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Cross-listed in ExplorersAstronomersMilitary

Sir Edward Sabine

bornactivedied
1788, Oct 141818-18711883, Jun 26
an Irish astronomer, geophysicist, ornithologist, explorer, soldier and the 30th President of the Royal Society. Two branches of Sabine's work are notable: Determination of the length of the seconds pendulum, a simple pendulum whose time period on the surface of the Earth is two seconds, that is, one second in each direction; and his research on the Earth's ...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Horace Benedict de Saussure

aka: Bénédict
borndied
1740, Feb 171799, Jan 22
a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven. In 1767, he completed his first tour of Mont-Blanc, a trip that did much to reveal the topography of the snowy portions of the Alps of Savoy. He also...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

borndied
1742, Dec 91786, May 21
a Swedish Pomeranian and pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen (although Joseph Priestley published his findings first), and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine be...
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Cross-listed in WritersCartographers

Adolf Schmidl

borndied
1802, May 181863, Nov 20
an Austrian topographer , geographer , speleologist and writer , and a professor at the Joseph Polytechnic in oven . He developed the speleology as an independent scientific discipline. The extensive geographic written work Schmidl dealt especially with Vienna and Vienna region, for 40 years of center of his life, although he described numerous other, even r...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Christian Friedrich Schonbein

aka: Schönbein
borndied
1799, Oct 181868, Aug 29
a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) at the same time as William Robert Grove, Robert Cumming and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone. It was while doing experiments on the electrolysis of water that Schönbein first began to notice a distinctive odor in his laboratory. This smell gave Schönbein the clue to the pres...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersWriters

Henry R. Schoolcraft

borndied
1793, Mar 281864, Dec 10
an American geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi River. He is also noted for his major six-volume study of Native Americans in the 1850s. He served as a United States Indian agent for a period beginning in 1822 in Michigan, where he...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersClergyEducators

Angelo Secchi

aka: Pietro Angelo
borndied
1818, Jun 291878, Feb 26
an Italian astronomer. He was Director of the Observatory at the Pontifical Gregorian University (then called the Roman College) for 28 years. He was a pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy, and was one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star.
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Cross-listed in ExplorersCartographersCommerce

John Senex

borndied
16781740
an English cartographer, engraver and explorer. He was also an astrologer, geologist, and geographer to Queen Anne of Great Britain, editor and seller of antique maps and most importantly creator of the pocket-size map of the world.[citation needed] He owned a business on Fleet Street, where he sold maps. Senex is famous for his maps of the world, some of wh...
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Cross-listed in WritersPhysiciansInventorsLegal

Fathullah Shirazi

borndied
unknown1582
a Persian-Indian polymath—a scholar, Islamic jurist, finance minister, mechanical engineer, inventor, mathematician, astronomer, physician, philosopher and artist—who worked for Akbar, ruler of the Mughal Empire. Among the inventions credited to him was an early anti-infantry volley gun with multiple gun barrels similar to a hand cannon's. Another cannon...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Sibthorp

borndied
1758, Oct 281796, Feb 8
an English botanist. In 1784 he succeeded his father to the Sherardian chair. Leaving his professional duties to a deputy, he left England for Göttingen and Vienna, in preparation for a botanical tour of Greece (1786) and Cyprus (1787). Returning to England at the end of the following year, he took part in the foundation of the Linnean Society in 1788, and ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

George Sinclair

borndied
unknown1696
a Scottish mathematician, engineer and demonologist. The first Professor of Mathematics, Glasgow, he is known for Satan's Invisible Works Discovered, (c. 1685), a work on witchcraft. He wrote in all three areas of his interests, including an account of the “Glenluce Devil”, a poltergeist case from c. 1654, in a 1680 book mainly on hydrostatics and dealin...
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Cross-listed in ArtistsMilitary

Charles Hamilton Smith

borndied
1776, Dec 261859, Sep 21
an English artist, naturalist, antiquary, illustrator, soldier, and spy. His military career began in 1787, when he studied at the Austrian academy for artillery and engineers at Mechelen and Leuven in Belgium. Although his military service, which ended in 1820 and included the Napoleonic Wars, saw him travel extensively (including the West Indies, Canada, a...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersWritersInventors

Hamilton Lanphere Smith

borndied
1819, Nov 51903
an American scientist, photographer, and astronomer. He was born in New London, Connecticut and graduated from Yale in 1839, where he constructed the largest telescope in the country at the time in 1838. In 1848 Smith wrote "The World", one of the first science textbooks written in America. Smith is best known for patenting the tintype photographic process, ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Sir James Edward Smith

borndied
1759, Dec 21828, Mar 17
an English botanist and founder of the Linnean Society. Between 1786 and 1788 Smith made the grand tour through the Netherlands, France, Italy and Switzerland visiting botanists, picture galleries and herbaria. He founded the Linnean Society of London in 1788, becoming its first President, a post he held until his death. Smith spent the remaining thirty year...
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James Smithson

borndied
1765 ca1829, Jun 27
an English chemist and mineralogist. He was the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson was never married and had no children; therefore, when he wrote his will, he left his estate to his nephew, or his nephew's family if his nephew died before Smithson. If his nephew was to die without heirs, however, Smithson's will stipulated that his esta...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Ascanio Sobrero

borndied
1812, Oct 121888, May 26
an Italian chemist, born in Casale Monferrato. He was studying under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton. During his research he discovered, in 1847, nitroglycerine. He initially called it "pyroglycerine", and warned vigorously against its use in his private letters and in a journal articl...
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Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Lazzaro Spallanzani

borndied
1729, Jan 101799, Feb 12
an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation. His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory (the idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves), though the final death...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersPhysicians

Jacob Spon

borndied
16471685, Dec 25
a French doctor and archaeologist, was a pioneer in the exploration of the monuments of Greece and a scholar of international reputation in the developing "Republic of Letters". Spon travelled to Italy, and then to Greece, to Constantinople and the Levant in 1675–1676 in the company of the English connoisseur and botanist Sir George Wheler (1650–1723), w...
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Cross-listed in WritersPhysicians

Georg Ernst Stahl

borndied
1659, Oct 221734, May 24
a German chemist, physician and philosopher. He was a supporter of vitalism, and until the late 18th century his works on phlogiston were accepted as an explanation for chemical processes. Stahl's focus was on the distinction between the living and nonliving. Although he did not support the views of iatro-mechanists, he believed that all non-living creatures...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Richard Stanihurst

aka: Stanyhurst
borndied
15471618
an Irish alchemist, translator, poet and historian, born in Dublin. Richard was sent to Peter White's Kilkenny College after which, in 1563, he continued to University College, Oxford, where he took his degree five years later. At Oxford he became intimate with Edmund Campion. After leaving the university he studied law at Furnival's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. H...
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Cross-listed in WritersInventors

Emanuel Swedenborg

borndied
1688, Jan 291772, Mar 29
a Swedish scientist, philosopher, theologian, revelator, and mystic. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at age 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions. According to The Heavenly Doctrine t...
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