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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Fernan Caballero

aka: Fernán Caballero, Cecilia Francisca Josefa Böhl de Faber
bornactivedied
1796, Dec 241821-1870s1877, Apr 7
the pseudonym adopted from the name of a village in the province of Ciudad Real by the Spanish novelist Cecilia Francisca Josefa Böhl de Faber. She published in German an anonymous romance, Sole (1840), and curiously enough the original draft of La Gaviota was written in French. This novel, translated into Spanish by José Joaquín de Mora, appeared as the...
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Niccolo Cabeo

aka: Niccolò Cabeo, Nicolaus Cabeus
bornactivedied
1586, Feb 261620s-16501650, Jun 30
an Italian Jesuit philosopher, theologian, engineer and mathematician. He is noted for his contributions to physics experiments and observations. He observed the experiments of Giovanni Battista Baliani regarding falling objects, and he wrote about these experiments noting that two different objects fall in the same amount of time regardless of the medium. H...
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Cross-listed in ComposersPerformers

Francesca Caccini

aka: La Cecchina
borndied
15871641
an Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher of the early Baroque era. She was also known by the nickname "La Cecchina" She was the first woman to compose opera and probably the most prolific woman composer of her time.
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Rhys Cadwaladr

bornactivedied
unknown1666-16901690
a Welsh language poet and classical scholar, born in Conwy, north Wales. Died in 1690. He wrote a poem to one of the Gwydir family in 1674 and many poems to various members of the Mostyn family , one being to Thomas Mostyn at the New Year, 1678.
Links (2)


Jean-Francois Cailhava de L'Estandoux

aka: Jean-François
borndied
1731, Apr 281813, Jun 26
a French dramatist, poet and critic. L'Estandoux was born in Estandoux, Toulouse. He was elected the ninth occupant of Académie française seat 29 in 1803. He died, aged 82, in Paris.
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Cross-listed in Legal

Theophile Cailleux

aka: Théophile
borndied
18161890
a Belgian lawyer, born in Calais in France and the author of a work on Homeric geography published in 1878. The title is Pays atlantiques décrits par Homère: Ibérie, Gaule, Bretagne, Archipels, Amériques. Théorie nouvelle ("Atlantic lands described by Homer: the Iberian peninsula, Gaul, Britain, the Atlantic islands, the Americas. A new theory"). As the...
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Rhys Cain

borndied
1540 ca1614
a Welsh-language poet who lived in the north east of Wales near Oswestry. Rhys was a wandering poet who, in the absence of a fixed patron, visited the local aristocracy in search of patronage.
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Cross-listed in Artists

Benjamin Calau

bornactivedied
17241743-17851785
a German portrait painter, who used an encaustic technique. He painted some portraits for Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim's "Temple of Friendship", a collection of paintings of the poet's friends (totalling more than 120 by the time of his death) that he kept in two rooms in his home in Halberstadt. Lambert published the results of his researches in 1772 as Besc...
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David Calderwood

borndied
15751650, Oct 29
a Scottish divine and historian. During his residence in Holland he published his Altare Damascenum. His last years were devoted to the preparation of The Historie of the Kirk of Scotland which was published in an abridged form in 1646. The complete work was printed (1841–49) for the Woodrow Society.
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Francois de Callieres

aka: François de Callières
borndied
1645, May 141717, Mar 5
a member of the Académie française, a diplomat and writer, a special envoy of Louis XIV who was one of three French plenipotentiaries who signed the Peace of Ryswick in 1697; his De la manière de négocier avec les souverains, 1716 ("On the manner of negotiati...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Antoine Augustin Calmet

borndied
1672, Feb 261757, Oct 25
a French Benedictine monk. After his ordination, 17 March 1696, he was appointed to teach philosophy and theology at the Abbey of Moyenmoutier. Here, with the help of his brethren, he began to gather the material for his commentary of the Bible, which he completed at Munster in Alsace where he was sent in 1704 as sub-prior and professor of Biblical exegesis....
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John Calvin

aka: Jehan Cauvin
borndied
1509, Jul 101564, May 27
an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrine of predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation. In these areas Calv...
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Cross-listed in ComposersAstronomers

Sethus Calvisius

borndied
1556, Feb 211615, Nov 24
a German music theorist, composer, chronologer, astronomer, and teacher of the late Renaissance. He published a book on music, Melodiae condendae ratio (Erfurt, 1592). He composed choral pieces including Unser Leben währet siebzig Jahr. Calvisius was also a significant astronomer: in his Opus Chronologicum (Leipzig, 1605, 7th ed. 1685) he expounded a system...
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Joachim Camerarius

borndied
1500, Apr 121574, Apr 17
a German classical scholar. He translated into Latin Herodotus, Demosthenes, Xenophon, Homer, Theocritus, Sophocles, Lucian, Theodoretus, Nicephorus, Ptolemy and other Greek writers. He published upwards of 150 works.
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George Cameron

borndied
1768 ca1823, Jun 20
an English hairdresser and songwriter from Tyneside. Cameron wrote his first (and it appears his only) song "The Pitman's Revenge (against Bonaparte)" during this period, c. 1804. He first performed the song at a meeting of his regiment at the Three Indian Kings on Newcastle's Quayside, and despite being met with much approval this appears to have been the o...
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Luis de Camoes

aka: Luís de Camões, Luís Vaz de Camões, Camoens, Camoëns
borndied
1524 ca1580
is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, Vondel, Homer, Virgil and Dante. He wrote a considerable amount of lyrical poetry and drama but is best remembered for his epic work Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads). His collection of poetry The Parnasum of Luís de Camões was lost...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Tommaso Campanella

borndied
1568, Sep 51639, May 21
a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet. Campanella wrote his first work, Philosophia sensibus demonstrata ("Philosophy demonstrated by the senses"), published in 1592, in defence of Bernardino Telesio. Campanella spent twenty-seven years imprisoned in Naples, often in the worst conditions. During his detention, he wrote his ...
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Alexander Campbell

borndied
1788, Sep 121866, Mar 4
a Scots-Irish immigrant who became an ordained minister in the United States and joined his father Thomas Campbell as a leader of a reform effort that is historically known as the Restoration Movement, and by some as the "Stone-Campbell Movement." He wrote several moral essays under the pseudonym "Clarinda," edited and published two journals, and wrote seve...
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Archibald Campbell

aka: 1st Marquess of Argyll
borndied
1607, mar1661, May 27
the de facto head of government in Scotland during most of the conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, also known as the British Civil War. While imprisoned in the Tower he wrote Instructions to a Son (1661). Some of his speeches, including the one delivered on the scaffold, were published and are printed in the Harleian Miscellany.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Architects

Colen Campbell

bornactivedied
1676, Jun 151712-17291729, Sep 13
a pioneering Scottish architect and architectural writer, credited as a founder of the Georgian style. For most of his career, he resided in Italy and England. He is believed to have trained in and studied architecture under James Smith, this belief is strengthened by Campbell owning several drawings of buildings designed by Smith.
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John Campbell

borndied
16531728, Mar
a Boston editor. He founded the first regularly published newspaper in British America, The Boston News-Letter. Campbell was one of a family or kin of Boston booksellers and public officials whose relationships are not determinable. He arrived in Boston some time before 1698, and in 1702 was appointed postmaster. As postmaster, he was the news center of the ...
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Thomas Campbell

borndied
17771844
a Scottish poet chiefly remembered for his sentimental poetry dealing especially with human affairs. A co-founder of the Literary Association of the Friends of Poland, he was also one of the initiators of a plan to found what became the University of London.
Links (1)


Francois-Nicolas-Vincent Campenon

aka: François-Nicolas-Vincent
borndied
1772, Mar 291843, Nov 29
a French poet and translator from Latin and English. Very little is known of his life. He wrote five books of poems, four translations and also published two memoirs.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ComposersPhysicians

Thomas Campion

aka: Campian
borndied
1567, Feb 121620, Mar 1
an English composer, poet, and physician. He wrote over a hundred lute songs, masques for dancing, and an authoritative technical treatise on music. The body of his works is considerable, the earliest known being a group of five anonymous poems. While Campion had attained a considerable reputation in his own day, in the years that followed his death his work...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Campion

aka: William Wigmore
borndied
15991665
an English Jesuit. He published anonymously an octavo volume, without place or date, ‘On the Catholic Doctrine of Transubstantiation, against Dr. John Cosin,’ afterwards bishop of Durham.
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Jean Galbert de Campistron

borndied
1656, Aug 31723, May 11
a French dramatist. He secured the patronage of the influential duchesse de Bouillon by dedicating Arminius to her, and in 1685 he scored his first success with Andronic, which disguised under other names the tragic story of Don Carlos and Elizabeth of France. The piece made a great sensation, but Campistron's treatment is weak, and he failed to avail himsel...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Armand-Gaston Camus

borndied
1740, Apr 21804, Nov 2
French revolutionist, was a successful advocate before the French Revolution. He was the son of Pierre Camus, a lawyer in the Parlement of Paris. In 1789 he was elected by the Third Estate of Paris to the Estates-General, and attracted attention by his speeches against social inequalities. He was one of the National Assembly's earliest presidents (28 October...
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Jose de la Canal

aka: José
borndied
1768, Jan 111845, Apr 17
a Spanish ecclesiastical historian. was appointed by the King to continue the monumental España Sagrada (Holy Spain), begun in 1743 by the Augustinians Henrique Flórez and Manuel Risco. This valuable collection of documents and researches relating to Spanish ecclesiastical history had already reached its forty-second volume. The work embraces an account of...
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Francesco Cancellieri

borndied
1751, Oct 101826, Dec 29
an Italian writer, librarian, and erudite bibliophile. The manuscripts of Francesco Cancellieri, includes many volumes unpublished and conserved since 1840 in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Other manuscripts are in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Amelie-Julie Candeille

aka: Amélie-Julie
borndied
17671834
a French composer, librettist, writer, singer, actress, comedienne, and instrumentalist. Contemporary discussions of her music highlight the supremacy of melody and use of simple harmonies used throughout her works. Candeille was often criticized for her vanity, and her stage works received many unfavorable reviews in the Parisian papers. Candeille composed ...
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Benet Canfield

aka: Father Benet, Benoit of Canfield, Benoît de Canfeld
borndied
15621610
an English Recusant and mystic. In 1609, towards the end of his life, Benet published his masterpiece, Règle de perfection réduite au seul point de la volonté divine (Rule of Perfection). This work fell under the disapproval of the Church in the early 17th century, and is therefore less well-known than Holy Wisdom by his contemporary and associate Augusti...
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Thomas Cannon

bornactivedied
unknown1740sunknown
an English author of the 18th century. He wrote what may be the earliest published defence of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd (1749) and may also have collaborated with John Cleland, author of Fanny Hill.
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Melchior Cano

borndied
1509 ca1560, Sep 30
a Spanish Scholastic theologian. In 1556 he wrote his famous Consultatio theologica, in which he advised the king to resist the temporal encroachments of the papacy and, as absolute monarch, to defend his rights by bringing about a radical change in the administration of ecclesiastical revenues, thus making Spain less dependent on Rome.
Links (1)


Richard Cantillon

borndied
1685 ca1734, May
an Irish-French economist and author of Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général (Essay on the Nature of Trade in General), a book considered by William Stanley Jevons to be the "cradle of political economy."
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Cesare Cantu

aka: Cantù
borndied
1804, Dec 51895, Mar 15
an Italian historian. While in prison writing materials were denied him, but he managed to write on rags with a tooth-pick and candle smoke, and thus composed the novel Margherita Pusterla (Milan, 1838). On his release a year later, as he was interdicted from teaching, literature became his only recource. In 1836 the Turinese publisher, Giuseppe Pomba, commi...
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Julius Capaccio

borndied
15521631
a learned Italian of the 17th century. He was born of a humble family, which he ennobled, in Campania. He studied the civil and canon law at Naples, where he became secretary to the city, and one of the founders of the academy of Obiosi. The duke of Urbino employed him as tutor to his son. He died in 1631, having written at least seven books.
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Arthur Capell

aka: 1st Baron Capell of Hadham
borndied
1608, Feb 201649, Mar 9
an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Capell. Capell wrote Daily Observations or Meditations: Divine, Morall, published with some of his letters in 1654, and reprinted, with a short life of the author, under the title Excellent Contemplations, in 1683.
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Louis-Antoine Caraccioli

borndied
1719, Nov 61803, May 29
a prolific French writer, poet, historian, and biographer long time considered an "enemy of Philosophy" because of his broad apologetic production. Caraccioli was born and wrote in Paris, though he studied in Mans and travelled in Italy, Germany and Poland.
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Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Vincenzo Carafa

borndied
1585, May 51649, Jun 6
an Italian Jesuit priest and spiritual writer, elected the seventh Superior-General of the Society of Jesus. He is a Servant of God. Carafa was born in Andria (Italy), of the family of the Counts of Montorio, and a relative of Pope Paul IV. He entered the Society of Jesus on 4 October 1604, and was sixty years of age at his election as general. He died four ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

