, Marquise de Franconville. He married Elisabeth-Pauline de Gand, Princess d'Isenghien, in 1755. He was born at Versailles, Yvelines, Île-de-France, and died in Paris.
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Cross-listed in Governance

Dominique Jacques de Eerens

borndied
1781, Mar 171840, May 30
a Dutch major general, politician and administrator, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies and knight of the Military William Order. He entered the army at a young age and served under Schimmelpenninck, Louis Napoleon and emperor Napoleon. Was captured as a member of the Imperial Staff in Russia and was injured in Dantzig. Moisted as Major General in the...
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Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie

borndied
1622, Oct 151686, Apr 26
a Swedish statesman and military man. He became a member of the Swedish Privy Council in 1647 and came to be the holder of three of the five offices counted as the Great Officers of the Realm, namely Lord High Treasurer, Lord High Chancellor and Lord High Steward. He also served as Governor-General in the Swedish dominion of Livonia. Early on during the reig...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Jose Enrique de la Pena

aka: José Enrique de la Peña
borndied
18071840
a colonel in the Mexican Army. Under General Antonio López de Santa Anna, de la Peña participated in the Battle of the Alamo. In 1955, a book of his memoirs of the battle was published. The memoirs are controversial in that they said that Davy Crockett did not...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

James De Lancey [2 [2]

bornactivedied
17321758-17911800
a colonial politician, turfman, and the son of Lieutenant Governor James De Lancey and Anne Heathcote. He was born in 1732 in New York City in a house built by his grandfather, Stephen De Lancey. This house later became famous and known as Fraunces Tavern. James was sent abroad for his education, first to Eton, and, in 1750, to his father’s college, Corpus...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

James De Lancey [3 [3]

aka: Delancey, de Lancey, DeLancey
bornactivedied
1746, Sep 61769-18011804, May 2
a political figure in Nova Scotia. He represented Annapolis township in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1786 to 1794. He was born in Westchester County, New York, the son of Peter De Lancey, who was the son of Etienne de Lancey and Elizabeth Colden. He served as sheriff of Westchester County from 1769 to 1776 and as an officer in the militia. Because ...
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Timeline (1)Links (6)


Cross-listed in Writers

Blaise de Lasseran-Massencome

aka: Lasseran-Massencôme, seigneur de Montluc
borndied
1502 ca1577, Jul 26
a marshal of France. Montluc's reputation was made by his Commentaires de Messire Blaise de Montluc (Bordeaux, 1592), in which he described his fifty years of service (1521–1574). This book, the "soldier's Bible" (or "breviary," according to others), as Henry IV c...
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Antonio de Leyva

aka: Duke of Terranova, Prince of Ascoli
bornactivedied
14801502-15361536
a Spanish general during the Italian Wars. During the Italian War of 1521, he commanded Pavia during the siege of the city by Francis I of France, and took part in the Battle of Pavia in 1525. After the death of Fernando de Avalos, he held further command...
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Francois de Neufville

aka: François, duc de Villeroy, Villeroi
bornactivedied
1644, Apr 71693-17221730, Jul 18
a French soldier. An intimate of the king, a finished courtier and leader of society and a man of great personal gallantry, Villeroy was marked out for advancement in the army, which he loved, but where career soldiers had always a juster appreciation of his incapacity than Louis. In 1693, without having exercised any really important and responsible command...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Herman de Ruyter

borndied
1540 ca1570, Dec 19
a Dutch Beggars leader, known for his intake of Loevestein in 1570. As his profession, oxen buyer was reported. De Ruyter was a convinced Calvinist , and emerged as such in 1566-1567, when Calvinism in 's-Hertogenbosch came into being, as in many other places in the Netherlands, above ground. In February 1567 he took Anton van Bombergen to 's-Hertogenbosch, ...
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Timeline (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Johannes de Veer

borndied
1738 ca1796, Dec 26
a Colonel, a director of the West-Indie Compagnie and Governor of Curacao and its dependencies.


Cross-listed in Writers

Alfred de Vigny

aka: Comte de Vigny
borndied
1797, Mar 271863, Sep 17
a French poet and early leader of French Romanticism. He also produced novels, plays, and translations of Shakespeare. Unlike many of the French Romantics, Vigny was an army officer with conservative and consistently royalist views. Though he was promoted to first lieutenant in 1822 and to captain the following year, the military profession in time of peace ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Jean-Jacques Dessalines

borndied
1758, Sep 201806, Oct 17
a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1801 constitution. Initially regarded as governor-general, Dessalines later named himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti (1804–1806). He is regarded as a founding father of Haiti. Dessalines served as an officer in the French army when the colony was trying to withstand Sp...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Robert Devereux

aka: 2nd Earl of Essex
borndied
1565, Nov 101601, Feb 25
an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he led an abortive coup d'état against the gover...
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Timeline (7)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Walter Devereux [2 [2]

aka: 1st Earl of Essex
borndied
1541, Sep 161576, Sep 22
an English nobleman and general. From 1573 until his death he fought in Ireland in connection with the Plantation of Ulster, where he ordered the Rathlin Island massacre. He was the father of Elizabeth I's favourite of her later years, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. On his grandfather's death, Devereux became on 27 September 1558 the 2nd Viscount Herefo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Diponegoro

aka: Dipanegara
borndied
1785, Nov 111855, Jan 8
a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. He played an important role in the Java War (1825–1830). In 1830, the Dutch exiled him to Makassar. Dutch colonial rule was becoming unpopular among local farmers because of tax rises, crop failures and among Javanese nobles because the Dutch colonial authorities deprived them of their right to lease l...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

False Dmitry II

borndied
unknown1610, Dec 11
historically known as Pseudo-Demetrius II and also called the "rebel of Tushino", was the second of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich, the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible. The real Dmitry had died under uncertain circumstances, most likely an assassination in 1591 at the age of nine at his widowed mother's ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

False Dmitry III

borndied
unknown1612, Jul
historically known as Pseudo-Demetrius III, was the last and most enigmatic of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Dmitry.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Thomas Dongan

aka: 2nd Earl of Limerick
borndied
16341715, Dec 14
a member of the Irish Parliament, Royalist military officer during the English Civil War, and Governor of the Province of New York. He is noted for having called the first representative legislature in New York, and for granting the province's Charter of Liberties. While in France, he served in an Irish regiment with Turenne. He stayed in France after the Re...
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Alexander W. Doniphan

borndied
1808, Jul 91887, Aug 8
a 19th-century American attorney, soldier and politician from Missouri who is best known today as the man who prevented the summary execution of Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, at the close of the 1838 Mormon War in that state. He also ach...
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Jancko Douwama

borndied
14821533
a Frisian nobleman who fought to free Friesland from foreign rule. He was born in 1482 into a Vetkoper 'hoofdelingen' or 'untitled noble' family near Oldeboorn, Friesland. He was the son of the chieftain Douwe Douwama and his wife Riem Eesckes. Jancko was married to Teth Luersma. Jancko Douwama is considered a hero of Frisian nationalism. Jancko Douwama live...
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Cross-listed in ClergyGovernanceWriters

