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Cross-listed in ExplorersWriters

Jean-Baptiste Labat

borndied
16631738, Jan 6
a French clergyman, botanist, writer, explorer, ethnographer, soldier, engineer, and landowner. Labat was born and died in Paris. In 1693, determined to devote himself to foreign missionary work, he received permission from the general of his order to travel to the West Indies, then under French domination. In 1696 he travelled to Guadeloupe, and was appoint...
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Joseph-Louis Lagrange

aka: Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange, Lagrangia
borndied
1736, Jan 251813, Apr 10
an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics.
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Cross-listed in MilitaryWriters

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

borndied
1744, Aug 11829, Dec 18
a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology. In 1801, he published Système des animaux sans vert...
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Johann Heinrich Lambert

borndied
1728, Aug 261777, Sep 25
a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Pierre-Simon Laplace

aka: Marquis de Laplace
borndied
1749, Mar 231827, Mar 5
an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825).
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Cross-listed in Writers

Antoine Lavoisier

borndied
1743, Aug 261794, May 8
a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology. He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry". This label, however, is more a product of Lavoisier's eminent skill as a self-promoter and underplays his depend...
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Urbain Le Verrier

borndied
1811, Mar 111877, Sep 23
a French mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Georges-Louis Leclerc

aka: Comte de Buffon
borndied
1707, Sep 71788, Apr 16
a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier. Buffon published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle during his lifetime; with additional volumes based on his notes and further research being published in the...
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Cross-listed in WritersInventors

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

aka: von Leibniz
borndied
1646, Jun 211716, Nov 14
a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy, having developed differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton. Leibniz's notation has been widely used ever since it ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Nicolas Lemery

borndied
1645, Nov 171715, Jun 19
a French chemist, was born at Rouen. He was one of the first to develop theories on acid-base chemistry. Lemery did not concern himself much with theoretical speculations, but holding chemistry to be a demonstrative science, confined himself to the straightforward exposition of facts and experiments. In consequence, his lecture-room was thronged with people ...
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Cross-listed in ArtistsAstronomersSculptorsArchitectsInventorsCartographers

Leonardo da Vinci

bornactivedied
1452, Apr 151466-15191519, May 2
an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of paleontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest pain...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Justus von Liebig

borndied
1803, May 121873, Apr 18
a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He has been described ...
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Cross-listed in WritersInventors

Carl Linnaeus

aka: Carolus Linnæus, Carolus a Linné, Carl von Linné
borndied
1707, May 231778, Jan 10
a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". One of the first scientists Linnaeus met in the Netherlands was Johan Frederik Gronovius to whom Linnaeus showed one of the several manuscripts he had brought with him from Sw...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersWritersInventors

Mikhail Lomonosov

borndied
1711, Nov 81765, Apr 4
a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus and the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Claudius Loudon

borndied
1783, Apr 81843, Dec 14
a Scottish botanist, garden designer and cemetery designer, author and garden magazine editor. He was the first to use the term arboretum in writing to refer to a garden of plants, especially trees, collected for the purpose of scientific study. Loudon was a prolific horticultural and landscape design writer. Through his publications, he hoped to spread his ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Johann von Lowenstern-Kunckel

aka: Löwenstern-Kunckel
borndied
1630/381703, Mar 20
a German chemist. He became chemist and apothecary to the dukes of Lauenburg, and then to the Elector of Saxony, Johann Georg II, who put him in charge of the royal laboratory at Dresden. Intrigues engineered against him caused him to resign this position in 1677, and for a time he lectured on chemistry at Annaberg and Wittenberg. Invited to Berlin by Freder...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersCommerceLegal

John William Lubbock

aka: 3rd Baronet
borndied
1803, Mar 261865, Jun 21
an English banker, barrister, mathematician and astronomer. In 1828 he became a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, in 1829 he became a fellow of the Royal Society, and has been described as "foremost among English mathematicians in adopting Laplace's doctrine of probability." For his studies of tides he was awarded the Royal Medal in 1834.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Henry Lyte

borndied
1529 ca1607, Oct 16
an English botanist and antiquary. He is best known for two works, A niewe Herball (1578), which was a translation of the Cruydeboeck of Rembert Dodoens (Antwerp, 1564), and an antiquarian volume, The Light of Britayne (1588), both of which are dedicated to Queen Elizabeth I. Lyte's first and most important work was his translation of the Cruydeboeck of Remb...
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