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Governance
borndied
1522, Dec 281586, Jan 18
was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582. She was the illegitimate daughter of the then 22-year-old Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst. She was a Duchess of Florence and a Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by marriage. Her early life followed a strict routine set forth by her father, Charles V, who used his daughter as part of his plans to secure his empire.
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 Timeline (2)
04/05/1566-200 Brussel nobles offer Margaret of Parma a petition of grievances
08/23/1566-Land guardian Margaret of Parma grants Calvinists rights 
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