Sir George Downing

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
16231684, Jul 22
an Anglo-Irish preacher, soldier, statesman, diplomat, turncoat and spy, after whom Downing Street in London is named. As Treasury Secretary he is credited with instituting major reforms in public finance. His influence was substantial on the passage and substance of the mercantilist Navigation Acts. The Acts strengthened English commercial and Naval power, ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Leonard du Bus de Gisignies

aka: Viscount du Bus de Gisignies
borndied
1770, Mar 11849, May 31
a soldier and politician in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. He was born as Leonard Pierre Joseph Dubus, but on 14 June 1822, de Gisignies was added to his name. On 20 September 1816, he was raised to Dutch nobility and on 22 May 1819 he became a Viscount. He probably started to study law at Douai, but did not finish his education, because universities...
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Cross-listed in NavalGovernance

John Dudley [1 [1]

aka: 1st Duke of Northumberland, Viscount Lisle, Earl of Warwick
borndied
15041553, Aug 22
an English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of the young King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553, and unsuccessfully tried to install Lady Jane Grey on the English throne after the King's death. The son of Edmund Dudley, a minister of Henry VII ...
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Robert Dudley [1 [1]

aka: 1st Earl of Leicester
borndied
1532/33, Jun 241588, Sep 4
an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth I's, from her first year on the throne until his death. He was a suitor for the queen's hand for many years. was one of Elizabeth's leading statesmen, involved in domestic as well as foreign politics alongside William Cecil and Francis Walsingham. Although he refused to be married to more
Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

John Dunlap

borndied
17471812, Nov 27
an Irish printer who printed the first copies of the United States Declaration of Independence and was one of the most successful Irish/American printers of his era. During the American Revolutionary War, Dunlap became an officer in the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry, and saw action with George Washington at the battles of Trenton and Princeton. In 17...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Eliphalet Dyer

borndied
1721, Sep 141807, May 13
a lawyer, jurist, and statesman from Windham, Connecticut. He was a delegate for Connecticut to many sessions of the Continental Congress. In the French and Indian War Dyer was a Lt. Colonel in the militia. As the revolution began, Dyer was named to the state’s Committee of Safety, and named a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1774. He would serve in...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Seth Eastman

borndied
18081875
an artist and West Point graduate who served in the US Army, first as a mapmaker and illustrator. He had two tours at Fort Snelling, Minnesota Territory; during the second, extended tour he was commanding officer of the fort. During these years, he painted many studies of Native American life. He was notable for the quality of his hundreds of illustrations f...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Joseph Horace Eaton

borndied
18151896
an American artist and a career officer in the United States Army (Regular Army) who served as a brevet brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Following the Mexican War, Eaton was stationed on the frontier where he painted a series of landscapes in New Mexico in the 1850s. Those paintings are highly sought after by art collectors ...
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Links (1)


Robert Emmet

borndied
17778, Mar 41803, Sep 20
an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader. After leading an abortive rebellion against British rule in 1803 he was captured then tried and executed for high treason against the British king. In December 1797 he joined the College Historical Society, a debating society. While he was at college, his brother Thomas and some of his friends bec...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Alonso de Ercilla

borndied
1533, Aug 71594, Nov 29
a Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid. While in Chile (1556–63) he fought against the Araucanians (Mapuche), and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems. This heroic work in 37 cantos is divided into three parts, published in 1569, 1578, and 1589. It tells of the courageous insur...
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Links (1)


Eugene of Savoy

borndied
1663, Oct 181736, Apr 21
a general of the Imperial Army and statesman of the Holy Roman Empire and the Archduchy of Austria and one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna. Born in Paris, Eugene grew up around the French court of King more
Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur

borndied
1780, Aug 181857, Feb 6
a painter and an officer in the army of the Kingdom of Württemberg. He first devoted himself to painting, but subsequently became a soldier, and as a lieutenant in the 25th Division (the Württemberg unit) of the III Corps of Napoleon's Grande Armée, served in the French invasion of Russia, which he sketched as it progressed. His sketches were exhibited in...
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Thomas Fairfax

aka: Black Tom
borndied
1612, Jan 171671, Nov 12
a general and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. An adept and talented commander, Fairfax led Parliament to many victories, notably the crucial Battle of Naseby, becoming effectively military ruler of the new republic, but was eventually overshadowed by his subordinate more
Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Alexander Farnese

aka: Duke of Parma, Alessandro Farnese, Alejandro Farnesio
borndied
1545, Aug 271592, Dec 3
Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south (now Belgium) and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. His talents as a field commander, strategist and ...
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Timeline (8)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Pier Luigi Farnese

borndied
1503, Nov 191547, Sep 10
the first Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro, from 1545 to 1547. Born in Rome, Pier Luigi was the illegitimate son of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (who later became Pope Paul III). He became a soldier and participated in the sack of Rome in 1527.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

George Farquhar

borndied
16771707, Apr29
an Irish dramatist. He is noted for his contributions to late Restoration comedy, particularly for his plays The Recruiting Officer (1706) and The Beaux' Stratagem (1707). Farquhar's first comedy, Love and a Bottle, was premiered in 1698; "for its sprightly Dialogue and busy Scenes," it is said to have been "well received by the Audience." After the favourab...
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Links (1)


Guy Fawkes

aka: Guido Fawkes
borndied
1570, Apr 131606, Jan 31
a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Fawkes was born and educated in York. His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. Fawkes converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years' War on the side of Cathol...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

John Fearn [2 [2]

borndied
1768, May1837, Dec 3
a British philosopher. Little is known about Fearn's early life. He was probably born in May 1768 (baptised 11 May) in Chatham, Kent He spent some years as an officer in the Royal Navy, and after retirement devoted himself to philosophical writings. He was particularly interested in ocular phenomena and visual perception. He was a friend of Samuel Parr and ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Tobias Fitch

bornactivedied
unknown1720s-1730sunknown
wrote a journal of his mission from Charleston to the Creeks. Succeeded Colonel Chicken as Indian Commissioner and held that post in 1733-1734. In the latter year he was appointed a justice of the peace in Berkeley County.


Cross-listed in Governance

Juan Jose Flores

aka: Juan José
borndied
1800, Jul 191864, Oct 1
a Venezuelan military general who became Supreme Chief, and later the first President of the new Republic of Ecuador. He later served two more terms from 1839 to 1843 and from 1843 to 1845, and is often referred to as "The Founder of the Republic". On May 13, 1830, the day of Ecuador's breaking away from Gran Colombia, Flores was named supreme chief of the n...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles Floyd

borndied
17821804, Aug 20
a United States explorer, a non-commissioned officer in the U.S. Army, and quartermaster in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. A native of Kentucky, he was a son of Robert Clark Floyd, a nephew of James John Floyd, a cousin of Virginia governor John Floyd, and possibly a relative of more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Gaston de Foix

aka: Duke of Nemours, "The Thunderbolt of Italy"
borndied
1489, Dec 101512, Apr 11
a French military commander noted mostly for his brilliant six-month campaign from 1511 to 1512 during the War of the League of Cambrai. In 1511, Gaston arrived in Italy as a new commander at the age of 21. His presence and energy shifted the conflict into much higher levels of activity. French forces had captured Bologna on 13 May 1511 and were under siege ...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Richard Franck

borndied
1624 ca1708
a captain in the parliamentary army and author. Franck was born and educated at Cambridge. When the First English Civil War he went to London. His political sympathies were parliamentarian, and he had the rank of captain. Franck left England for a tour in Scotland around 1656 or 1657. He returned to Nottingham, where he seems to have lived many years. About ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

