a noted painter and astronomer. In painting he is noteworthy as one of the first Qing dynasty painters to be influenced by the West. He is also was among the more significant portrait and miniature painters in the early Qing. He was skilled in painting people, landscapes, and buildings. The Western influence in his art came from his exposure to the Jesuits at the Directorate of Astronomy. Their influence also exposed him to new ideas on astronomy and religion. At some point Jiao became a Roman Catholic and played a role on the Jesuit side of the Chinese Rites controversy.
 Gallery (1)

Jiao Bingzhen16891700

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