David Carcassonne

borndied
1789, Dec 201861, Nov 15
a French physician. Carcassonne was the author of a work entitled Essai Historique sur la Médecine des Hébreux Anciens et Modernes (Montpellier-Nîmes, 1815).
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Cross-listed in AstronomersPhysiciansInventorsScientists

Gerolamo Cardano

borndied
1501, Sep 241576, Sep 21
an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler. He was one of the most influential mathematicians of the Renaissance, and was one of the key figures in the foundation of probability and the earliest introducer of the b...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Nicolas de Cardona

aka: Nicolás
bornactivedied
unknown1610s-1620sunknown
a Spanish entrepreneur and adventurer with residence in Seville, who was involved in the exploration of the Western coast of the North American continent. He finally returned to Spain in 1623, where he published in 1624 his Hydrographic and Geographic Descriptions of Many northern and Southern Lands and Seas in the Indies, Specifically of the Discovery of th...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Giosue Carducci

aka: Giosuè
borndied
18351907
an Italian poet and teacher. He was very influential and was regarded as the official national poet of modern Italy. In 1906 he became the first Italian to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1906 "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical for...
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Gemelli Careri

borndied
16511725
a seventeenth-century Italian adventurer and traveler. He was among the first Europeans to tour the world by securing passage on ships involved in the carrying trade; his travels, undertaken for pleasure rather than profit, may have inspired Around the World in Eighty Days. This five-year trip would lead to his best known six-volume book, Giro Del Mondo (169...
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George Carew

borndied
unknown1613 ca
an English diplomat and historian. During the reign of James I he was employed in negotiations with Scotland and for several years was ambassador to the court of France. On his return he wrote a Relation of the State of France, written in the classical style of the Elizabethan age and featuring sketches of the leading persons at the court of more
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Sir Richard Carew [1]

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
1580 ca1643, Mar 14
a British writer and Member of Parliament. Carew published several works, including a treatise written to prove that "a warming stone" was "useful and comfortable for the colds of aged and sick people". His most notable work, however, was the True and readie Way to learne the Latine Tongue, attested by three excellently learned and approved authours of thre...
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Richard Carew [2]

borndied
1755, Jul 171620, Nov 6
a Cornish translator and antiquary. He made a translation of the first five cantos of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered (1594), which was more correct than that of Edward Fairfax. He also translated Juan de la Huarte's Examen de Ingenios, basing his translation on Camillo Camilli's Italian version. Carew was a member of the Elizabethan Society of Antiquaries, and ...
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Thomas Carew

borndied
15951639
an English poet, among the 'Cavalier' group of Caroline poets. Carew's poems are sensuous lyrics. They open to us, in his own phrase, "a mine of rich and pregnant fancy." His metrical style was influenced by Jonson and his imagery by Donne, for whom he had an almost servile admiration.
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Henry Carey

borndied
16871743
an English poet, dramatist and song-writer. He is remembered as an anti-Walpolean satirist and also as a patriot. Several of his melodies continue to be sung today, and he was widely praised in the generation after his death. Because he worked in anonymity, selling his own compositions to others to pass off as their own, contemporary scholarship can only be ...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryNaval

Christopher Carleill

bornactivedied
1551 ca1573-15931593
an English military and naval commander. In 1588, he was appointed constable of Carrickfergus, County Antrim, and later, he was governor of Ulster. In 1590, he wrote to Lord Burghley, requesting a commission from the queen to seize for lawful prize any goods which might be found in England belonging to Spanish subjects, and complaining of his monetary losses...
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Robert Carliell

aka: Carleill
bornactivedied
unknown1610sunknown
an English poet. Carliell is remembered mainly for a verse defence of the new Church of England and a diatribe against the Roman Catholic Church. In the latter, he likens Roman Catholics and Protestant schismatics to tobacco, for "so doth their profession and their faith in their Religion make their soules black, and cause filthy blasphemies to come out of t...
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Nicholas Carlisle

borndied
17711847, Aug 27
an English antiquary and librarian. In 1806, he became a candidate for the office of Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, which he obtained the following year. In 1812, he became an Assistant Librarian of the Royal Library; he went on to accompany that collection to the British Museum, which he attended two days each week. He wrote several topographical ...
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Thomas Carlyle

bornactivedied
1795, Dec 41821-18781881, Feb 5
a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he expla...
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Pierre Carmouche

borndied
1797, Apr 91868, Dec
a French playwright. He wrote more than 200 successful plays, comedies, vaudevilles and texts for opéras comiques, in collaboration with diverse collaborators - Brazier, Dumersan, Mélesville, de Courcy, etc. In 1824 he married the actress Jenny Vertpré. He also collected a rich library, bequeathed in part to marshal Canrobert.
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Nathanael Carpenter

borndied
15891628 ca
an English author, philosopher, and geographer. His earliest work was an attack on the Aristotelian system of philosophy, and appeared at Frankfurt in 1621, under the pseudonym "N. C. Cosmopolitanus." His treatise of Geography Delineated Forth in Two Books was published in 1625. He also wrote several sermons.
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Richard Carpenter

borndied
15751627, Dec 18
an English clergyman and theological writer. He was elected to a Cornish fellowship at his college on 30 June 1596, and retained it until 30 June 1606; under the advice of Thomas Holland, the Rector, he studied theology, and became noted as a preacher. Carpenter's literary productions were confined to theology.
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Manuel Carpio

aka: Manuel Elogio Carpio Hernández
borndied
1791, Mar 11860, Feb 11
a Mexican poet. Manuel Carpio was a relevant writer, theologian, philosopher and doctor of the nineteenth century, and former member of the Mexican Romanticism. Born in the city of Cosamaloapan de Carpio in the State of Veracruz, he died in Mexico City. His poetry has been published twice in a collection entitled under the name of Poesías del Sr. Doctor Don...
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John Carr [2]

borndied
17221807
a County Durham born schoolmaster and writer. Possibly his main legacy is his "Translation of Lucian" from ancient Greek language, on which he spent almost 25 years from 1773 to 1798. This was published in 5 volumes. At the time it was considered to be of great importance in the literary world, but this importance has since diminished with the appearance of ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Nicholas Carr

borndied
15241568
an English classical scholar, regius professor of Greek at Cambridge in 1547, and a physician. On the foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1546 he was nominated one of the original fellows, and the following year he was appointed regius professor of Greek. His lectures on Demosthenes, Plato, Sophocles, and other writers gained for him a reputation for...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Bartolomeo Carranza

aka: Bartolomé, de Miranda, de Carranza y Miranda
borndied
15031576, May 2
a Spanish priest of the Dominican Order, theologian and Archbishop of Toledo, who spent much of his later life imprisoned on (eventually disproven) charges of heresy. His Summa Conciliorum et Pontificum (Venice, 1546) has been often reprinted, and has long been widely respected.
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Lewis Carroll

aka: Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
borndied
18321898
an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer. His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, which includes the poem Jabberwocky, and the poem The Hunting of the Snark, all examples of the genre of literary nonsense. He is noted for his facility...
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Seon Carsuel

aka: Séon
borndied
1522 ca1572
a 16th-century Scottish prelate, humanist and Protestant reformer. Born early in the century, when Séon completed his education he joined the service of the Protestant Earl of Argyll, tutoring his son and using his patronage to obtain benefices, most notably becoming Bishop of the Isles in 1565. Standing at over seven-foot in height, Carsuel was an equally ...
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Robert Carter

borndied
1819, Feb 51879, Feb 15
a United States editor, historian and author. He was involved in the formation of the Republican Party. In 1841 he went to Boston, where he formed a lifelong friendship with James Russell Lowell, and together they began The Pioneer, a Literary and Critical Magazine, a monthly magazine which the Cyclopædia of American Literature said was “of too fine a cas...
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Frances Dorothy Cartwright

borndied
17801863
an English poet and biographer. On the death of her uncle in 1824 she prepared her first published work, The Life and Correspondence of Major Cartwright, published in 1826. She retired to live at Worthing, and published her poems there anonymously, in a little volume, Poems, chiefly Devotional, dated 13 November 1835.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Samuel A. Cartwright

bornactivedied
1793, Nov 31837-18621863, May 2
a physician who practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana in the antebellum United States. Cartwright is best known as the inventor of the 'disease' of drapetomania and an outspoken critic of germ theory. In the antebellum period, southerners largely considered blacks to be racially inferior to whites. They sought "scientific proof" for their argument to counte...
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William Cartwright

borndied
16111643
an English poet, dramatist and churchman. The collected edition of his poems (1651) contains commendatory verses by Henry Lawes, who set some of his songs to music. His plays are, with the exception of The Ordinary, far-fetched in plot, and stilted and artificial in treatment.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

John Carver

borndied
1584 ca1621, Apr
credited with writing the Mayflower Compact, was its first signer, and was the first governor of New Plymouth Colony. Carver was a Leiden Separatist instrumental in organizing the Pilgrim's Mayflower voyage in 1620, on which he was a passenger, and which resulted in the creation of Plymouth Colony in America.
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Alice Cary

borndied
1820, Apr 261871, Feb 12
an American poet, and the sister of fellow poet Phoebe Cary (1824–1871). When Alice was 17 and Phoebe 13, they began to write verses, which were printed in newspapers. Alice's first major poem, "The Child of Sorrow," was published in 1838 and was praised by influential critics including more
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Lucius Cary

aka: 2nd Viscount Falkland
borndied
1610 ca1643, Sep 20
an English author and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1642. He fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War and was killed in action at the First Battle of Newbury. Falkland wrote a Discourse of Infallibility, published in 1646. This is a work of some importance in theological controversy, the general argument being that "to ...
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Phoebe Cary

borndied
1824, Sep 41871, Jul 31
an American poet, and the younger sister of poet Alice Cary (1820–1871). The sisters co-published poems in 1849, and then each went on to publish volumes of her own. After their deaths in 1871, joint anthologies of the sisters' unpublished poems were also compiled.
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Maria Andrea Casamayor

aka: María Andrea
borndied
17001780
a Spanish mathematician. Little information is available about the details of her life. She is one of few women scientists and mathematicians who worked in 18th century Spain. She wrote and published two scientific books in mathematics, which were used in contemporary Spanish schools. Her work is thought to be the only scientific work extant from a Spanish f...
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Giacomo Casanova

bornactivedied
1725, Apr 21742-17971798, Jun 4
an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. His autobiography, Histoire de ma vie (Story of My Life), is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century. He has become so famous for his often complicated and elaborate affairs with women that his name is now synony...
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John Case

aka: Johannes Casus
borndied
1540 ca1600
an English writer on Aristotle. He was elected to a scholarship at St. John's in 1564. He was B.A. in 1568, M.A. in 1572, and became a fellow of his college. He had a high reputation as a disputant. Most of Case's works were commentaries on various treatises of Aristotle (Organon, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, Economics, Physics) under curious titles; they e...
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Cross-listed in ClergyInventorsScientists

Giovanni Caselli

borndied
18151891
an Italian physicist and priest. He is the inventor of the pantelegraph (a.k.a. Universal Telegraph or "all-purpose telegraph"), the predecessor of the modern fax machine. The world's first practical operating facsimile machine ("fax") system put into use was by Caselli. In Florence he studied physics under Leopoldo Nobili. These studies involved electrochem...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Lewis Cass

bornactivedied
1782, Oct 91806-18601866, Jun 17
an American military officer, politician, and statesman. He represented Michigan in the United States Senate and served in the Cabinet of Andrew Jackson and James B...
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Links (15)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Jacques Cassagne

aka: Jacques de Cassaigne
borndied
1636, Jan 11679, May 19
a French clergyman, poet and moralist. A doctor of theology, he was 'garde' of the king's library and entered the Académie française aged 29. In 1663, he was one of the four founder members of the "Petite Académie" which later gave birth to the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. In 1665 he edited the preface to the complete works of Guez de Bal...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Astronomers

Jean-Dominique Cassini

aka: comte de Cassini
bornactivedied
1748 Jun 301768-18101845, Oct 18
a French astronomer, he succeeded his father as director of the observatory. He published in 1770 an account of a voyage to America in 1768, undertaken as the commissary of the French Academy of Sciences with a view to testing Pierre Le Roy’s watches at sea.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in AstronomersCartographers

Cesar-Francois Cassini de Thury

aka: César-François, Cassini III
bornactivedied
1714, Jun 171735-17841784, Sep 4
a French astronomer and cartographer. His chief works are: La méridienne de l’Observatoire Royal de Paris (1744), a correction of the Paris meridian; Description géométrique de la terre (1775); and Description géométrique de la France (1784), which was completed by his son ("Cassini IV").
Links (1)