James Franklin [2 [2]

borndied
1783 ca1834, Aug 31
a British soldier. He was the brother of Sir John Franklin. James Franklin entered the service of the British East India Company as a cadet in 1805. He served with distinction on various Indian surveys and was elected a member of the Royal Society. He was in the 1st Bengal Cavalry and was an authority on geology. He undertook surveys of the Central Provinces...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Vaclav Eusebius Frantisek

aka: Prince of Lobkowicz
borndied
1609, Jan 301677, Apr 22
a Bohemian military leader and diplomat of the Lobkowicz family. After 1646, he was Duke of Sagan. After a thorough training, he joined the Imperial Army in 1631, where he raised his own regiment to fight in the Thirty Years' War and reached the rank of field marshal. He later made a name as a politician and diplomat, holding the titles of President of the I...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Frederick I of Prussia

aka: Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Prussia, Prince of Neuchâtel
borndied
1657, Jul 111713, Feb 25
of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia). The latter function he upgraded to royalty, becoming the first King in Prussia (1701–1713). From 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel (German: Fürstentum Neuen...
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Timeline (2)Links (9)


Cross-listed in Governance

Frederick Henry

aka: Frederik Hendrik, Prince of Orange
borndied
1584, Jan 291647, Mar 14
the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. As the leading soldier in the Dutch wars against Spain, his main achievement was the successful Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch in 1629, It was the main Spanish base and a well-fortified city protected by an experienced Spanish garrison and by f...
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Timeline (18)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Frederick William I

borndied
1688, Aug 141740, May 31
known as the 'Soldier King,' was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death, as well as the father of Frederick the Great. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. During his own reign, Frederick William I did much to centralize and improve Prussia. He replaced mandatory military service a...
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Timeline (8)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

John C. Fremont

aka: Frémont
bornactivedied
1813, Jan 211833-18901890, Jul 13
an American military officer, explorer, and politician who became the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led four expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. During the Mexican Am...
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Timeline (3)Links (25)


Cross-listed in Governance

John William Friso

aka: Johan Willem, Prince of Orange-Nassau
borndied
1687, Aug 141711, Jul 14
became the titular Prince of Orange in 1702. He was stadtholder of Friesland until his death by drowning in the Hollands Diep in 1711. Along with his wife, Marie Louise, Friso is the ancestor of all European monarchs occupying the throne today. On coming of age in 1707, John William Friso became a general of the Dutch troops during the War of Spanish Success...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Louis de Buade de Frontenac

borndied
1622, May 221698, Nov 28
a French soldier, courtier, and Governor General of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to his death in 1698. He established a number of forts on the Great Lakes and engaged in a series of battles against the English and the Iroquois. In his first term, he supported the expansion of the fur trade, establishing Fort Frontenac (in what is now Kingston, ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Hermann Furst von Puckler-Muskau

aka: Fürst von Pückler-Muskau
borndied
1785, Oct 301871, Feb 4
a German nobleman, who was an excellent artist in landscape gardening and wrote widely appreciated books, mostly about his travels in Europe and Northern Africa, published under the pen name of "Semilasso". As a writer of books of travel he holds a high position, his powers of observation being keen and his style lucid, animated and witty. Among his later bo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Christopher Gadsden

borndied
1724, Feb 161805, Aug 28
the principal leader of the South Carolina Patriot movement during the American Revolution and a soldier and politician from South Carolina. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress and a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and a merchant. He was also the designer of the Gadsden flag.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Thomas Gage [2 [2]

bornactivedied
1718/19, Mar 101741-17821787, Apr 2
a British general best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as military commander in the early days of the American Revolution. Born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent more
Timeline (3)Links (22)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Juan Galindo

borndied
18021839
a Central American explorer and army officer. He fought for Central American independence from Spain and led the charge that took the fortress at Omoa, the last Spanish stronghold in Central America. Galindo worked for the government of the United Provinces of Central America. In addition to his military duties, his work included a stint as governor of Peté...
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Links (1)


Lion Gardiner

borndied
15991663
an early English settler and soldier in the New World, founded the first English settlement in what became the state of New York on Long Island. His legacy includes Gardiners Island, which is held by his descendants. He and his wife Mary left Woerden, the Netherlands, and embarked, probably at Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in the ship Batcheler. It was bound f...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Luke Gardiner

aka: 1st Viscount Mountjoy
borndied
1745, Feb 71798, Jun 5
an Irish landowner and politician. From 1773 to 1789 he represented Dublin County in the Irish House of Commons. He was appointed to the Irish Privy Council on 29 December 1780 and created Baron Mountjoy on 19 September 1789 and Viscount Mountjoy on 30 September 1795, both in the Peerage of Ireland. Lord Mountjoy was killed in action at the age of 53, leadin...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Giuseppe Garibaldi

bornactivedied
1807, Jul 41833-18791882, Jun 2
an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland". Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

George Gascoigne

borndied
1535 ca1577, Oct 7
an English poet, soldier and unsuccessful courtier. He is considered the most important poet of the early Elizabethan era, following Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and leading to the emergence of Philip Sidney. He was the first poet to deify Q...
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Links (1)


Horatio Gates [1 [1]

bornactivedied
1727, Jul 261745-17831806, Apr 10
a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga (1777) – a matter of contemporary and historical controversy – and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden in 1780. Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial m...
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Timeline (4)Links (16)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes

aka: sieur de La Vérendrye
bornactivedied
1685, Nov 171726-17461749, Dec 5
a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer. In the 1730s he and his four sons opened up the area west of Lake Superior and thus began the process that added Western Canada to the original New France in the Saint Lawrence basin. He was also the first known European to reach North Dakota and the upper Missouri River. In the 1740s two of his so...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

John W. Geary

bornactivedied
1819, Dec 301841-18731873, Feb 8
an American lawyer, politician, Freemason, and a Union general in the American Civil War. He was the final alcalde and first mayor of San Francisco, a governor of the Kansas Territory, and the 16th governor of Pennsylvania. Geary was active in the state militia as a teenager. In December 1846, during the Mexican-American War, he was commissioned in the 2nd P...
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Timeline (2)Links (11)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Sir Humphrey Gilbert

borndied
1539 ca1583, Sep 9
Adventurer, explorer, member of parliament, and soldier, he served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland. He was a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh (they had the sam...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

John Glover

borndied
1732, Nov 51797, Jan 30
an American fisherman, merchant, and military leader from Marblehead, Massachusetts, who served as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Following the Boston Massacre in 1770, Committees of Correspondence were formed. Marblehead elected Glover along with future revolutionists Elbridge Gerry and Azor Orne to commit...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyWriters

Guru Gobind Singh

aka: Gobind Rai
borndied
1666, Dec 221708, Oct 7
the 10th Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. He succeeded his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine and became the last of the living Sikh Gurus. He died without lineal descendant after the martyrdom of his four sons during his lifetime. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the S...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in NavalGovernance

Ferdinando Gorges

borndied
1565/681647, May 24
a naval and military commander and governor of the important port of Plymouth in England. He was involved in Essex's Rebellion against the Queen, but escaped punishment by testifying against the main conspirators. His early involvement in English trade with and settlement of North America as well as his efforts in founding the Province of Maine in 1622 earne...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryNaval

