1833, Apr 211864, May 11
He believed in the proslavery cause and became a border ruffian in the violence of the Bleeding Kansas era. After five proslavery settlers were brutally murdered by John Brown as part of the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856, Pate set out to capture Brown. He and his men encountered Brown near Palmyra in Douglas County on June 2, 1856. For several hours the two sides engaged in armed combat at what became known as the Battle of Black Jack. Brown and another freestater, Edwin V. Sumner, captured Pate along with some of his troops. The Battle of Black Jack is sometimes called the first battle of the Civil War.
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