Antonio Feliciano de Castilho

aka: António, 1st Viscount of Castilho
borndied
1800, Jan 281875, Jun 18
a Portuguese writer. He lost his sight at the age of six, but the devotion of his brother Augusto, and aided by a retentive memory, enabled him to go through his school and university course with success; and he acquired an almost complete mastery of the Latin language and literature. His first work of importance, the Cartas de Echo e Narciso (1821), belongs...
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Links (1)


Hippolyte Castille

borndied
1820, Nov 81886, Sep 26
a French writer and polemicist. He wrote in collaboration with Frédéric Bastiat and Gustave de Molinari. Among his works are the Portraits historiques du dix-neuvième siècle, with portraits of the likes of Chateaubriand, Baroche and Lamartine, among many others. He also wrote about Napoleon III.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsSculptors

Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra

borndied
1616, Jul 101668, Feb 2
a Spanish Baroque painter, sculptor, and poet. He trained in painting under his father Agustín del Castillo, and after his death by a little-known religious painter named Ignacio Aedo Calderón from 1631 to 1634. Later he was taught in Seville by Francisco de Zurbarán and by his uncle Juan del Castillo, who was also teacher of Cano, Murillo and De Moya. In...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Fernando Castro Palao

borndied
15811633, Dec 1
a Spanish Jesuit theologian. At the age of fifteen, in 1596, he entered the Society of Jesus. He taught philosophy at Valladolid, moral theology at Compostela, and scholastic theology at Salamanca. Later he became rector of the College of Medina, and consultor and qualificator of the Holy Inquisition. He filled these three offices until his death. His "Opus ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

George Catlin

bornactivedied
1796, Jul 261830-18721872, Dec 23
an American painter, author, and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. Travelling to the American West five times during the 1830s, Catlin was the first white man to depict Plains Indians in their native territory. His early work included engravings, drawn from nature, of sites along the route of the Erie Canal in New Yor...
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Links (23)


Cross-listed in Legal

Jacob Cats [1]

borndied
1577, Nov 101660, Sep 12
a Dutch poet, humorist, jurist and politician. He is most famous for his emblem books. Cats retired to the seclusion of his palatial villa "Sorghvliet" ("Fly From Care"). Here he lived from this time till his death, occupied in the composition of his autobiography (Eighty-two Years of My Life, first printed at Leiden in 1734) and of his poems. He became famo...
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Links (1)


James Caulfield

borndied
17641826
an English author and printseller, known also as a publisher and editor. Backed by his father, Caulfield set up in business as a printseller in a small shop in Old Round Court, Strand. There he was visited by Samuel Johnson and Richard Cosway. In 1784 Caulfield...
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Links (1)


Hygin-Auguste Cave

aka: Cavé, Edmond Cavé, Jacques François de Fongeray
borndied
1796, Oct 81852, Mar 30
a French attorney, journalist, and government official, as well as an occasional playwright and librettist. In Paris he became a member of the "Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera" (a society founded in August 1827, which supported constitutional monarchy), and a writer for Le Globe, a political journal which had been a mouthpiece for the Independents during the peri...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Elizabeth Cavendish

aka: Duchess of Devonshire, Lady Elizabeth Foster
borndied
1758, May 131824, Mar 30
an English novelist and duchess. She is best known as Lady Elizabeth Foster, the close friend of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. Elizabeth supplanted the Duchess, gaining the affections of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, and later marrying him. Known as Bess, she was born Elizabeth Christiana Hervey in a small house in Horringer, St Ed...
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Links (1)


George Cavendish

borndied
14971562 ca
an English writer, best known as the biographer of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. His Thomas Wolsey, Late Cardinall, his Lyffe and Deathe is described by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as the "most important single contemporary source for Wolsey's life" which also offers a "detailed picture of early sixteenth-century court life and of political events ...
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Links (1)


Georgiana Cavendish

aka: Duchess of Devonshire
borndied
1757, Jun 71806, Mar 30
an English socialite, style icon, author, and activist. Of noble birth from the House of Spencer, married into the House of Cavendish, she was the first wife of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, and the mother of the 6th Duke of Devonshire. In her life, the duchess was an avid writer and composed a number of works, of both prose and poetry, of which...
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Links (1)


Margaret Cavendish

aka: Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
borndied
16231673, Dec 15
an English aristocrat, a prolific writer, and a scientist. Cavendish was a poet, philosopher, writer of prose romances, essayist, and playwright who published under her own name at a time when most women writers published anonymously. Her writing addressed a number of topics, including gender, power, manners, scientific method, and philosophy. Her utopian ro...
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Links (1)


William Cavendish

aka: 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne
borndied
1592, Dec 61676, Dec 25
an English polymath and aristocrat, having been a poet, equestrian, playwright, swordsman, politician, architect, diplomat and soldier. Born into the very wealthy Cavendish family at Handsworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, William's family had a good relationship with the ruling Stuart monarchy and began to gather prominence after he was invested as a Kn...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Cawdrey

borndied
1538 ca1604+
an English clergyman and writer. Cawdrey was ordained as a deacon, and 22 October 1571 he was made rector of South Luffenham. As many new words were entering the English language in the 16th century, Cawdrey became concerned that people would become confused. Cawdrey worried that the wealthy were adopting foreign words and phrases, he produced one of the fi...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsComposers

Charlotta Cederstrom

aka: Cederström
borndied
1760, Mar 201832, Feb 22
a Swedish dilettante artist, salon hostess, and baroness. She was an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, as well as an honorary member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts. During her first marriage, she spent her days on her husband's estate in the countryside. Bored, she developed her artistic talents in various genres. She wrote poems ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Evliya Celebi

aka: Çelebi, Mehmed Zilli
borndied
1611, Mar 251682
an Ottoman Turk who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called Seyâhatnâme. Explored Turkey, Egypt, Africa, Europe
Links (1)


Katip Celebi

aka: Kâtip Çelebi, Mustafa bin Abdullah, Haji Khalifa, Kalfa
borndied
16091657
an Ottoman scholar. A historian and geographer, he is regarded as one of the most productive authors of non-religious, scientific literature in the 17th-century Ottoman Empire. One of his shorter and more accessible works is "The balance of truth in the choice of the truest," a collection of short essays on topics in Islamic law, ethics, and theology, in whi...
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Links (1)


Yirmisekiz Mehmed Celebi

aka: Çelebi, Mehmed Efendi, Mehemet Effendi
borndied
unknown1732
an Ottoman statesman who was delegated as ambassador by the Sultan Ahmed III to Louis XV's France in 1720. He is remembered for his account of his embassy mission (a sefâretnâme, "book of embassy"). He rose through the military hierarchy and then oriented his career to the service of the finances of the state, as superintendent for the Ottoman mint first, ...
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Links (1)


Elizabeth Cellier

bornactivedied
unknown1668-1688unknown
a notable Catholic midwife in seventeenth-century England. She stood trial for treason in 1679 for her alleged part in the "Meal-Tub Plot" against the future James II but was acquitted. She later became a pamphleteer and made attempts to advance the field of midwifery. After her acquittal, she published a brief relation of the whole affair, under the title o...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in SculptorsArtists

Benvenuto Cellini

bornactivedied
1500, Nov 31519-1560s1571, Feb 13
an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism. Besides his works in gold and silver, Cellini executed sculptures of a grander scale.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersClergy

Martin del Barco Centenera

aka: Martín
borndied
15351602 ca
a Spanish cleric, explorer and author. He became a secular priest and in 1572 accompanied, as chaplain, the expedition of Juan Ortiz de Zárate to the Rio de La Plata in South America. For twenty-four years he followed the vicissitudes of Spanish exploration in the Argentine with undaunted courage. Centenera was made archdeacon of the church of Paraguay. In ...
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Links (1)


Auguste Edouard Cerfberr

aka: Auguste Édouard
borndied
18111858
a French author. Not too much is known about the details of his life. Having completed his studies in law, Cerfberr entered the service of the government, in which he held many high positions. His last office was that of prefect and general inspector of the prisons at Grenoble. Cerfberr was the author of several publications dealing with government.
Links (1)


Sion Ceri

aka: Siôn
bornactivedied
unknown1500s-1530s caunknown
a Welsh language poet. Very little information is available concerning the details of his life. In additions, there is also very little information available about his written works. His bardic teacher was Tudur Aled and among his surviving work are poems to his patrons from north Powys.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Miguel de Cervantes

bornactivedied
1547, Sep 291569-16161616, Apr 22
a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so ...
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Timeline (2)Links (20)


Joseph Antoine Cervini

bornactivedied
unknown1820s-1830sunknown
an author who provided the text for a book titled Voyage Pittoresque dans les Pyrénées Françaises et les Départements Adjacents, (Picturesque Travels in the French Pyrenees and the Adjacent Areas), Treuttel and Wurtz, Paris: 1826-30, (Bibliographie nationale Française, BnF, The French national Bibliography ISBN 2-911715-12-8). This book documents the jo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsArchitects

Pablo de Cespedes

aka: Céspedes
borndied
15381608, Jul 26
a Spanish painter, poet, and architect. He was in Rome in February 1559, engaged in conducting certain negotiations for the Archbishop Carranza de Miranda, of Toledo, who then stood charged with heresy before the Inquisition of Valladolid. He remained in Italy for over 20 years and built a reputation as an artist. His only surviving works from that period ar...
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Links (4)


Cross-listed in Composers

Michel Paul Guy de Chabanon

borndied
17301792
a violinist, composer and writer on music theory and French literature. He was elected to the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (1760) and the Académie française (1779). He wrote poetry, elogies (notably that of Rameau), plays (including the tragedy of Éponine) and translations (adjudged by the 19th century Dictionnaire Bouillet as having "lit...
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Links (1)


John Chalkhill

bornactivedied
unknown1600sunknown
an English poet. Two songs by him are included in Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler, and in 1683 appeared Thealma and Clearchus. A Pastoral History in smooth and easie Verse. Written long since by John Chalkhill, Esq., an Acquaintant and Friend of Edmund Spencer (1683), with a preface written five years earlier by Walton. Another poem, Aldilia, Philoparthens Lo...
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Links (1)


Robert Challe

borndied
1659, Aug 171721, Jan 25
a French colonialist, voyager and writer, although he never published under his own name, which accounts for his obscurity until his re-discovery in the 1970s. His two most well-known works are fr:Les Illustres Françaises, published in The Hague in 1713, and Journal d'un voyage fait aux Indes Orientales, published after his death in 1721.
Links (1)


John Chamberlain

borndied
15531628
the author of a series of letters written in England from 1597 to 1626, notable for their historical value and their literary qualities. In the view of historian Wallace Notestein, Chamberlain's letters "constitute the first considerable body of letters in English history and literature that the modern reader can easily follow". They are an essential source ...
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Links (1)


Edward Chamberlayne

borndied
1616, Dec 131703, May
an English writer, known as the author of The Present State of England. When the First English Civil War broke out he began a long continental tour, visiting France, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Bohemia, Sweden, and the Low Countries. At the Restoration he returned to England. In 1669 he became secretary to Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle, and went to Stockho...
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Links (1)


Ephraim Chambers

borndied
1680 ca1740, May 15
an English writer and encyclopaedist, who is primarily known for producing the Cyclopaedia, or a Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Chambers was born in Milton near Kendal, Westmorland, England. Little is known of his early life but he attended Heversham Grammar School, then was apprenticed to a globe maker, John Senex, in London from 1714 to ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Architects

Sir William Chambers

bornactivedied
1723, Feb 231740-17961796, Mar 10
a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House, London, and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Nicolas Chamfort

aka: Sébastien-Roch Nicolas
borndied
1741, Apr 61794, Apr 13
a French writer, best known for his witty epigrams and aphorisms. He was secretary to Louis XVI's sister, and of the Jacobin club. The writings of Chamfort include comedies, political articles, literary criticisms, portraits, letters, and verses. His Maximes et Pensées, highly praised by John Stuart Mill, are, after those of La Rochefoucauld, among the most...
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Links (1)


Francois-Joseph de Champagny

aka: François-Joseph, 4th Duke of Cadore
borndied
1804, Sep 81882, May 4
a French author and historian, born in Vienna (Austria). He was the thirteenth member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1869. He was a historian and publicist, the Journal collaborator of Two Worlds, founder and editor of the Contemporary Review, it was several times candidate to the Academy, supported by Guizot and Dupanloup; elected A...
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Links (1)


Jean-Francois Champollion

aka: Jean-François
bornactivedied
1790, Dec 231806-18311832, Mar 4
a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of the Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of egyptology. A child prodigy in philology, he gave his first public paper on the decipherment of Demotic in 1806, and already as a young man held many posts of honor in scientific circles, and spoke Coptic and Arab...
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Timeline (1)Links (11)


Antoine de la Roche Chandieu

borndied
15341591, Feb 23
a French Reformed theologian, poet, diplomat and nobleman. His trend toward the Reformed Protestantism was strengthened during his study of law at Toulouse, and after a theological course at Geneva, he became the pastor of the Reformed congregation of Paris, 1556-62. When in the night of September 4, 1557, a Protestant meeting was attacked and 140 persons we...
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Links (1)