Guillaume Gouffier

aka: Seigneur de Bonnivet
borndied
1488 ca1525, Feb 24
a French soldier. The younger brother of Artus Gouffier, seigneur de Boisy, tutor of Francis I of France, Bonnivet was brought up with Francis, and after the young king's accession he became one of the most powerful of the royal favourites. In 1515 he was...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

James Graham

aka: 1st Marquess of Montrose
borndied
1612, Oct 251650, May 21
a Scottish nobleman, poet and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. From 1644 to 1646, and again in 1650, he fought a civil war in Scotland on behalf of the King and is generally referred to in Scotland as simply "the Great Montrose".
Timeline (1)Links (1)


John Graham

aka: 1st Viscount Dundee, 7th Laird of Claverhouse, Bluidy Clavers, Bonnie Dundee
borndied
1648, Jul 211689, Jul 27
a Scottish soldier and nobleman, a Tory and an Episcopalian. Claverhouse was responsible for policing south-west Scotland during and after the religious unrest and rebellion of the 1670s/80s. After his death, Presbyterian historians dubbed him "Bluidy Clavers". Contemporary evidence for the fairness of this soubriquet in the Covenanting tradition is mixed. T...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Nathanael Greene

aka: Nathaniel
bornactivedied
1742, Jul 271770-17851786, Jun 19
a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as more
Timeline (3)Links (14)


Cross-listed in ExplorersPirates

Sir Richard Grenville

aka: Greynvile, Greeneville, Greenfield
borndied
1542, Jun 151591, Sep 10
an English sailor who as captain of the Revenge, died at the Battle of Flores (1591), fighting heroically against overwhelming odds, and refusing to surrender his ship to the far more numerous Spanish. He was also a soldier, an armed merchant fleet owner, privateer, colonizer, and explorer.
Links (1)Notes (2)


Louis Gunther of Nassau

borndied
1575, Feb 151604, Sep 12
a Count of Nassau-Katzenelnbogen and a Dutch lieutenant general of cavalry in the Eighty Years' War. He studied in Switzerland and then, like many of his brothers, he joined the Dutch army. He fought under his brother William Louis and his cousin Maurice. In 1596 he participated as a volunteer in the Capture of Cadiz. His cousin appointed him to lieutenant g...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Gustav II Adolf

aka: Gustavus Adolphus, Gustav II Adolph
borndied
1594, Dec 91632, Nov 6
the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 and is credited as the founder of Sweden as a Great Power (Swedish: Stormaktstiden). He led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. He was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Swedish...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Frederick Haldimand

borndied
1718, Aug 111791, Jun 5
a military officer best known for his service in the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. From 1778 to 1786, he served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, during which time he oversaw military operations against the northern frontiers in the war, and engaged in ultimately fruitless negotiations to e...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Nathan Hale

borndied
1755, Jun 61778, Sep 22
an American soldier and spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in 1985, he was officially designated the state hero of Connecticut. According to the standards of t...
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Timeline (4)Links (14)


Cross-listed in GovernancePhysicians

Edward Hand

bornactivedied
1744, Dec 311108 1110 11161802, Sep 3
an Irish-born soldier, physician, and politician who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of general, and later was a member of several Pennsylvania governmental bodies. Hand earned a medical certificate from Trinity College, Dublin. In 1767, Hand enlisted as a Surgeon's Mate in the 18th (Royal Irish) Regim...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Hasanuddin of Gowa

borndied
1631, Jan 121670, Jun 12
the 16th Ruler of The Sultanate of Gowa as Sombaya Ri Gowa XVI from 1653 to 1669. He was proclaimed as Indonesian National Hero on 6 November 1973. The Dutch called Sultan Hasanuddin "the fighting cock of the East" as he was described as aggressive in battle.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Henry Havelock

borndied
1795, Apr 51857, Nov 24
a British general who is particularly associated with India and his recapture of Cawnpore from rebels during the Indian Mutiny of 1857. By the good offices of his brother William, who had distinguished himself in the Peninsular War and at Waterloo, he obtained on 30 July 1815, at the age of 20, a post as second lieutenant in the 95th Regiment of Foot, Rifle ...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henry I

aka: Duke of Guise, Count of Eu, Le Balafré
borndied
1550, Dec 311588, Dec 23
In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne. A key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of the Queen Mother, Catherine de' Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Henry III of Nassau-Breda

aka: Henry III of Nassau-Dillenburg-Dietz
borndied
1483, Jan 121538, Sep 14
a count of the House of Nassau. Henry served as an important military commander in the Netherlands, defending Brabant from Guelders in 1508. He was Captain General in the war with Guelders between 1511 and 1513, and fought with Maximilian of Austria against France until 1514, participating in the battle of Guinegate (1513). He again commanded the armies agai...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Nicholas Herkimer

aka: Herchheimer
borndied
1728 ca1777, Aug 16
an American Patriot militia brigadier general during the American Revolutionary War, who died of wounds after the Battle of Oriskany. During the Attack on German Flatts in the French and Indian War, he was involved in its defense. He was made a captain in the militia on January 5, 1758, and he repelled a second attack on German Flatts in April of that year. ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Jose Joaquin de Herrera

aka: José Joaquín
borndied
1792, Feb 231854, Feb10
a moderate Mexican politician who served as president of Mexico three times (1844, 1844–45 and 1848–51), as well as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican–American War. He entered the royalist army in 1809, as a cadet in the Regiment of La Corona. By 1811, he was a captain. He fought the insurgents in Aculco, Guanajuato, Calderón, Acatlán, ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Sir Christopher Heydon

borndied
1561, Aug 141623, Jan 1
an English soldier, Member of Parliament, and writer on astrology. Heydon was famous as a champion of astrology. His best-known work was A Defence of Judiciall Astrologie (1603), the most substantial English defence of astrology of its day, rebutting John Chamber's A Treatise Against Judiciall Astrologie (1601), which had called for parliament to outlaw astr...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Thomas Heyward Jr.

bornactivedied
1746, Jul 281775-17981809, Mar 6
a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and of the Articles of Confederation as a representative of South Carolina. On August 27, 1780, Heyward was taken from his Charleston home by British troops and detained in the Old Exchange Building. Just hours after being arrested, he and 28 other "ringleaders of the rebellion" were relocated to a gu...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Daniel Harvey Hill

aka: D.H. Hill
borndied
1821, Jul 121889, Sep 24
a Confederate general during the American Civil War and a Southern scholar. He was known as an aggressive leader, and as an austere, deeply religious man, with a dry, sarcastic humor. In February 1849, Daniel Harvey Hill resigned his commission and became a professor of mathematics at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), in Lexington, Virg...
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Links (1)


Ethan A. Hitchcock

bornactivedied
1798, May 181817-18671870, Aug 5
a career United States Army officer and author who had War Department assignments in Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War, in which he served as a major general. He was promoted to captain in 1824. From 1829 to 1833, he served as commandant of cadets at West Point and was promoted to major in 1838. By 1842 he achieved the rank of the lieutenant co...
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Links (3)


