a French Roman Catholic military leader during the Italian Wars and the French Wars of Religion. In 1552 he conquered Metz and had an important role in the French victory at the Battle of Renty (1554). After the conquest of Calais in 1558, he was appointed as Governor General of Burgundy. In this role, he was accused of excessive persecutions against the Protestants, a trait he also displayed in the Huguenot Wars. In the course of the latter he was victorious at the battles of Jarnac and Moncontour. As a reward for his deeds, he was made Marshal of France on 28 November.
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