Mary Chandler

borndied
16871745, Sep 11
an English poet. She printed a book of verses inscribed to Princess Amelia. It was called A Description of Bath, and, going quickly through two editions, a third was issued in 1736, a fourth in 1738, and a fifth in 1741. A wealthy gentleman, of sixty, struck with one of her poems, travelled eighty miles to see her, and, after buying a pair of gloves from her...
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Links (1)


Jean Chapelain

borndied
1595, Dec 41674, Feb 22
a French poet and critic during the Grand Siècle, best known for his role as an organizer and founding member of the Académie française. Chapelain acquired considerable prestige as a literary critic, but his own major work, an epic poem about Joan of Arc called "La Pucelle," (1656) was lampooned by his contemporary Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux.
Links (1)


George Chapman

bornactivedied
1559 ca1596-16241634, May 12
an English dramatist, translator, and poet. He was a classical scholar whose work shows the influence of Stoicism. Chapman has been identified as the Rival Poet of Shakespeare's sonnets by William Minto, and as an anticipator of the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. Chapman is best remembered for his translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and the H...
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Links (1)


Samuel Chappuzeau

aka: Chapuzeau, Chapiseau, Chapuseau
borndied
1625, Jun 161701, Aug 31
a French scholar, author, poet and playwright whose best-known work today is Le Théâtre François, a description of French Theatre in the 17th century. Samuel’s play Le Cercle des Femmes is widely regarded as one of the main sources of Moliere’s ...
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Links (3)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Jean Chardin

borndied
1643, Nov 161713, Jan 5
a French jeweller and traveler whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general. Explored Persia and India.
Links (1)


Charlotte Charke

aka: Charlotte Secheverell, Charles Brown
borndied
1713, Jan 131760, Apr 6
an English actress, playwright, novelist, autobiographer, and noted transvestite. She acted on the stage from the age of 17, mainly in breeches roles , and took to wearing male clothing off the stage. She assumed the name "Charles Brown" and called her daughter "Mrs. Brown." She suffered a series of failures in her business affairs after working in a variety...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Walter Charleton

borndied
1619, Feb 21707, Apr 24
a natural philosopher and English writer. According to Jon Parkin, he was "the main conduit for the transmission of Epicurean ideas to England". n 1650 Charleton settled in London, and was on 8 April admitted a candidate of the College of Physicians. A royalist, he was appointed physician to the exiled king Charles II but remained in London writing, in Russe...
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Links (1)Gallery (1)


Edouard Charton

aka: Édouard
borndied
1807, May 111890, Feb 27
an eminent French literary figure who was the founder and, for fifty-five years (1833–88), editor-in-chief of the publication Magasin pittoresque, in addition to serving for thirty years (1860–90) as director of publication for Hachette. In 1833 he put into effect his ideals of "fighting ignorance" by starting a new publication Le Magasin pittoresque (pi...
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Links (1)


Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand

aka: François-René
borndied
1768, Sep 41848, Jul 4
a French writer, politician, diplomat, and historian, who is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature. Descended from an old aristocratic family from Brittany, Chateaubriand was a royalist by political disposition; in an age when a number of intellectuals turned against the Church, he authored the Génie du christianisme in defense of the C...
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Links (1)


Thomas Chatterton

borndied
1752, Nov 201770, Aug 24
an English poet. From his earliest years he was liable to fits of abstraction, sitting for hours in what seemed like a trance, or crying for no reason; at eight he was so eager for books that he would read and write all day long if undisturbed; by the age of eleven, he had become a contributor to Felix Farley's Bristol Journal. The first of his literary myst...
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Links (1)


Guillaume Amfrye de Chaulieu

borndied
16391720, Jun 27
a French poet and wit, was born at Fontenay, Normandy. He made an expedition to Poland in the suite of the marquis de Béthune, hoping to make a career for himself in the court of John Sobieski; he saw one of the Polish king's campaigns in Ukraine, but returned to Paris without securing any advancement. In his later years Chaulieu spent much time at the lit...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Isaac Chauncy

borndied
1632, Aug 231712, Feb 28
an English dissenting minister. Chauncy was a voluminous author. He went as a child to New England with his father, and was entered at Harvard University in 1651, where he studied both theology and medicine, but, coming to England, completed his education at Oxford University, where he proceeded M.A. Before 1660 he was given the rectory of Woodborough, Wilts...
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Links (1)


Harriet Vaughan Cheney

borndied
1796, Sep 91889, May 14
an American-Canadian novelist. The daughter of Hannah Webster Foster and sister of Eliza Lanesford Cushing, also both writers, she wrote a number of historical romances, among them A Peep at the Pilgrims in Sixteen Thirty-Six and The Rivals of Acadia, as well as religious works for children. Cheney was born in Brighton, Massachusetts and published her first ...
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Links (1)


Henry Chettle

borndied
1564 ca1606 ca
an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer of the Elizabethan era, best known for his pamphleteering. As early as 1598 Francis Meres includes Chettle in his Palladis Tamia as one of the "best for comedy", and Henslowe lists payments to him for thirty-six plays between 1598 and 1603, and he may have been involved in as many as fifty plays, although only a ...
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Links (1)


William Rufus Chetwood

borndied
unknown1766
an English or Anglo-Irish publisher and bookseller, and a prolific writer of plays and adventure novels. He also penned a valuable General History of the Stage. Nothing certain is known of Chetwood's early life, but he may have spent an extended period at sea. In 1713 he appeared as the publisher of A Poem on the Memorable Fall of Chloe's P—s Pot (attribut...
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Links (1)


Helmina von Chezy

aka: Chézy
borndied
1783, Jan 261856, Feb 28
a German journalist, poet and playwright. She is known for writing the libretto for Carl Maria von Weber's opera Euryanthe (1823) and the play Rosamunde, for which Franz Schubert composed incidental music. From 1803 to 1807 she edited her own Französische Miszellen ("French Miscellanea") journal, commenting on political issues, which earned her trouble with...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Jean-Jacques Chifflet

borndied
15881660
a physician, antiquary and archaeologist from the County of Burgundy (now in France). By appointment of Philip IV of Spain he was physician to the Brussels court. He played a significant part in the controversy of the 1650s over Peruvian bark in treating malaria, publishing a sceptical pamphlet Pulvis Febrifugus Orbis Americani in 1653 after treating Archdu...
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Links (1)


Chikkupadhyaya

borndied
1640 caunknown
He belonged to a family of Vedic scholars and poets. He could be the most prolific writer of Kannada literature. He has more than 30 literary works to his credit. Some of his well known works are Divya Suri Charitre, a history of the twelve Alvar saints; Artha Panchaka ("Five truths"), on saint Pillai Lokacharya; a commentary on Tiruvayimozhi of mystic-saint...
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Links (1)


William Chillingworth

borndied
1602, Oct 121644, Jan 30
a controversial English churchman. In June 1618 he became a scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, of which he was made a fellow in June 1628. He gained a reputation as a skillful debater, excelled in mathematics, and also became known as a poet. His theological sensitiveness appears in his refusal of a preferment offered to him in 1635 by Sir Thomas Coventry, ...
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Links (1)


Thomas Chilton

borndied
1798, Jul 301854, Aug 15
a U.S. Representative from Kentucky, a prominent Baptist clergyman, and the ghost writer of Davy Crockett's autobiography. In 1834 a Philadelphia publisher released a book titled Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee. Many readers sus...
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Links (1)


Edmund Chojecki

aka: Charles Edmond
borndied
1822, Oct 151899, Dec 1
a Polish journalist, playwright, novelist, poet and translator. Originally hailing from Warsaw, from 1844 he resided in France. arly on, Chojecki participated in leftist intellectual and political movements and edited Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz's political we...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Auguste Francois Chomel

aka: Auguste François
borndied
1788, Apr 131858, Apr 9
a French pathologist. He was a professor at the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris, and in 1827 succeeded René Laennec (1781–1826) as chair of clinical medicine of the Faculté de Paris. In 1852 he declined swearing allegiance to Napoleon III, and thus was deemed having resigned his post. Worthington Hooker (1806–1867), in his 1847 book Physician and Pati...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Francois Chopart

aka: François-Joseph, marquis de Sainte-Aulaire
borndied
1743, Oct 201795, Jun 9
a French surgeon born in Paris. He was trained in medicine at the Hôtel-Dieu, Pitié and the Bicêtre hospitals. In 1771 he became a professor of practical surgery at the École pratique in Paris, and in 1782 succeeded Toussaint Bordenave (1728–1782) as chair of physiology. Chopart was a pioneer of urological surgery, putting emphasis on dealing with the ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Nicolas Chorier

borndied
1612, Sep 11692, Aug 14
a French lawyer, writer, and historian. He is known especially for his historical works on Dauphiné, as well as his erotic dialogue called The School of Women, or The Seven Flirtatious Encounters of Aloisia (French: L'Academie des dames, ou les Sept entretiens galants d'Aloisia). He was born at Vienne, in present-day Isère. He practised as a lawyer in Gre...
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Links (1)


Henry Chorley

borndied
1808, Dec 151872, Feb 16
an English literary, art and music critic, writer and editor. He was also an author of novels, drama, poetry and lyrics. Chorley was a prolific and important music and literary critic and music gossip columnist of the mid-nineteenth century and wrote extensively about music in London and in Europe. His opera libretti and works of fiction were far less succes...
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Links (1)


Johan Koren Christie

borndied
1814, May 311885, May 17
a Norwegian writer. He was a notable nationalist writer in the middle of the nineteenth century. Already while studying he wrote extensively, in the magazines Urda and Granskeren. Granskeren was issued by Ludvig Kristensen Daa, a friend of Christie. Christie was also involved in the dispute between Henrik Wergeland and Johan Sebastian Welhaven, on the former...
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Links (1)


Count Froben Christoph of Zimmern

borndied
1519, Feb 191566, Nov 27
the author of the Zimmern Chronicle and a member of the von Zimmern family of Swabian nobility. During the winter of 1536/37, he studied in Cologne, and from Easter 1537, without his brother, in Leuven, where he remained until July 1539. After a short stay at home, the travelled to Leuven in November 1539, intending to continue his studies in Spain. He then ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Christopherson

borndied
unknown1558
the Chaplain and confessor to Queen Mary I of England, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge (1553–1558), Dean of Norwich (1554–1557) and Bishop of Chichester (1557–1558) - all during the reign of Queen Mary (1553–1558). He became Fellow of Pembroke College, ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles Churchill

borndied
1732, Feb1764, Nov 4
an English poet and satirist. He became curate of South Cadbury, Somerset, and, on receiving priest's orders (1756), began to act as his father's curate at Rainham. Two years later the elder Churchill died, and the son was elected to succeed him in his curacy and lectureship. His emoluments amounted to less than £100 a year, and he increased his income by t...
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Links (1)


Thomas Churchyard

borndied
1520 ca1604
an English author, was born at Shrewsbury, the son of a farmer. Churchyard received a good education, and, having speedily dissipated at court the money with which his father provided him, he entered the household of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. There he remained for twenty years, learning something of the art of poetry from his patron; some of the poems he...
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Links (1)


Anthony Chute

bornactivedied
unknown1590s1595
an Elizabethan poet and pamphleteer. Very little is known about him. In 1593, Chute published Beauty Dishonoured, written under the title of Shore's wife, a narrative poem supposed to be the lament of Jane Shore, whose ghost tells her life story and makes moral reflections. In a dedication he called the poem, "the first invention of my beginning muse" implyi...
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Links (1)


Colley Cibber

borndied
1671, Nov 61757, Dec 11
an English actor-manager, playwright and Poet Laureate. His colourful memoir Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber (1740) describes his life in a personal, anecdotal and even rambling style. He wrote 25 plays for his own company at Drury Lane, half of which were adapted from various sources, which led Robert Lowe and more
Timeline (4)Links (3)


La Clairon

aka: Clair Josèphe Hippolyte Leris
borndied
1723, Jan 251803, Jan 29
a French actress, she was born at Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Hainaut, the daughter of an army sergeant. In 1736 she made her first stage appearance at the Comédie Italienne, a small part in Pierre de Marivaux's L'Île des esclaves. After several years in the provinces she returned to Paris. Her life, meanwhile, had been decidedly irregular, even if not to the de...
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Links (1)


Louise Amelia Knapp Smith Clappe

borndied
18191906
an American writer. She was born in New Jersey in 1819. She spent most of her youth and young adult life in Massachusetts and later moved out West to California with her husband Fayette Clapp. It was out West where Louise took on the pen name of Dame Shirley and wrote her widely known Dame Shirley letters. Louise and Fayette eventually separated, but she rem...
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Links (1)