Cross-listed in PiratesCommerce

Esek Hopkins

bornactivedied
1718, Apr 261740s-17861802, Feb 26
the only Commander in Chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War. He was also an accomplished merchant captain and privateer. Esek Hopkins was born in Scituate, Rhode Island. Before the Revolutionary War he had sailed to nearly every quarter of the earth, commanded a privateer in the French and Indian War, and served as a deputy to ...
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Timeline (1)Links (9)Notes (1)


Alfred Horsford

bornactivedied
18181833-18801885, Sep 13
a senior British Army officer who went on to be Military Secretary. Born in Bath and educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Horsford was commissioned into the Rifle Brigade in 1833. He served in the Cape Frontier War in 1847 and was Commanding Officer of 1st Bn the Rifle Brigade during the 8th Xhosa War in 1852. He also served in the Crimean War ...
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Timeline (1)Links (3)


Cross-listed in Governance

Sam Houston

bornactivedied
1793, Mar 21812-18611863, Jul 26
an American politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state. His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico in one of the shortest decisive battles in modern history. He was also the only governor within a future Confederate state to oppose secession (whic...
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Timeline (5)Links (22)


Cross-listed in Governance

Thomas Howard [2 [2]

aka: 4th Duke of Norfolk
borndied
1536, Mar 101572, Jun 2
an English nobleman. Norfolk was Earl Marshal of England and Queen's Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise. He negotiated the Treaty of Berwick (1560) by which the Congregation invited English assistance.Norfolk was the Prin...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Robert Howe

borndied
17321786, Dec 14
a Continental Army general from North Carolina during the American Revolutionary War. The descendant of a prominent family in North Carolina, Howe was one of five generals, and the only major general, in the Continental Army from that state. He also played a role in the colonial and state governments of North Carolina, serving in the legislative bodies of bo...
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Timeline (2)Links (8)


William Howe

aka: 5th Viscount Howe
bornactivedied
1729, Aug 101746-18141814, Jul 12
a British Army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who had distinguished military careers. Having joined the army in 1746, Howe saw extensive service in the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War. He became known for his role in the capture of Que...
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Timeline (7)Links (17)


Cross-listed in Governance

Nguyen Hue

aka: Quang Trung
bornactivedied
17531788-17921792, Sep 16
the second emperor of the Tay Son dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history, though he was known to have attained these achievements by ruthless, massive killing of especially the entire Nguyen lords families. Nguyen Hue and his brothers, together known as the Tay Son brothers, wer...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

William Hull

bornactivedied
1753, Jun 241775-18251825, Nov 29
an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolution and was appointed as Governor of Michigan Territory (1805–13), gaining large land cessions from several Native American tribes under the Treaty of Detroit (1807). As a general in the War of 1812, Hull is best remembered for surrendering Fort Detroit to the British on August 16, 1812 f...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ScientistsCartographers

Thomas Hutchins

bornactivedied
17301746-17891789, Apr 18
an American military engineer, cartographer, geographer and surveyor. In 1781, Hutchins was named Geographer of the United States. He is the only person to hold that post. He joined the militia during the French and Indian War and later took a regular commission with British forces. In 1766, he started working for the British army as an engineer. That year, ...
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Timeline (1)Links (5)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Israel Hutchinson

borndied
17281811
soldier in the battles of Ticonderoga & Lake George in the French war of 1757-59. He commanded a company at Lexington, was lieutenant-colonel in 1775, commanded the 27th regiment at the siege of Boston and in the campaign of 1776, and was with Washington in the retreat through New Jersey.
Timeline (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

borndied
17891848, Nov 10
the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wali and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces when he was merely a teenager. In the final year of his life, he succeeded his still living father as ruler of Egypt and Sudan, due to the l...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyWriters

Ignatius of Loyola

bornactivedied
1491, Oct 231508-15551556, Jul 31
a Spanish priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General. The Jesuit order served the Pope as missionaries, and they were bound by a vow of absolute obedience to the Pope. They therefore emerged as an important political force during the time of the Counter-Reformation.
Timeline (6)Links (18)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henry Ireton

borndied
16111651, Nov 26
an English general in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War, the son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell. On the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the parliamentary army, fighting at the Battle of Edgehill in October 1642, and at the Battle of Gainsboro...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Agustin de Iturbide

aka: Agustín, Augustine of Mexico
borndied
1783, Sep 271824, Jul 19
a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After the secession of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced a...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Andrew Jackson

bornactivedied
1767, Mar 151829-18371845, Jun 8
the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). He was born near the end of the colonial era, somewhere near the then-unmarked border between North and South Carolina, into a recently immigrated Scots-Irish farming family of relatively modest means. During the American Revolutionary War Jackson, whose family supported the revolutionary cause, acted...
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Timeline (26)Links (22)Notes (2)


Cross-listed in Governance

Jan Willem Janssens

borndied
1762, Oct 121838, May 23
a Dutch nobleman, soldier and statesman who served both as the governor of the Cape Colony and governor-general of the Dutch East Indies. Born in Nijmegen, his military career began at the age of nine when he became a cadet in the Dutch army. He rose through the ranks and by 1793, at the start of the Revolutionary Wars, he held the rank of colonel, and was w...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

John George II

aka: Prince of Anhalt-Dessau
borndied
1627, Nov 171693, Aug 7
a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau from 1660 to 1693. A member of the Fruitbearing Society, he also served as a Field marshal of Brandenburg-Prussia. After the death of his father on 15 July 1660, John George took over the government of Anhalt-Dessau. He also inherited his family's claim on Aschersleben, wh...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Guy Johnson

borndied
1740 ca1788, Mar 5
an Irish-born military officer and diplomat for the Crown during the American War of Independence. He had migrated to the Province of New York as a young man and worked with his uncle, Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs of the northern colonies. He was appointed as his successor in 1774. The following year, Johnson relocated with L...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Zachariah Johnston

borndied
17421800, Jan 7
He attended Liberty Hall Academy and later was a trustee of Washington College. Johnston was a prosperous farmer by the time the American Revolution began. In 1776, he was appointed a captain in the county militia. In 1781, he participated in the Virginia campaign which led to Lord Cornwallis' surrender. Representing Augusta County in the House of Delegates ...
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Links (3)


Cross-listed in Writers

Antoine-Henri Jomini

aka: Baron de Jomini
bornactivedied
1779, Mar 61798-18691869, Mar 24
a Swiss officer who served as a general in the French and later in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the Napoleonic art of war. According to the historian John Shy, Jomini "deserves the dubious title of founder of modern strategy." Jomini's ideas were a staple at military academies. The senior generals of the American Civil War -...
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Links (10)


Cross-listed in Governance

Jack Jouett

bornactivedied
1754, Dec 71776-17821822, Mar 1
a politician and a hero of the American Revolution, known as the "Paul Revere of the South" for his late night ride to warn Thomas Jefferson, then the governor ...
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Timeline (1)Links (10)


Jean-Baptiste Jourdan

aka: 1st Comte Jourdan
borndied
1762, Apr 291833, Nov 23
enlisted as a private in the French royal army and rose to command armies during the French Revolutionary Wars. Emperor Napoleon I of France named him a Marshal of France in 1804 and he also fought in the Napoleonic Wars. After 1815, he became reconciled to the Bourbon Restoration. He was one of the most successful commanders of the French Revolutionary Army...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

