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Cross-listed in AstronomersWritersPhysiciansInventors

Gerolamo Cardano

borndied
1501, Sep 241576, Sep 21
an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler. He was one of the most influential mathematicians of the Renaissance, and was one of the key figures in the foundation of probability and the earliest introducer of the b...
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Cross-listed in ClergyWritersInventors

Giovanni Caselli

borndied
18151891
an Italian physicist and priest. He is the inventor of the pantelegraph (a.k.a. Universal Telegraph or "all-purpose telegraph"), the predecessor of the modern fax machine. The world's first practical operating facsimile machine ("fax") system put into use was by Caselli. In Florence he studied physics under Leopoldo Nobili. These studies involved electrochem...
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Augustin-Louis Cauchy

borndied
1789, Aug 211857, May 23
a French mathematician and physicist who made pioneering contributions to analysis. He was one of the first to state and prove theorems of calculus rigorously, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersInventors

Anders Celsius

bornactivedied
1701, Nov 271730-17441744, Apr 25
a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician, professor of astronomy at Uppsala University, founder of the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory and proposed the Celsius temperature scale which bears his name.
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Federico Cesi

borndied
1585, Feb 261630, Aug 1
an Italian scientist, naturalist, and founder of the Accademia dei Lincei. On his father's death in 1630, he became briefly lord of Acquasparta. In 1603, at the age of eighteen, Cesi invited three slightly older friends, the Dutch physician Johannes Van Heeck (in Italy Giovanni Ecchio), and two fellow Umbrians, mathematician Francesco Stelluti of Fabriano an...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansInventors

William Francis Channing

borndied
1820, Feb 221901, Mar 20
an American activist, electrical researcher, scientist, physician, and inventor. He invented the first citywide electric fire alarm system. Channing worked with Alexander Graham Bell in developing the telephone. Channing was an assistant on the first geological survey of New Hampshire during 1841–42. He was associated with Henry Ingersoll Bowditch in the e...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Jacques Charles

aka: Charles the Geometer
borndied
1746, Nov 121823, Apr 7
a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles, also a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, entering on May 12, 1785. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first (unmanned) hydrogen-f...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Samuel Hunter Christie

borndied
1784, Mar 221865, Jan 24
a British scientist and mathematician. He was particularly interested in magnetism, studying the earth's magnetic field and designing improvements to the magnetic compass. Some of his magnetic research was done in collaboration with Peter Barlow. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1826, delivered their Bakerian Lecture in 1833 and served as their Se...
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Cross-listed in WritersInventorsCartographers

Michiel Coignet

aka: Quignet, Cognet, Connette
borndied
15491623, Dec 24
a Flemish polymath who made significant contributions to various disciplines including cosmography, mathematics, navigation and cartography. He also built new and improved scientific instruments and made military engineering designs. Coignet was a scientist at the court of the governors of the Spanish Netherlands Albert VII, Archduke of Austria and Isabella ...
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Sir William Congreve [2]

aka: 2nd Baronet
borndied
1772, May 201828, May 16
an English inventor and rocket artillery pioneer distinguished for his development and deployment of Congreve rockets, and a Tory Member of Parliament (MP). In 1803 he was a volunteer in the London and Westminster Light Horse, and was a London businessman who published a polemical newspaper, the Royal Standard and Political Register, which was Tory, pro-gove...
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Cross-listed in WritersPhysicians

Jacques-Philippe Cornut

aka: Jacobi Cornuti
borndied
1606, Oct 191651, Aug 23
a French physician and botanist. He was the author of Enchiridion botanicum parisiense, a study of the flora local to Paris, and Canadensium plantarum, aliarúmque nondum editarum historia nondum editarum historia cui adiectum est ad calcem enchiridion botanicum parisiense (Paris: Simon le Moyne, 1635), Canada at that time considered as stretching from the S...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersPhysicians

Thomas Coulter

borndied
17931843
an Irish physician, botanist, and explorer. He was a member of the Royal Irish Academy, and a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, where he founded the college's herbarium. He served as physician with the Real del Monte Company in Mexico, during which period he collected plants in the region. He is best remembered for exploration and botanical research in Mexi...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Edward Cradock

bornactivedied
unknown1570sunknown
an English theologian and alchemist. In 1571 he published The Shippe of assured Safetie, wherein we may sayle without Danger towards the Land of the Living, promised to the true Israelites, 2nd edition 1572. Some Latin sapphics by Cradock are prefixed to Robert Peterson's translation of Giovanni della Casa's Il Galateo, 1576. He was a friend of John Dee who ...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

William Crookes

borndied
1832, Jun 171919, Apr 4
an English chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry, London, and worked on spectroscopy. He was a pioneer of vacuum tubes, inventing the Crookes tube and the Crookes radiometer, which today is made and sold as a novelty item. From 1850 to 1854 he filled the position of assistant in the college, and soon embarked upon original work. H...
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Cross-listed in WritersPhysiciansInventors

William Cullen

borndied
1710, Apr 151790, Feb 5
a Scottish physician, chemist and agriculturalist, and one of the most important professors at the Edinburgh Medical School, during its heyday as the leading center of medical education in the English-speaking world. In 1748 while in Glasgow, Cullen invented the basis for modern refrigeration, although is not credited with a usable application. In 1751 he wa...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Georges Cuvier

borndied
1769, Aug 231832, May 13
a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal (...
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