John Clare

borndied
1793, Jul 131864, May 20
an English poet, the son of a farm labourer, who came to be known for his celebratory representations of the English countryside and his lamentation of its disruption. His poetry underwent a major re-evaluation in the late 20th century, and he is now often considered to be among the most important 19th-century poets.
Links (2)


Emily Clark

bornactivedied
unknown1798-1833unknown
an English novelist of the 18th century. There is very little information available about the details of her life. She wrote Ianthé, or the Flower of Caernarvon (1798), Ermina Montrose or The Cottage of the Vale (1800), The Banks of the Douro, or, The Maid of Portugal (1805), Poems (1810), among others.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Adam Clarke

borndied
1761 ca1832, Aug 26
a British Methodist theologian and biblical scholar. He was born in the townland of Moybeg Kirley near Tobermore in Northern Ireland. He is chiefly remembered for writing a commentary on the Bible which took him 40 years to complete and which was a primary Methodist theological resource for two centuries. It is considered among the most comprehensive comment...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

James Freeman Clarke

borndied
1810, Apr 41888, Jun 8
an American theologian and author. In 1839 he returned to Boston where he and his friends established (1841) the Church of the Disciples which brought together a body of people to apply the Christian religion to social problems of the day. One of the features that distinguished his church was Clarke's belief that ordination could make no distinction between ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyGovernancePhysicians

John Clarke

borndied
1609, Oct1676, Apr 20
a physician, Baptist minister, co-founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas. All of the other New England colonies were hostile to Rhode Island, and both Massachusetts and Connecticut had made incursions into Rhode Island territory. After th...
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Links (1)


Mary Cowden Clarke

borndied
1809, Jun 221898, Jan 12
an English author. She was the eldest daughter of Vincent Novello. In 1828, she married her brother Alfred's business partner, Charles Cowden Clarke, and worked with him on Shakespeare studies. In the year after her marriage, Mary Cowden Clarke began her valuable Shakespeare concordance, which was eventually issued in eighteen monthly parts (1844–1845), an...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Samuel Clarke

borndied
1599, Oct 101683, Dec 25
an English clergyman and significant Puritan biographer. Clarke had already given some offence by his puritan tendencies. He accepted a lectureship at Coventry, where he was opposed by Samuel Buggs, who held both the city churches. Buggs persuaded Bishop Thomas Morton to inhibit Clarke from preaching, and, though Archbishop George Abbot had given him a licen...
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Links (1)


Francis Clater

borndied
17561823
a British farrier and writer. Clater wrote 'Every Man his own Cattle Doctor' (1810) and 'Every Man his own Farrier.' In the preface to the last-named work, which was published at Newark-on-Trent in 1783, when the writer was twenty-six, Clater describes himself as 'farrier, late of Newark,' and states that he served a regular apprenticeship and one year as jo...
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Matthias Claudius

aka: Asmus
borndied
1740, Aug 151815, Jan 21
a German poet and journalist. Claudius's poem Death and the Maiden was used by composer Franz Schubert in 1817 for one of his most celebrated songs, which in turn became the basis for the 1824 string quartet of the same name. Claudius's collected works were published under the title of Asmus omnia sua secum portans, oder Sämtliche Werke des Wandsbecker Bote...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Carl von Clausewitz

borndied
1780, Jun 11831, Nov 16
a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege (On War), was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist in many different senses and, while in some respects a romantic, also drew heavily on the rationalist ideas of the European ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PhysiciansLegal

John Clavell

borndied
16011643
a highwayman, author, lawyer, and doctor. He is known for his poem A Recantation of an Ill Led Life, and his play The Soddered Citizen. His life is mainly split into two parts: his early life in England, where he grew up, lived as a highwayman, and started his reformation, and the latter part of his life in England and Ireland where he was a lawyer and physi...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

Robert Clavell

borndied
1633 ca1711, Aug
a bookseller of London. He was born in Steeple, Dorset, of a branch of an old Dorsetshire family. Clavell was the author of a curious little treatise entitled His Majesties Propriety and Dominion on the British Seas asserted: together with a true Account of the Neatherlanders' Insupportable Insolencies, and Injuries they have committed; and the Inestimabl...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

William Clayton [1]

borndied
1814, Jul 171879, Dec 4
an early leader in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints who was a clerk and scribe to the Mormon religious leader Joseph Smith. Clayton, born in England, was also an American pioneer journalist, inventor, lyricist, and musician. In September 1840, Clay...
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Links (1)


John Cleland

borndied
1709, Sep1789, Jan 23
an English novelist best known as the author of Fanny Hill: or, the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. John Cleland entered Westminster School in 1721, but he left or was expelled in 1723. His departure was not for financial reasons, but whatever misbehaviour or allegation had led to his departure is unknown. Regardless of the power and stylistic accomplishment...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

William Cleland

borndied
1661 ca1689, Aug 21
a Scottish poet and soldier. Immediately on leaving college he joined the army of the Covenanters, and was present at the Battle of Drumclog, where, says Robert Wodrow, some attributed to Cleland the manoeuvre which led to the victory. He also fought at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. His Collection of several Poems and Verses composed upon various occasions ...
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Links (1)


Jean-Marie-Bernard Clement

aka: Clément
borndied
1742, Dec 251812, Feb 3
a French writer and translator. He taught briefly philosophy in college in his hometown, then went to Paris where he was protected by Mably and recommended by Voltaire in La Harpe. From 1771, he gave the first example of the spirit of systematic criticism which was...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Maurice Clenock

aka: Clenocke, Clennock
borndied
1525 ca1581
a Welsh Roman Catholic priest and recusant exile. He was the first head of the English College, Rome. He was born at Llyn or Eifionydd (present-day Gwynedd) and died at sea. He was educated at the University of Oxford, where he was admitted Bachelor of Canon Law in 1548. During Mary of England's reign he became almoner and secretary to Cardinal Pole, prebend...
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Links (1)


John Clerk

borndied
unknown1552
an English Roman Catholic writer. Clerk, who was a steady adherent of Roman Catholicism, wrote: 'A Treatise of Nobility,' translated from the French, London, 1543, 12mo. 'Opusculum plane divinum de mortuorum resurrectione et extremo iuditio, in quatuor linguis succincte conscriptum. Latyne, Englysshe, Italian, Frenche,' London, 1545, 4to, 2nd edition 1547, 4...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

William Clerk

borndied
unknown1655
an English civil lawyer. He was author of An Epitome of certaine late Aspersions cast at Civilians, the Civil and Ecclesiastical Lawes, the Courts Christian, and at Bishops and their Chancellors, wherein the Authors thereof are refuted and repelled, Dublin, 1631. This treatise is chiefly in answer to the preface of Sir John Davies's Reports, and to some part...
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Links (1)


William Clerke

bornactivedied
unknown1590sunknown
an English writer. Clerke matriculated as a sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, in June 1575, became a scholar of that house, and in 1578-9 proceeded Bachelor of Arts. He was soon afterward elected a fellow of his college, and in 1582 he commenced Master of Arts. There was a William Clerke, possibly the same, who was admitted to St. Paul's School on the rec...
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Links (1)


John Cleveland

borndied
1613, Jun 161658, Apr 29
an English poet and Royalist. A staunch Royalist, Cleveland opposed the election of Oliver Cromwell as member for Cambridge in the Long Parliament, and lost his college post as a result in 1645. He then joined Charles I, by whom he was welcomed, and was appoin...
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Links (1)


Amalia of Cleves

borndied
1517, Oct 171596, Mar 1
a princess from the House of Von der Mark. She was the youngest child of John III, Duke of Cleves, and his wife Maria von Jülich. Amalia and her two sisters, Sibylle and Anne, had an old-fashioned education, where singing and reading were not taught, but cooking, weaving or other household chores were emphasized. Amalia wrote a song book which is currently ...
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Links (1)


Henry Clifford

borndied
1768, Mar 21813, Apr 22
an English legal writer. He studied at Liege with his eldest brother Thomas, created a baronet in 1815; and on his return to England applied himself to the law, and soon after the passing of the Catholic Act of 1792 was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He was very learned in the law and a warm advocate of the liberties of the people. His personal exertio...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Cox Clifton

borndied
1810, Jan 41861, Jul 30
an English churchman, canon of Manchester Cathedral. In 1830 he matriculated at Worcester College, Oxford. He proceeded B.A. in 1831 and M.A. in 1834, and took holy orders in 1833, at the hands of the bishop of Oxford. In 1833 he was elected Fellow of his college. In 1843 he was instituted to the rectory of Somerton in Oxfordshire, a benefice he held with hi...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles John Fynes Clinton

borndied
17991872
an English clergyman and classical scholar. Having held some parochial charges, he was appointed in 1828 to the rectory of Cromwell, Nottinghamshire. He was also vicar of Orston in the same county. He died in 1872. In 1842 he published 'Twenty-one plain Doctrinal and Practical Sermons,' London, 1842; and in 1853 edited and completed for publication 'An Epito...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Robert Clive

aka: 1st Baron Clive, Clive of India
borndied
1725, Sep 291774, Nov 22
a British officer and adventurer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan) and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process he also turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren...
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Anacharsis Cloots

aka: Jean-Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce, baron de Cloots
borndied
1755, Jun 241794, Mar 24
a Prussian nobleman who was a significant figure in the French Revolution. Cloots was an original political thinker who crafted his own interpretation of the meaning of the French Revolution. He was a proponent of the world state, and he sought to promote a more broad-minded and internationalist understanding of the Revolution's potential. He imagined the in...
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Links (1)


Arthur Hugh Clough

borndied
1819, Jan 11861, Nov 13
an English poet, an educationalist, and the devoted assistant to ground-breaking nurse Florence Nightingale. He was the brother of suffragist Anne Clough, who became principal of Newnham College, Cambridge. Shortly before he left Oxford, in the stress of the Irish potato famine, Clough wrote an ethical pamphlet addressed to the undergraduates, with the title...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

William Clowes

borndied
1543 ca1604
an early English surgeon. He published case reports in which he advocated the application of powders and ointments. He also published one of the first reports in English on how to reduce a fever. In March 1575 he was appointed on the surgical staff of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and became full surgeon in 1581. He also became surgeon to Christ's Hospital, an...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

William Benton Clulow

bornactivedied
18021835-18651882, Apr 16
an English dissenting minister, tutor and writer. Clulow was a native of Leek, Staffordshire, and, after receiving a preliminary education in the grammar school there, entered Hoxton Academy. He became pastor of the congregational church at Shaldon, Devonshire, where he stayed for twelve years. In 1835 he accepted an invitation to the classical tutorship of ...
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Links (2)


William Cobbett

borndied
1763, Mar 91835, Jun 18
an English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist, who was born in Farnham, Surrey. He believed that reforming Parliament and abolishing the rotten boroughs would help to end the poverty of farm labourers, and he attacked the borough-mongers, sinecurists and "tax-eaters" relentlessly. He was also against the Corn Laws, a tax on imported grain. Early in his caree...
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Links (12)


Alison Cockburn

aka: Alison Rutherford, Alicia Cockburn
borndied
1712, Oct 81794, Nov 22
a Scottish poet, wit and socialite who collected a circle of eminent friends in 18th century enlightenment Edinburgh. In 1765 she published her lyrics to the traditional Border Ballad the Flowers of the Forest beginning "I've seen the smiling of Fortune beguiling". It is said to have been written before her marriage in 1731 and concerns a financial crisis t...
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Links (1)


Catharine Trotter Cockburn

borndied
1674, Aug 161749, May 11
a novelist, dramatist, and philosopher. Catharine was a precocious and largely self-educated young woman, who had her first novel (The Adventures of a Young Lady, later retitled Olinda's Adventures) published anonymously in 1693, when she was but 14 years old. Her first published play, Agnes de Castro (a verse dramatisation of Aphra Behn's story of the same ...
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Links (1)


Henry Cockeram

bornactivedied
unknown1623-1658unknown
an English lexicographer. In 1623, he authored the third known English Language dictionary, and the first to contain the title "dictionary". Little is known about Cockeram beyond the fact that he authored this work. From the various dedications in his works, it is apparent that he lived in Exeter, England, where contemporary records suggest that he could be ...
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Links (1)


George Cockings

borndied
unknown1802, Feb 6
an English writer. Cockings had a small place under the British government at Boston, America. Returning to England he obtained the post of registrar of the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce in the Adelphi. His writings include 'The Conquest of Canada, or the Siege of Quebec,' an historical tragedy in five acts, 8vo, 1766, a contemptible production...
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Links (1)


Richard Cocks

borndied
15661624
the head of the British East India Company trading post in Hirado, Japan, between 1613 and 1623, from its creation, and lasting to its closure due to bankruptcy. During his time in Japan, he wrote a very detailed diary, relating the history of the trading post, the situation of Japan at the time, and the activities of English merchants in Japan, among whom w...
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Links (1)