Stephen W. Kearny

aka: Kearney
borndied
1794, Aug 301848, Oct 31
In 1812 Kearny was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the War of 1812 in the 13th Infantry Regiment. After the war, he chose to remain in the US Army. Kearny was promoted to captain on April 1, 1813; brevet major in 1823; major, 1829; and lieutenant colonel, 1833. He was assigned to the western frontier under command of Gen. Henry Atkinson, and in 1819 he...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Frederick Kemmelmeyer

bornactivedied
1752/531782-18161823 ca
Frederick Kemmelmeyer advertised that he was an artist for the first time in a Baltimore newspaper. It is not known how long he had been in Baltimore or where he was living. He announced that he had “opened a DRAWING-SCHOOL for young Gentlemen, at his house, next door to Doctor Lemmon’s in Holliday-street.” There are no works attributed to Kemmelmeyer ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Bohdan Khmelnytsky

aka: Chmielricki
bornactivedied
1595 ca1617-16571657, Aug 6
a Ukrainian Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine). He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) that resulted in the creation of a state led by the Cossacks of Ukraine. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of R...
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Timeline (6)Links (10)


Cross-listed in Writers

Friedrich Maximilian Klinger

borndied
1752, Feb 171831, Feb 25
a German dramatist and novelist. His play Sturm und Drang (1776) gave name to the Sturm und Drang artistic epoch. He was a childhood friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and is often closely associated with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz. Klinger worke...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsWritersEducators

Friedrich August von Klinkowstrom

aka: Klinkowström
borndied
unknownunknown
a German artist, author and teacher from an old Pomeranian noble family. His early pictures as well showed a strong leaning towards the Roman Catholic Church. After two stints in the army, there came three quiet years of painting and literary work. He devoted himself particularly to children's books for which he provided designs and illustrations.
Links (1)


Henry Knox

bornactivedied
1750, Jul 251775-18051806, Oct 25
a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794. Born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts, he owned and operated a bookstore there, cultivating an interest in military history and joining a local artillery company. When the American Revolutionary War br...
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Links (17)


Hans Christoff von Konigsmarck

aka: Königsmarck
borndied
1600, Mar 41663, Mar 8
a Swedish-German soldier who commanded Sweden's legendary flying column, a force which played a key role in Gustavus Adolphus' strategy. He was born in Kötzlin, Altmark. He was appointed major general in 1640, governor general of Bremen-Verden in 1645, Privy Councilor in 1651 and field marshal in 1655. He is best known for the unsuccessful battle of Prague ...
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Links (1)


Karl Johann von Konigsmarck

aka: Königsmarck
borndied
1659, May 151686, Aug 28
a Swedish count of Brandenburgian extraction and a soldier. He was the second son of Count Conrad Christoph von Königsmarck and his wife Countess Maria Christina von Wrangel (1628-1691). He was the grandson of two Field Marshalls; Hermann von Wrangel and Hans Christoff von Königsmarck. His sister Maria Aurora von Königsmarck was later mistress to Augustus...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Kurt Christoph von Konigsmarck

aka: Conrad , Königsmarck
borndied
1634, Mar 241673, Oct 31
a Dutch-Swedish military leader. Königsmarck received an education despite the war and later joined the Swedish army. He took part in the bloody battle near Warsaw in 1656. In 1658 under Charles X command during the crossing over the frozen Great Belt Bridge to Funen he was caught by the Danes and was left free only after the Peace of Roskilde. In 1663 afte...
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Links (1)


Philip Christoph von Konigsmarck

aka: Philipp, Königsmarck
borndied
1665, Mar 41694, Jul 2
a German count and soldier. He was allegedly the lover of Sophia Dorothea, Princess of Celle, the wife of Duke George Louis of Brunswick and Lüneburg, the heir presumptive of the Principality of Calenberg, later to become Elector of Hanover (as George I Louis, 1708) and King of Great Britain (as George I, 1714). His brother Karl Johann von Königsmarck is a...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in InventorsScientists

Konstantin Konstantinov

borndied
1817/191871, Jan 12
a Russian artillery officer and scientist in the fields of artillery, rocketry and instrument making. He completed his military career at the rank of Lieutenant General. Konstantinov is known to have created structurally perfect missiles (for the 19th century) with a range of 4 to 5 km, launch pads, and rocket-making machines. He authored a number of works o...
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Links (1)


Tadeusz Kosciuszko

aka: Thaddeus Kosciusko
borndied
1746, Feb 04/121817, Oct 15
a Polish–Lithuanian military engineer and a military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States. He fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's struggles against Russia and Prussia, and on the American side in the American Revolutionary War. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led th...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Morris Kyffin

borndied
1555 ca1598
a Welsh author and soldier. Kyffin wrote two dedicatory poems to works by Sir Lewis Lewknor. His best known works are the poem The Blessedness of Britayne (1587) an the first translation into English of Terence's comedy Andria (1588). In the same year he was appointed surveyor of the muster rolls to the English army in the Low Countries and in 1592 he was vi...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Architects

Pierre Charles L'Enfant

aka: Peter
borndied
1754, Aug 21825, Jun 14
a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan. Despite his aristocratic origins, L'Enfant closely identified with the United States, changing his first name from Pierre to Peter. L'Enfant served on General more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Roger L'Estrange

bornactivedied
1616, Dec 171639-17021704, Dec 11
an English pamphleteer, author and staunch defender of Royalist claims. L'Estrange was involved in political controversy throughout his life. Perhaps his best known polemical pamphlet was An Account of the Growth of Knavery, which ruthlessly attacked the parliamentary opposition, placing them as "dissenting fanatics" and truly beyond the pale.
Links (7)


Cross-listed in Writers

Francois de la Noue

aka: François, Bras-de-Fer (Iron Arm)
borndied
15311591, Aug 14
one of the Huguenot captains of the 16th century. He was born near Nantes in 1531, of an ancient Breton family. He served in Italy under Marshal Brissac, and in the first Huguenot war, but his first great exploit was the capture of Orléans at the head of only fifteen cavaliers in 1567, during the second war. It was in captivity that he wrote his celebrated ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne [1 [1]

aka: Duke of Bouillon
borndied
1555, Sep 281623, Mar 25
a member of the powerful (then Huguenot) House of La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince of Sedan and a marshal of France. After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572 he participated in the Siege of La Rochelle (1572-1573), but subsequently re-converted to Protestantism. Defeated at Doullens, Picardy in 1595 by Fuentes, governor of the Spanish Low Countries, he was...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne [2 [2]

aka: Vicomte de Turenne
borndied
1611, Sep 111675, Jul 27
was the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family. He achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. He was one of six marshals who have been made Marshal General of France. Frederick Henry of Nassau, who succeeded his brother Maurice as Stadtholder and Prince of Orange in 1625, gave Turenne a captaincy in 1626. The young officer took ...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Charles Armand Rene de La Tremoille

aka: 6th duc de Thouars, Charles Armand René de La Trémoille
borndied
1708, Jan 141741, May 23
a French soldier and president of the States of Brittany. He joined the military at a young age and became a colonel of the Champagne regiment at the age of eighteen. Later, he became governor of Île-de-France. La Trémoille was the author of some works and was elected a member of the Académie française on 13 February 1738.
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Pierre Gaultier de La Verendrye the Younger

aka: La Vérendrye
borndied
1714, Dec 11755, Sep 13
the second son of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye. An explorer and fur trader who served many years under the command of his father, he was born on Île aux Vaches, (Isle of Cows) near Sorel, New France. The young Pierre spent two years in the colonial regular troops las a cadet, doing garrison duty in Montreal. In 1731, when his father p...
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

borndied
1744, Aug 11829, Dec 18
a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology. In 1801, he published Système des animaux sans vert...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

John Lambert [1 [1]

borndied
16191684, Mar
an English Parliamentary general and politician. He fought during the English Civil War and then in Oliver Cromwell's Scottish campaign (1650–51), becoming thereafter active in civilian politics until his dismissal by Cromwell in 1657. During this time he wr...
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Lamoral of Egmont

aka: Count of Egmont
bornactivedied
1522, Nov 181542-15681568, Jun 5
a general and statesman in the Spanish Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands. In the service of the Spanish army, he defeated the French in the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558). Egmont was appointed stadthol...
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Ebenezer Learned

bornactivedied
1728, Apr 181756-17831801, Apr 1
a brigadier general in the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. On April 24, 1775 the Massachusetts committee of safety named him a colonel and authorized him to organize a regiment that was known as Learned's Regiment. His regiment was adopted into the Continental Army in June. In 1776 those who re-enlisted were augmented by men from Dani...
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General Charles Lee

borndied
1731, Jan 261782, Oct 2
served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. He also served earlier in the British Army during the Seven Years War. He sold his commission after the Seven Years War and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus II. Lee moved to North America in 1773 and bought an estate in Virginia. When the fighting brok...
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Ezra Lee

bornactivedied
1749, Aug1776-1780s1821, Oct 29
an American colonial soldier, best known for commanding the Turtle submarine. Lee was born in Lyme, Connecticut. In August 1776 he was selected by brother-in-law Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons, also of Lyme, as one of several volunteers to learn to operate the Turtle, an early submarine invented by Saybrook, Connecticut, native more
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Henry Lee III

borndied
1756, Jan 291818, Mar 25
an early American Patriot and politician who served as the ninth Governor of Virginia and as the Virginia Representative to the United States Congress. During the American Revolution, Lee served as a cavalry officer in the Continental Army and earned the nickname "Light-Horse Harry". Henry Lee was the father of Civil War-era Confederate general Robert E. Lee...
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Francis Legge

borndied
1719 ca1783
a British military officer and colonial official in Nova Scotia during the 18th century. He served as Governor of Nova Scotia from 1772-1776. During the American Revolution, Legge raised the Royal Nova Scotia Volunteer Regiment. Legge had served in the territory during the Seven Years' War "without distinction or promotion". However, Legge happened to be a r...
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Walter Leslie

borndied
16071667, Mar 4
a Scottish Soldier and diplomat. He gained the positions of Imperial Field Marshal, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, Governor on the Croatian-Slavonian Military Frontier, Imperial Ambassador to Naples, Rome in 1645 and to Constantinople in 1665-1666. In 1624, Walter Leslie crossed the North Sea to fight with the Protestant Army of the United Provinces. By 162...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Morgan Lewis

bornactivedied
1754, Oct 161774-18441844, Apr 7
an American lawyer, politician, and military commander. The second son of Francis Lewis, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Lewis fought in the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. He served in the New York State Assembly (1789, 1792) and the New York State Senate (1811–1814) and was New York State Attorney General (1791–1801) and go...
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Li Zicheng

aka: Li Hongji
borndied
1606, Sep 221645
a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later. According to folklore, in 1630, Li was put on public display in an iron collar and shackles for his failure to repay loans to a usurious magistrate, Ai. Ai struck a guard who offered shade an...
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Benjamin Lincoln

bornactivedied
1733, Jan 131754-18091810, May 9
an American army officer. He served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln is notable for being involved in three major surrenders during the war: his participation in the Battles of Saratoga (sustaining a wound shortly afterward) contributed to more
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Sir George Lisle [1 [1]

borndied
1610 ca1648, Aug 28
a Royalist leader in the English Civil War. Lisle's execution without trial, following the siege of Colchester, came to be regarded as a serious miscarriage of justice and Lisle himself was seen as a martyr to the Royalist cause. He gained military experience in the army of the Prince of Orange during the 1630s. He served under Prince Rupert in the Dutch War...
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Narciso Lopez

bornactivedied
1797, Nov 21850-18511851, Sep 1
a Venezuelan adventurer and soldier, best known for an expedition aimed at liberating Cuba from Spain in the 1850s. His troops carried a flag that López had designed, which later became the flag of modern Cuba. He was executed in Havana by the royalists in 1851.
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Cross-listed in Governance

Francis de Lorraine

aka: Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale
borndied
1519, Feb 171563, Feb 24
a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots. In 1545, he was seriously wounded at the Second Siege of Boulogne, but recovered. He was struck with a lance through the bars of his helmet. The steel head pierced both cheeks, and 15 cm (6 in) of the shaft we...
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Louis II of Hungary

borndied
1506, Jul 11526, Aug 29
King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526. He was killed during the Battle of Mohács fighting the Ottomans, whose victory led to the Ottoman annexation of Hungary. He had no legitimate issue. Born prematurely in Buda on 1 July 1506, the court doctors kept him alive by slaying animals and wrapping him in their warm carcasses as a primitive incub...
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Louis of Bourbon

aka: Duke of Montpensier
borndied
1513, Jun 101582, Sep 23
the second Duke of Montpensier. He took part in a number of wars against Charles V. He fought again at the Battle of St. Quentin (1557) where his horse was killed under him and where he was taken prisoner. His involvement in the French Wars of Religion reflected his opportunist character. He was initially favourable to the Protestants, under the influence of...
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Louis de Bourbon [1 [1]

aka: Prince of Condé
borndied
1530, May 71569, Mar 13
a prominent Huguenot leader and general, the founder of the House of Condé, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. As a soldier in the French army, Condé fought at the Siege of Metz in 1552, when Francis, Duke of Guise successfully defended the city from the forces of Emperor Charles V, and again at the Battle of St. Quentin in 1557.
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Louis de Bourbon [2 [2]

aka: Prince of Condé, Duc d'Enghien
borndied
1621, Sep 81686, Dec 11
a French general and the most famous representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon. Prior to his father's death in 1646, he was styled the Duc d'Enghien. For his military prowess he was renowned as le Grand Condé. In 1643 Enghien was appointed to command against the Spanish in northern France. He was opposed by experienced generals, and the ve...
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Louis Philippe I

borndied
1773, Oct 61850, Aug 26
King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party. As a member of the cadet branch of the Royal House of France and a cousin of King Louis XVI of France by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII and more
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Toussaint Louverture

aka: Francois-Dominique, François-Dominique, Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint L'Ouverture
borndied
1743, May 201803, Apr 7
the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military and political acumen saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791. He first fought for the Spanish against the French; then for France against Spain and Great Britain; and finally, for Saint-Domingue against Napoleonic France. He then helped transform the insurgency into a revo...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Sybil Ludington

aka: Sibbell, Sebil, Sibyl, Cybil, Sebal
bornactivedied
1761, Apr 51777-18111839, Feb 26
celebrated as a heroine of the American Revolutionary War. She reportedly rode to alert militia forces in the villages of Putnam County, New York and Danbury, Connecticut on the night of April 26, 1777 at age 16, warning of the approach of the British regular forces. The ride was similar to those performed by more
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Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Roger Ludlow