Henry Cockton

borndied
18071853, Jun 26
an English novelist. Born in London, he is remembered as the author of The Life and Adventures of Valentine Vox, the Ventriloquist (1840) which was parodied by Timothy Portwine (pseudonym of Thomas Peckett Prest) as The Adventures of Valentine Vaux; or, the tricks of a Ventriloquist (1840).
Links (1)


Ottavio Codogno

bornactivedied
unknown1599-1623unknown
the deputy postmaster general of the Duchy of Milan and author of an extensive guidebook to the postal services, routes and timetables of early 17th-century Europe. His Nuovo itinerario delle Poste (Milan, 1608) went through several reprints in both Milan (1616, 1623) and Venice (1611, 1620, 1628, 1676). The Milan 1623 edition, entitled Compendio delle poste...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsArchitects

Pieter Coecke van Aelst

borndied
1502, Aug 141550, Dec 6
a Flemish painter, sculptor, architect, author and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. His principal subjects were Christian religious themes. He worked in Antwerp and Brussels and was appointed court painter to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Coecke van Aelst was a polyglot. He published translations of Ancient Roman and modern Italian archit...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Edward Coffin

aka: Hatton
borndied
15701626, Apr 17
an English Jesuit. In the Lent of 1598, on his way to the novitiate in Flanders, travelling with Thomas Lister, he was seized by the Dutch, near Antwerp, and taken to England, where he was imprisoned for five years., and was sent back to England, where he spent his novitiate and the first five years of his religious life in prison, chiefly in the Tower of Lo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Cogan

borndied
1545 ca1607
an English physician. He became fellow of Oriel in 1563. In 1574 he resigned his fellowship, and then (or in 1575) was appointed master of the Manchester grammar school. He practised as a physician at Manchester. Before 1586 he married Ellen, daughter of Sir Edmund Trafford, and widow of Thomas Willott, who had property in Manchester. In 1591-3 he was the fa...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Naphtali Cohen

bornactivedied
16491690-17181718
a Russo-German rabbi and kabalist born in Ostrowo in Ukraine. He belonged to a family of rabbis in Ostrowo, where his father, Isaac Cohen, a great-great-grandson of the Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel, had fled during the Polish–Cossack–Tatar War.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in InventorsScientistsCartographers

Michiel Coignet

aka: Quignet, Cognet, Connette
borndied
15491623, Dec 24
a Flemish polymath who made significant contributions to various disciplines including cosmography, mathematics, navigation and cartography. He also built new and improved scientific instruments and made military engineering designs. Coignet was a scientist at the court of the governors of the Spanish Netherlands Albert VII, Archduke of Austria and Isabella ...
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Charles-Pierre Colardeau

borndied
1732, Oct 121776, Apr 7
a French poet. His most notable works are an imitation of Eloisa to Abelard by Alexander Pope and a translation of the first two sections of Night-Thoughts by Edward Young. They witness to the pre-Romantic sensibility of the 18th century, as also seen in the wo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Cole [1]

borndied
16281697
an English Independent minister. The Restoration of Charles II led to the ejection of Cole from his position at Oxford. He then opened a dissenting academy at Nettlebed, Oxfordshire, where one of those under his charge was James Bonnell. Samuel Wesley attacked the character of Cole, based on reports from Bonnell; Samuel Palmer defended Cole in his Vindicatio...
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Links (1)


William Cole

borndied
1753, Dec 81806, Sep 24/25
an English classical scholar. In 1766 he was admitted at Eton College on the foundation, and in 1773 was made scholar of King's College, Cambridge, and fellow in 1776, proceeding B.A. in 1778, and M.A. in 1781. To the Marquis of Blandford he dedicated his Oratio de Ridiculo, to which the first of Sir William Browne's medals was awarded; he printed it along w...
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Links (1)


Sir Thomas Colepeper

borndied
15781661, Jan
an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1629. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. He is known also as a writer on usury. Colepeper published in 1623 his Tract against the High Rate of Usury, a work already presented to Parliament two years earlier. In it he argued for a reduction of the hi...
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Links (1)


Derwent Coleridge

borndied
18001883
the third child of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, was a distinguished English scholar and author. He was sent with his brother Hartley to be educated at a small school near Ambleside. In the autumn of 1822 he joined them as a contributor to Knight's Quarter...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Hartley Coleridge

borndied
1796, Sep 191849, Jan 6
an English poet, biographer, essayist, and teacher. He was the eldest son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. His sister Sara Coleridge was a poet and translator, and his brother Derwent Coleridge was a distinguished scholar and author. He then spent ...
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Links (7)


Samuel Taylor Coleridge

bornactivedied
1772, Oct 211792-18341834, Jul 25
an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as the maj...
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Timeline (3)Links (21)


Sara Coleridge

borndied
1802, Dec 231852, May 3
an English author and translator. She was the third child and only daughter of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and his wife Sarah Fricker. In 1822, Sara Coleridge published Account of the Abipones, a translation in three large volumes of Martin Dobrizhoffer, u...
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Louise Colet

borndied
1810, Aug 151876, Mar 9
a poet born in Aix-en-Provence in France. In her twenties she married Hippolyte Colet, an academic musician, partly in order to escape provincial life and live in Paris. Upon arrival in Paris, Colet began to submit her work for approval and publication and soon won a two-thousand-franc prize from the Académie française, the first of four prizes won from th...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Isaac Colfe

borndied
1560 ca1597, Jun 15
an English divine. He was born in Canterbury in or before 1560. His father and mother, who were zealous Protestants, had a considerable estate at Guisnes, which they lost on the reconquest of Calais by the French in 1558. They came over to England, lived in a house outside the West-gate of Canterbury, afterwards occupied by their third son Joseph, Mayor of C...
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Links (2)


Diego Collado

borndied
1590 ca1638/1641
a Christian missionary born in the late sixteenth century at Miajadas, in the province of Extremadura, Spain. He entered the Dominican Order at Salamanca around 1600, and in 1619 went to Japan. His account of what he saw in Japan was cited by Thomas Gage, a former...
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Links (1)


Francois Colletet

aka: François
borndied
16281680 ca
a French poet. There is very little information available about the details of his life. He was the son of the poet Guillaume Colletet, however, his poetry was considered inferior to that of his father and he was ridiculed by Nicolas Boileau.
Links (1)


Guillaume Colletet

borndied
1598, Mar 121659, Feb 11
a French poet and a founder member of the Académie française. His son was François Colette. He had a great reputation among his contemporaries and enjoyed the patronage of several important people, including Cardinal Richelieu, which whom he sometimes collabor...
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Links (1)


Camilla Collett

borndied
1813, Jan 231895, Mar 6
a Norwegian writer, often referred to as the first Norwegian feminist. She was also the younger sister of Norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland, and is recognized as being one of the first contributors to realism in Norwegian literature. Her most famous work is her only novel, Amtmandens Døtre (The District Governor's Daughters) which was published anonymously in...
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Links (1)


Giles Collier

borndied
16221678, Jul
an English divine. When he left the university he became a presbyterian, subscribing in 1648 to the covenant, and was afterwards presented to the livings of Blockley and Evesham in Warwickshire. In 1654 he was made assistant to the commissioners acting within that county for the ejection of 'scandalous, ignorant, and insufficient ministers and schoolmasters,...
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Links (1)


Jane Collier

borndied
17141755, Mar
an English novelist most famous for her book An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting (1753). She also collaborated with Sarah Fielding on her only other surviving work The Cry (1754). During her life, she was able to meet and work with many famous writers of her day. In particular, more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Hercules Collins

borndied
unknown1702
an English Baptist minister, author of a revision of the Heidelberg Catechism called the Orthodox Catechism. His published material begins with An Orthodox Catechism (1680), an edited version of the 16th century Heidelberg Catechism. Collins revised the section on baptism, as well as making a number of stylistic changes; he also added the text of the Nicene ...
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Links (1)


Wilkie Collins

borndied
1824, Jan 81889, Sep 23
an English novelist, playwright, and short story writer. After his father's death in 1847, Collins produced his first published book, Memoirs of the Life of William Collins, Esq., R. A., published in 1848. The family moved to 38 Blandford Square soon afterwards, where they used their drawing room for amateur theatricals. In 1849 Collins, exhibited a painting...
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Links (1)


William Collins

borndied
1721, Dec251759, Jun 12
an English poet. Second in influence only to Thomas Gray, he was an important poet of the middle decades of the 18th century. His lyrical odes mark a turn away from the Augustan poetry of Alexander Pope's generation and towards the Romantic era which would soon...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernancePerformers

Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois

borndied
1749, Jun 191796, Jun 8
a French actor, dramatist, essayist, and revolutionary. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror and, while he saved Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, he administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon. May 1794 saw assassination attempts on both Collot and Maximilien Robespierre. As Collot was a...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Mary Collyer

borndied
1716 ca1762
an English translator and novelist. She is principally known as the translator of Salomon Gessner's 'Death of Abel' (1761). This work passed through numerous editions in England, Scotland, and Ireland. It became an immediate and enduring bestseller on a par with Pilgrim's Progress and Robinson Crusoe. There were 40 editions and reprints between 1762 and 1800...
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Links (1)


William Combe

borndied
1742, Mar 251823, Jun 19
a British miscellaneous writer. His early life was that of an adventurer, his later was passed chiefly within the "rules" of the King's Bench Prison. He is chiefly remembered as the author of The Three Tours of Doctor Syntax, a comic poem, illustrated by artist Thomas Rowlandson's color plates, that satirised William Gilpin. Combe also wrote a series of imag...
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Links (1)


Auguste Comte

aka: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte
borndied
1798, Jan 191857, Sep 5
a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolutio...
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Links (15)


Marquis de Condorcet

aka: Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritas, Nicolas de Condorcet
borndied
1743, Sep 171794, Mar 28
a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public instruction, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all...
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Links (1)


William Congreve [1]

borndied
1670, Jan 241729, Jan 19
an English playwright and poet. William Congreve is seen as the man who shaped the English comedy of manners through his use of satire and well written dialog. Congreve achieved fame in 1693 when he wrote some of the most popular English plays of the Restoration period. This period in time was unique because female roles were beginning to be played predomina...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

James Coningham

borndied
16701716
an English presbyterian divine and tutor. Coningham was educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.A. on 27 February 1694. The same year he became minister of the presbyterian congregation at Penrith. Here he employed himself in educating students for the ministry, probably with the concurrence of the ‘provincial meeting’ of Cumberland and Westmorland. ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Thomas Coningsby

borndied
unknown1625
an English soldier and Member of Parliament, notable for his diary of military action in France in 1591. Coningsby went to Normandy in attendance on the Earl of Essex in 1591, and took part in the siege of Rouen, fighting against the forces of the league. He acted as muster-master to the English detachment, was in frequent intercourse with Henry of Navarre b...
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Links (1)


Valentin Conrart

borndied
16031675, Sep 23
a French author, and as a founder of the Académie française, the first occupant of seat 2. He was born in Paris of Calvinist parents, and was educated for business. However, after his father's death in 1620, he began to move in literary circles, and soon acquired a reputation, though he wrote nothing for many years. The most important of Conrart's written ...
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Links (1)


Henry Constable

borndied
15621613, Oct 9
an English poet, known particularly for Diana, one of the first English sonnet sequences. In 1591 he converted to Catholicism, and lived in exile on the continent for some years. He returned to England at the accession of King James, but was soon a prisoner in the Tower and in the Fleet.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Constable [1]

aka: Lacey, Clerophilus Alethes
borndied
1676, Nov 101743, Mar 28
an English Jesuit controversial writer. There is very little information available about the details of his life. In 1695 he entered the Society of Jesus. For many years he served the Fitzherbert family at Swinnerton, where he is buried. He wrote and published many volumes on religious topics.
Links (1)


Benjamin Constant

borndied
1767, Oct 251830, Dec 8
a Swiss-French political activist and writer on politics and religion. He was the author of a partly biographical psychological novel, Adolphe. He was a fervent liberal of the early 19th century who influenced the Trienio Liberal movement in Spain, the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, the Greek War of Independence, the November Uprising in Poland, the...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

George Constantine

borndied
1500 ca1560
a British priest who was an early Protestant and evangelical reformer. He adopted the Protestant doctrine, and fled to Antwerp where he met and assisted both William Tyndale and George Joye. Here he helped to translate the New Testament into English, and compiled books denouncing the Catholic Church. Constantine later moved to Paris, where he studied Luthera...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PiratesMilitary

Alonso de Contreras

bornactivedied
unknown1580 caunknown
a Spanish sailor (captain of a frigate), soldier (captain of infantry and then of cavalry), privateer, adventurer and writer, best known as the author of his autobiography; one of the very few autobiographies of Spanish soldiers under the Spanish Habsburgs and possibly one of the finest, together with the True History of the Conquest of New Spain (Historia V...
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Links (1)


Rose Terry Cooke

borndied
1827, Feb 171892, Jul 18
an American author and poet. Terry's first published poem appeared in the New York Daily Tribune in 1851 and received high praise from the editor Charles A. Dana. In 1855 she published "The Mormon's Wife" in Graham's Magazine, of which Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward wrote that it "dealt powerfully with the leprosy of Mormonism, and wrung from the heart tears d...
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Links (1)