borndied
1590, Mar 71664/65/66
an English lawyer, magistrate, military officer, and colonist. He was active in the founding of the Colony of Connecticut, and helped draft laws for it and the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony. Under his and John Mason's direction, Boston's first fortification, later known as Castle William and then Fort Independence was built on Castle Island in Boston harbo...
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Kazimierz Lux

bornactivedied
17801795-18461846
an officer of the Polish Legions and a pirate in the Caribbean Sea during the early 19th century. In 1803 on Napoleaon's order, his semibrigade, commanded by general Charles Leclerc, was sent to San Domingo to restore French rule over the island which rebelled in 1801. After pacifying the rebellion, Lux started a career of piracy - shooting and boarding an A...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Matthew Lyon

borndied
1749, Jul 141822, Aug 1
an Irish-born American printer, farmer, soldier and politician, who served as a United States Representative from both Vermont and Kentucky. Lyon represented Vermont in Congress from 1797 to 1801, and represented Kentucky from 1803 to 1811. His tenure in Congress was tumultuous. He brawled with one Congressman, and was jailed on charges of violating the Sedi...
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Hugh Mackay

borndied
1640 ca1692, Aug 3
a Scottish general best known for his service in the Revolution of 1688. He entered Douglas's (Dumbarton's) regiment of the English army (now the Royal Scots) in 1660 and accompanied it to France when it was lent by Charles II to Louis XIV. After the Restoration, i...
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Mangkunegara I

aka: Raden Mas Said, Pangeran Sambernyawa
borndied
1725, Apr 71795, Dec 23
the founder of Praja Mangkunegaran , a great duchy in southern central Java, and Hero National Indonesia . His father was named Prince Arya Mangkunegara of Kartasura and his mother was named RA Wulan. RM Said was born in Kartasura with the father of KPA Mangkunegara, the eldest son of Sunan Amangkurat IV (Pakubuwana I), the ruler of Mataram-Kartasura Kesunan...
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Ernst von Mansfeld

borndied
1580 ca1626, Nov 29
a German military commander during the early years of the Thirty Years' War. He gained his earliest military experiences during the Long War in Hungary, where his elder half-brother Charles (1543–1595), also a soldier of renown, held a high command in the imperial army. While his brother succumbed to an epidemic within short time, young Ernst stayed at the...
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Manuel of Portugal

aka: Emanuel I, Prince of Portugal
borndied
1568 ca1638, Jun 22
the illegitimate son of António, Prior of Crato, pretender to the Portuguese throne during the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. He secretly married in 1597 Countess Emilia of Nassau, daughter of William the Silent and Anna of Saxony. Manuel was born in ...
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Francois Severin Marceau-Desgraviers

aka: François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers
borndied
1769, Mar 11796, Sep 21
a French general of the Revolutionary Wars. In March 1792, Marceau was elected lieutenant colonel of one of the French Revolutionary Army battalions of the Eure-et-Loir. He took part in the defence of Verdun in 1792, and it was his troop that was ordered to bear the proposals of capitulation to the Prussian camp. The defenders' lack of morale provoked the an...
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Francis Marion

aka: The Swamp Fox
bornactivedied
1732 ca1757-17841795, Feb 27
a military officer who served in the American Revolutionary War. Acting with the Continental Army and South Carolina militia commissions, he was a persistent adversary of the British in their occupation of South Carolina in 1780 and 1781, even after the Continental Army was driven out of the state in the Battle of Camden. Due to his irregular methods of warf...
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Cross-listed in Pirates

Samuel Mason

aka: Meason, "Wolfman"
bornactivedied
1739, Nov 81790s-18031803
a Virginia militia captain on the American western frontier during the Revolutionary War, who subsequent to the war, became the leader of a gang of river pirates and highwaymen on the lower Ohio River and the Mississippi River in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He was associated with outlaws around Red Banks, Cave-in-Rock, Stack Island, and the Natch...
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Captain John Massey

bornactivedied
unknown1720s1723, Jul 26
As a lieutenant, he "served with great applause" in the army in Flanders, under the command of the Duke of Marlborough. He afterwards sailed from the Thames in the Gambia Castle, a ship of the African Company, in command of a company of soldiers which was being sent to garrison the fort. The merchants of Gambia were supposed to victual this garrison, but ...
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Cross-listed in PiratesGovernance

Matsura Takanobu

aka: Taqua Nombo
bornactivedied
15291550s-1560s1599, Apr 1
a 16th-century Japanese samurai and 25th hereditary lord of the Matsura clan of Hirado. He was one of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyushu and one of the first to allow trading with Europeans, particularly the Portuguese, through whom he amassed great profits in the import of western firearms. He was also an early host and patron to the Jesuits, who he ...
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Thomas Matulessy

aka: Pattimura, Kapitan Pattimura
borndied
1783, Jun 81817, Dec 16
an Ambonese soldier and National Hero of Indonesia. Born on the island of Saparua, Pattimura joined the British army after they took the Maluku islands from the Dutch colonials. When the islands were returned to the Dutch in 1816, he was dismissed. Concerned that the Dutch would implement programs that limited his people, Pattimura led an armed rebellion tha...
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Maurice de Saxe

aka: Count of Saxony
borndied
1696, Oct 281750, Nov 20
a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, then the Imperial Army and finally in French service who became a Marshal and later also a Marshal General of France. He is best known for his decisive victory at the Battle of Fontenoy and is honoured by the Walhalla Memorial. In 1698, the Countess sent him to his father in Warsaw. August ha...
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Maurice of Orange

aka: Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
borndied
1567, Nov 141625, Apr 23
stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625. Before he became Prince of Orange upon the death of his eldest half-brother Philip William in 1618, he was known as Maurice of Nassau. Maurice spent his youth in Dillenburg in Nassau, and studied in Heidelberg and Leiden. He succeeded h...
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John Maurice

aka: Prince of Nassau-Siegen, The Brazilian
borndied
1604, Jun 171679, Dec 20
was count and (from 1674) prince of Nassau-Siegen, and Grand Master of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg). John Maurice joined the Dutch army in 1621, at a very early age. He distinguished himself in the campaigns of his cousin, the stadtholder Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. In 1626 he became captain. He was involved in 1629 in the captur...
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Maximilian II Emanuel

aka: Max Emanuel, Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
borndied
1662, Jul 111726, Feb 26
a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a Kurfürst of the Holy Roman Empire. He was also the last governor of the Spanish Netherlands and duke of Luxembourg. An able soldier, his ambition led to conflicts that limited his ultimate dynastic achievements. By 1683 he was already embarked on a military career, fighting in the defense of Vienna against the attempt o...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Joseph McDowell

aka: Pleasant Gardens Joe, "P.G."
bornactivedied
1758, Feb 251776-17951795, May 18
an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Morganton, North Carolina. His estate was named "Pleasant Gardens", and he was nicknamed "Pleasant Gardens Joe" to distinguish him from his cousin, Joseph "Quaker Meadows" McDowell. The two men are not always clearly distinguished in historical records: both were at the 1780 Battle of Kings Mountain, one as ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Joseph McDowell Jr.

aka: Quaker Meadows Joe
borndied
17561801, Feb 5