Thomas Cooke

aka: "Hesiod" Cooke
borndied
17031756, Dec 29
a very active English translator and author who ran afoul of Alexander Pope and was mentioned as one of the "dunces" in Pope's Dunciad. His father was an inn keeper, and Cooke arrived in London in 1722 and began working as a writer for the Whig causes. He assoc...
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Links (1)


James Fenimore Cooper

borndied
1789, Sep 151851, Sep 15
a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. His historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature. He lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York, which was founded by his father William on property that he owned. Cooper was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Chur...
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Timeline (1)Links (15)


Maria Susanna Cooper

borndied
1737, Aug 201807, Jul 3
an English writer and poet. Cooper's first writing was in the form of children's books, published with John Newbery, but details of these publications has been lost. Her most prominent writing took the form of epistolary novels, beginning with Letters between Emilia and Harriet, first published in 1762. Cooper's most famous work, The Exemplary Mother, or Let...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyPhysicians

Thomas Cooper

aka: Couper
borndied
1517 ca1594, Apr 29
an English bishop, lexicographer, theologian, and writer. Cooper was born in Oxford, England, where he was educated at Magdalen College. He became Master of Magdalen College School and afterwards practised as a physician in Oxford. Elizabeth I was greatly pleased with his Thesaurus, generally known as Cooper's Dictionary; and its author, who had been ordaine...
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Links (1)


Anthony Cope

borndied
1486 ca1551, Jan 5
an English author. Anthony Cope attended Oxford, perhaps Oriel Oxford as Anthony Wood states, but does not appear to have taken a degree. He subsequently travelled to France, Germany and Italy. During his time on the continent he visited several universities, and is said to have written a number of books at that time, which may have included translations fro...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Astronomers

Nicolaus Copernicus

bornactivedied
1473, Feb 191503-15431543, May 24
a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of this model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of scien...
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Timeline (5)Links (22)


Robert Copland

bornactivedied
unknown1510sunknown
an English printer and author, is said to have been a servant of William Caxton, and certainly worked for Wynkyn de Worde. The first book to which his name is affixed as a printer is The Boke of Justices of Peace (1515), at the sign of the Rose Garland, in Fleet Street, London. Anthony à Wood supposed, on the ground that he was more educated than was usual ...
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Links (1)


Anthony Copley

borndied
15671607
an English Catholic poet and conspirator. He reproached the Jesuits and their meditations on martyrdom, and loyally praised Queen Elizabeth. He is principally known to posterity for his long allegorical poem in 1596 opposing voluntary death, in parody of Book I of The Faerie Queene, entitled A Fig for Fortune; it has been considered a contribution to the sam...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Ambrose Corbie

aka: Corby, Corbington
borndied
1604, Dec 71649, Apr 11
an English Jesuit, teacher and author. Ambrose Corbie was born near County Durham, England, the fourth son of Gerald Corbie and his wife, Isabella (née Richardson), recusant/exiled Roman Catholics. Of their children, sons Ambrose, Ralph and Robert, became Jesuit priests (Richard died as a student at Saint-Omer) and their two surviving daughters, Mary and Ca...
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Links (1)


Edouard Corbiere

aka: Édouard Corbière
borndied
1793, Apr 11875, Sep 27
a French sailor, shipowner, journalist and writer, considered to be the father of the French maritime novel. He gave up sea-service for good in 1828, landing in Le Havre, where he was immediately approached by Stanislas Faure, manager of the Journal du Havre newspaper, and asked to become its editor, a post he held until 1839 and for which he wrote until 184...
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Links (1)


Giulio Cesare Cordara

aka: Pameno Cassio
borndied
1704, Dec 161785, Mar 6
an Italian historian and littérateur. His best known work is The History of the Society of Jesus first published in Rome in 1750, with a posthumous, second volume in 1859. This work, written in Latin, was a continuation of the history of the Society of Jesus by Niccolò Orlandini, Francesco Saccini and Joseph Juvency, and embraced the period of Mutius Vitel...
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Links (1)


Pierre Corneille

bornactivedied
1606,Jun 61629-16681684, Oct 1
a French tragedian. He is generally considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Moliere and Jean Racine. As a young man, he earned...
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Timeline (5)Links (4)Notes (1)


Thomas Corneille

borndied
1625, Aug 201709, Dec 8
a French dramatist. Born in Rouen some nineteen years after his brother Pierre, the "great Corneille", Thomas's skill as a poet seems to have shown itself early. At the age of fifteen he composed a play in Latin which was performed by his fellow-pupils at the Jesuit school in Rouen, the Collège de Bourbon (now the Lycée Pierre Corneille). His first play in...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Peter Cornelius

borndied
1824, Dec 241874, Oct 26
a German composer, writer about music, poet and translator. Cornelius played violin and composed lieder from an early age. Cornelius's first mature works (including the opera Der Barbier von Bagdad) were composed during his brief stay in Weimar (1852–1858).
Links (1)


Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Jacques-Philippe Cornut

aka: Jacobi Cornuti
borndied
1606, Oct 191651, Aug 23
a French physician and botanist. He was the author of Enchiridion botanicum parisiense, a study of the flora local to Paris, and Canadensium plantarum, aliarúmque nondum editarum historia nondum editarum historia cui adiectum est ad calcem enchiridion botanicum parisiense (Paris: Simon le Moyne, 1635), Canada at that time considered as stretching from the S...
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Links (1)


Charles Cornwallis [1]

borndied
unknown1629, Dec 21
an English courtier and diplomat. Nothing is known of him till 11 July 1603, when he was knighted. In 1604 he was Member of Parliament for Norfolk. Early in 1605 he was sent as resident ambassador to Spain. He was active in attempting to protect English merchants from the Spanish Inquisition, and lobbied the home government for English commercial interests. ...
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Links (1)


William Cornwallis

borndied
1579 ca1614, Jul 1
an early English essayist and served as a courtier and member of Parliament. His essays, influenced by the style of Montaigne, rather than that of Francis Bacon, became a model for later English essayists. Cornwallis's essays, meditative in tone, cover such topi...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

William Cornysh the Younger

aka: Cornish, Cornish
borndied
14651523, Oct
an English composer, dramatist, actor, and poet. In his only surviving poem, which was written in Fleet Prison, he claims that he has been convicted by false information and thus wrongly accused, though it is not known what the accusation was. The Eton Choirbook (compiled c. 1490–1502) contains several works by Cornysh. There is also an extended and somew...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Michel Corrette

borndied
1707, Apr 101795, Jan21
a French organist, composer and author of musical method books. Corrette was prolific. He composed ballets and divertissements for the stage. He composed many concertos, notably 25 concertos comiques. Aside from these works and organ concertos, he also composed sonatas, songs, instrumental chamber works, harpsichord pieces, cantatas, and other sacred vocal w...
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Links (1)


Juan Donoso Cortes

aka: Cortés
borndied
1809, May 61853, May 3
a Spanish author, conservative and Catholic political theorist, and diplomat. He entered politics as an ardent liberal under the influence of Manuel José Quintana. His views began to modify after the rising at La Granja, approaching a counterrevolutionary outlook and became more marked on his appointment as private secretary to the Queen Regent. His politic...
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Links (1)


Thomas Coryat

aka: Coryate
bornactivedied
1577 ca1603-16171617
an English traveller and writer of the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean age. He is principally remembered for two volumes of writings he left regarding his travels, often on foot, through Europe and parts of Asia. He is often credited with introducing the table fork to England, with "Furcifer" (Latin: fork-bearer, rascal) becoming one of his nicknames. Hi...
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Links (1)


Margherita Costa

bornactivedied
1600 ca1628-16571657
a singer, poet, playwright and feminist, is the most Baroque of the seventeenth-century Italian women writers and stands out for her original style and themes. As a poet, she employs a variety of genres, using humor and irony to criticize prevailing attitudes towards women and to mock the politics of her times. She is the first Italian woman writer to use hu...
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Links (1)


Gauthier de Costes

aka: seigneur de la Calprenède
borndied
1609/101663
a French novelist and dramatist. He was born at the Château of Tolgou in Salignac-Eyvigues (Dordogne). After studying at Toulouse, he came to Paris and entered the regiment of the guards, becoming in 1650 gentleman-in-ordinary of the royal household. He died in consequence of a kick from his horse. La Calprenède was the author of several long heroic romanc...
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Links (1)


Randle Cotgrave

bornactivedied
unknown1590s-16321634
an English lexicographer who in 1611 compiled and published A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, a bilingual dictionary that represented a breakthrough at the time and remains historically important. Born into a Cheshire family, Cotgrave may possibly be Randal, son of William Cotgreve of Christleton in Cheshire (died c. 1634), who is menti...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles Cotin

borndied
16041681, Dec 8
a French abbé, philosopher and poet. He was made a member of the Académie française on 7 January 1655. Cotin was born and died in Paris. He was a scholar of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac, an advisor to Louis XIV, and renowned in his time for his sermons, po...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Cotta

borndied
15751650
a physician in England and author of books and other texts on medicine and witchcraft. Cotta wrote extensively about quack doctors, and exposed several in his book Ignorant Practisers of Physicke (1612). He put a traditional Galenist argument, to the effect that experience alone of was of limited value to medical practitioners. With his medical colleague Jam...
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Links (1)


Charles Cotton

borndied
1630, Apr 281687, Feb 16
an English poet and writer, best known for translating the work of Michel de Montaigne from the French, for his contributions to The Compleat Angler, and for the influential The Compleat Gamester attributed to him. The 1674 first edition of The Compleat Gamester is attributed to Cotton by publishers of later editions, to which additional, post-Cotton materia...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Cotton

borndied
1585, Dec 41652, Dec 23
a clergyman in England and the American colonies and, by most accounts, the preeminent minister and theologian of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Following five years of study at Trinity College, Cambridge, and another nine years at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he had already built a reputation as a scholar and outstanding preacher when he accepted the positio...
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Links (1)


Frederic de Courcy

aka: Frédéric
borndied
1796, Aug 161862, May 6
a French man of letters. The son of Augustin Charlot de Courcy and Adélaïde Vallet, in 1826 he became sous-chef of La Poste's personnel department (under Jean-Baptiste Tenant de Latour). He was the author of several vaudevilles, often in collaboration. Until his death, he lived with his partner Adélaïde Alexandrine Verteuil. They never married, and had t...
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Links (1)


Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras

borndied
16441712, May 8
a French novelist, journalist, pamphleteer and memorialist. His abundant output includes short stories, gallant letters, tales of historical love affairs (Les Intrigues amoureuses de la Cour de France, 1684), historical and political works, biographies and semi-fictional "memoirs" (in the first person; his prefaces often indicate that the works were composed...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Edmond de Coussemaker

borndied
1805, Apr 191876, Jan 10
a schooled jurist. As a musicologist and ethnologist, he focused mainly on the heritage of French Flanders. With Michiel de Swaen and Maria Petyt, he was one of the most eminent defenders of Dutch culture in France. He was one of the first to be devoted to research on medieval music and his numerous publications focused on subjects such as the Gregorian chan...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Francis Coventry

borndied
17251754 ca
an English cleric and novelist, best known for The History of Pompey the Little. A native of Cambridgeshire, he was educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he proceeded B.A. 1748 and M.A. 1752. He was appointed by his kinsman the Earl of Coventry to the perpetual curacy of Edgware, and died of smallpox at Whitchurch.
Links (1)


Abraham Cowley

borndied
16181667, Jul 28
an English poet born in the City of London late in 1618. He was one of the leading English poets of the 17th century, with 14 printings of his Works published between 1668 and 1721. As early as 1628, that is, in his tenth year, he composed his Tragicall History of Piramus and Thisbe, an epic romance written in a six-line stanza, a style of his own invention....
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Links (1)


William Cowper

borndied
1731, Nov 261800, Apr 25
an English poet and hymnodist. One of the most popular poets of his time, Cowper changed the direction of 18th century nature poetry by writing of everyday life and scenes of the English countryside. In many ways, he was one of the forerunners of Romantic poetry. more
Links (1)


George Valentine Cox

borndied
17861875, Mar
an English author. He published 'Jeannette Isabelle.' a novel in three volumes, London, 1837, 12mo, three translations from the German, viz. F. C. Dahlmann's 'Life of Herodotus,' London, 1845, 8vo; J. A. W. Neander's ' Emperor Julian and his Generation,' London, 1850, 8vo; and C. Ullmann's 'Gregory of Nazianzum,' London, 1851, 8vo; also 'Prayer-Book Epistles...
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Links (1)


Leonard Cox

borndied
1495 ca1549 ca
an English humanist, author of the first book in English on rhetoric. He was a scholar of international reputation who found patronage in Poland, and was friend of Erasmus and Melanchthon. He was known to contemporaries as a grammarian, rhetorician, poet, and preacher, and was skilled in the modern as well as the classical languages.
Links (1)


Charles Coypeau d'Assoucy

borndied
1605, Oct 161677, Oct 29
a French musician and burlesque poet. In the mid-1630s he began using the nom de plume "D'Assouci" or "Dassoucy". Having been presented to Louis XIII, he was soon entertaining the French court and writing poems for the royal family. For over a decade, d'Assoucy...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Charles-Antoine Coypel

borndied
1694, Jul 111752, Jun 15
a French painter, art commentator, and playwright. He lived in Paris. He was the son of the artist Antoine Coypel and grandson of Noël Coypel. Charles-Antoine inherited his father’s design and painting duties as premier peintre du roi (First Painter to the King) at the French court when his father died in 1722. He became premier peintre du roi and directo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyPhysicians

George Crabbe

borndied
1754, Dec 241832, Feb 3
an English poet, surgeon, and clergyman. He is best known for his early use of the realistic narrative form and his descriptions of middle and working-class life and people. In the 1770s, Crabbe began his career as a doctor's apprentice, later becoming a surgeon. In 1780, he travelled to London to make a living as a poet. After encountering serious financial...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Edward Cradock

bornactivedied
unknown1570sunknown
an English theologian and alchemist. In 1571 he published The Shippe of assured Safetie, wherein we may sayle without Danger towards the Land of the Living, promised to the true Israelites, 2nd edition 1572. Some Latin sapphics by Cradock are prefixed to Robert Peterson's translation of Giovanni della Casa's Il Galateo, 1576. He was a friend of John Dee who ...
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Links (1)


Dinah Craik

aka: Miss Mulock, Mrs. Craik
borndied
1826, Apr 201887, Oct 12
an English novelist and poet. Mulock's early success began with the novel Cola Monti (1849), and in the same year she produced her first three-volume novel, The Ogilvies, to great success. It was followed in 1850 by Olive, then by The Head of the Family in 1851 and Agatha's Husband in 1853, in which the author used her recollections of East Dorset. Mulock pu...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Richard Crashaw

borndied
1613 ca1649, Aug 21
an English poet, teacher, Anglican cleric and Catholic convert, who was among the major figures associated with the metaphysical poets in seventeenth-century English literature. Crashaw was ordained as a clergyman in the Church of England, but his theology and practice embraced the Catholic heritage of Anglicanism and the High Church ritual reforms enacted b...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Johannes Crato von Krafftheim

aka: Johannes Krafft,: Crato von Crafftheim; Johannis Cratonis
borndied
1519, Nov 221585, Oct 19
a German humanist and court physician to three Holy Roman emperors. In 1550 Crato returned to his hometown Breslau where he was named the second town physician. Although his fame as a physician was spreading almost across Germany, the reigning city council leader Hans Morenberger removed him from his post as physician to the poor because Crato was suspected ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Elizabeth Craven

aka: Elizabeth Anspach
borndied
17501828
an author, playwright, traveller, composer, and socialite, perhaps best known for her travelogues. She was the third child of the 4th Earl of Berkeley, born near Trafalgar Square in the English City of Westminster. Very few of her musical compositions survive.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Johannes Crellius

borndied
1590, Jul 261633, Jun 11
a Polish and German theologian. Crellius moved to Poland at the age of 22, and quickly became known as one of the chief theologians of the Socinians, also known as Polish brethren. From 1613 he worked at the Racovian Academy at Raków, of which he was the rector from 1616 to 1621. In 1630 he worked with Joachim Stegmann Sr. in the production of a German vers...
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Links (1)


Octave Cremazie

aka: Crémazie
borndied
1827, Apr 161879, Jan 16
a French Canadian poet and bookseller born in Quebec City. Recognized both during and after his lifetime for his patriotic verse and his significant role in the cultural development of Quebec, Crémazie has been called "the father of French Canadian poetry." Crémazie's first published poems appeared in L'Ami de la religion et de la patrie (edited by his bro...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Serenus de Cressy

borndied
1605 ca1674, Aug 10
an English convert and Benedictine monk, who became a noted scholar in Church history. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1651. That same year he was sent to serve as chaplain to the monastery of English Benedictine nuns, then still in Paris. While there he began his work on the text of Julian of Norwich. Returning to his own monastery in Douai, he underto...
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Links (1)


Tobias Crisp

borndied
16001643
an English clergyman and reputed antinomian. In the end he proved a divisive figure for English Calvinists, with a serious controversy arising from the republication of his works in the 1690s. In 1627 he was presented to the rectory of Newington Butts, from which he was removed a few months later on account of having been a party to a simoniacal contract. La...
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Links (1)


Sir Herbert Croft

aka: 5th Baronet
borndied
1751, Nov 11816, Apr 26
an English author best known for his novel Love and Madness. In 1788 he addressed a letter to William Pitt on the subject of a new dictionary. He criticized Samuel Johnson's efforts, and in 1790 he claimed to have collected 11,000 words used by excellent author...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

John Wilson Croker

borndied
1780, Dec 201857, Aug 10
an Irish statesman and author. In 1804 he published anonymously Familiar Epistles to J. F. Jones, Esquire, on the State of the Irish Stage, a series of caustic criticisms in verse on the management of the Dublin theatres. The book ran through five editions in one year. Equally successful was the Intercepted Letter from Canton (1805), also anony...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Cromwell [3]

borndied
17921870
an English dissenting minister and antiquary. He published in 1816 wia small volume of verse, The School-Boy, with other Poems, which was four years later followed by privately printed copies of Honour; or, Arrivals from College: a Comedy. The play had been produced at Drury Lane on 17 April 1819, and was twice repeated,. Oliver Cromwell an...
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Links (1)


Fanny Crosby

borndied
1820, Mar 241915, Feb 12
an American mission worker, poet, lyricist, and composer. A member of the Sixth Avenue Bible Baptist Church in Brooklyn, New York, she wrote many hymns together with her pastor, Robert Lowry. She was one of the most prolific hymnists in history, writing over 8,000 hymns and gospel songs, with over 100 million copies printed, despite being blind from shortly ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Harry Croswell

borndied
1778, Jun 161858, Mar 13
a crusading political journalist, a publisher, author, and an Episcopal Church clergyman. Though largely self-educated, he received an honorary degree of A. M. from Yale College in 1817, an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut in 1831 – an institution he co-founded – established the first public lectures in New Haven...
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Links (1)


Catherine Crowe

borndied
1803, Sep 201876, Jun 14
an English novelist, story writer and playwright, who also wrote for children. Crowe's two plays, the verse tragedy Aristodemus (1838) and the melodrama The Cruel Kindness (1853) both had historical themes paralleling her own family problems. Both were published and the second also had a short run in London in 1853. The book that established Crowe as a novel...
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Links (4)


Robert Crowley

aka: Robertus Croleus, Roberto Croleo, Robart Crowleye, Robarte Crole, Crule
borndied
1517 ca1588, Jun 18
a stationer, poet, polemicist and Protestant clergyman who was among the Marian exiles at Frankfurt. Crowley appears to have been a Henrician Evangelical who favoured a more reformed Protestantism than was sanctioned at that time by the king and the Church of England. The first books that are unambiguously Crowley's issued from Day and Seres' press in 1548, ...
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Links (1)


Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe

borndied
17951865
a Swedish historian, early became famous both as a political and a historical writer. Crusenstolpe won considerable distinction with a series of historical-romantic tales, (Little Stories); but his fame rests mainly on his works as a journalist, historian, biographer, and politician. His works of fiction become a degree political or progressive pamphlets see...
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Links (1)


Ramon de la Cruz

aka: Ramón
borndied
1731, Mar 281794, Mar 5
a Spanish neoclassical dramatist. Born in Madrid, he was a clerk in the ministry of finance. He is the author of three hundred sainetes, little farcical sketches of city life, written to be played between the acts of a longer play. He published a selection in ten volumes (Madrid, 1786–1791). The best of his pieces, such as Las Tertulias de Madrid, are spec...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Pedro Cubero

borndied
16451697 ca
a Spanish priest, best known for his travel around the world from 1670 to 1679. He studied in Zaragoza and Salamanca, up to his ordination as a priest in Zaragoza, and soon afterwards went to Rome, where he joined the Propaganda Fide congregation. He wrote the account of his adventures around the world in a very objective, detailed and interesting book, Pere...
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Sir Henry Cuffe

borndied
15631601, Mar 13
an English author and politician, executed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, for treason. After receiving his early education at the grammar school of Hinton St. George, Henry Cuffe was elected at the age of fifteen a scholar of Trinity College, Oxford (25 May 1578) by the interest of Lady Elizabeth Powlett of Hinton, who always showed a kind...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansInventorsScientists

William Cullen

borndied
1710, Apr 151790, Feb 5
a Scottish physician, chemist and agriculturalist, and one of the most important professors at the Edinburgh Medical School, during its heyday as the leading center of medical education in the English-speaking world. In 1748 while in Glasgow, Cullen invented the basis for modern refrigeration, although is not credited with a usable application. In 1751 he wa...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Alexander Cumming

aka: Cummings
bornactivedied
17331750s-18141814, Mar 8
a Scottish watchmaker and instrument inventor, who was the first to patent a design of the flush toilet, that had been invented by Sir John Harrington. The S-trap (or bend) was invented by Cumming in 1775 to retain water permanently within the bowl, thus preventing sewer gases from entering buildings. It survives in today's plumbing modified as a U- or J-sha...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Thomas Seir Cummings

borndied
18041894
an American miniature painter and author, born at Bath, England. He came to New York early in life and studied there with Henry Inman. He painted miniatures in water color, and many of his sitters were well-known contemporaries of the artist. In 1826 he helped to found the National Academy of Design, was its treasurer for many years and one of its early vice...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Joaquim Heliodoro da Cunha Rivara

borndied
1809, Jun 231879, Feb 20
a Portuguese physician, professor, intellectual and politician. He excelled as a scholar of the history of the Portuguese presence in India and as a champion of the Konkani language. In the Parliament he was a member of the commissions for administration, agriculture and public health, and later also that of the Treasury. He had to resign from the legislatur...
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Allan Cunningham

borndied
1784, Dec 71842, Oct 30
a Scottish poet and author. Cunningham contributed some songs to Eugenius Roche's Literary Recreations in 1807. He wrote, three novels, a life of Sir David Wilkie, and Lives of Eminent British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1829–33), that include biographies of William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough and William Blake. Beside...
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John Cunningham

borndied
17291773
a Dublin born playwright, poet and actor, who spent much of his life in, and according to Allan, "whose name and fame will for ever be identified with Newcastle." The poetry of Cunningham is all written in a quiet, lifted strain. Some of his descriptions of natural scenery are very true and very pleasing in their simplicity; there is much tenderness and grac...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John William Cunningham

borndied
1780, Jan 31861, Sep 30
an evangelical clergyman of the Church of England, known also as a writer and editor. After passing some months with the Grants in Edinburgh, Cunningham was ordained in 1802 to the curacy of Ripley, Surrey. He became curate to John Venn, vicar of Clapham and prominent in the Clapham sect. In 1811 Cunningham became vicar of Harrow, the presentation to which h...
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Eliza Lanesford Cushing

borndied
1794, Oct 191886, May 4
an American-Canadian dramatist, short story writer, and editor. The daughter of Hannah Webster Foster and sister of Harriet Vaughan Cheney, both novelists, she wrote a number of plays including Esther and The Fatal Ring, and edited the Literary Garland, Canada's main literary periodical. Cushing was born in Brighton, Massachusetts, and published two early no...
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Catherine Cuthbertson

borndied
1775 ca1835 ca
an English-language novelist published in London in the early 19th century. She may also have written an unpublished 1803 play under the name "Miss Cuthbertson". Cuthbertson has been described by present-day scholars as a "fairly conventional novelist" using "historically realised settings (often in continental Europe)" with "happy endings". Her upper-class ...
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Umihana Cuvidina

borndied
1794 ca1870 ca
an Ottoman Bosniak poet and the earliest Bosnian female author whose work survives to this day. Cuvidina sang her poems and contributed greatly to the traditional genre of Bosniak folk music, sevdalinka. In 1813, Cuvidina was engaged to a man named Mujo Camdži-bajraktar who died as a soldier of the imperial army of Alipaša Derendelija during the First Serb...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Georges Cuvier

borndied
1769, Aug 231832, May 13
a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal (...
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Alfred-Auguste Cuvillier-Fleury

borndied
1802, Mar 181887, Oct 18
a French historian and literary critic. In 1830 he published Documents historiques sur M. le comte Lavalette and edited the Mémoires of Lavalette's daughter (and Cuvillier-Fleury's lover), Joséphine de Lavalette. Although none of the works he published was reissued in his lifetime, his Correspondance avec le duc d'Aumale, as well as his Journal intime, rem...
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