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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Oluf Andreas Aabel

bornactivedied
1825, Oct 91847-18951895, Dec 24
a Norwegian priest and writer. He translated Georg Benedikt Winer's Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms in 1852, and published a translation of the biblical work of Otto von Gerlach. He also published a work of his own, Omrids af Det christelige Troesindhold.
Links (1)


Ivar Aasen

bornactivedied
1813, Aug 51841-18731896, Sep 23
a Norwegian philologist, lexicographer, playwright, and poet. He is best known for having assembled from dialects one of the two official written versions of the Norwegian language, Nynorsk.
Links (1)


Firmin Abauzit

bornactivedied
1679, Nov 111698-17671767, Mar 20
a French scholar who worked on physics, theology and philosophy, and served as librarian in Geneva (Switzerland) during his final 40 years. Abauzit is also notable for proofreading or correcting the writings of Isaac Newton and other scholars.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

George Abbot

bornactivedied
1562, Oct 191611-16331633, Aug 5
an English divine who was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1611 to 1633 for the Church of England. He also served as the fourth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, from 1612 to 1633.
Timeline (1)Links (12)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Abbot

bornactivedied
1587/881623-16471650 ca
an English Roman Catholic clergyman and poet. His birthplace is uncertain, but may have been London or Leicester. After being educated at Balliol College, Oxford, he travelled to the continent where he converted to Roman Catholicism. On returning to England he was in Jesuit orders for a while, before working as a secular priest. In 1635 he was imprisoned in ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Abbot [1]

bornactivedied
1588 ca1610s-16621662 ca
an English theologian who promoted puritan doctrines. He is sometimes mistakenly described as the son of the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Abbot, but this is generally considered to be incorrect. The misunderstanding probably stems from a passage in Robert Abbot's work A Hand of Fellowship to Helpe Keepe out Sinne and Antichrist, in which he thanks the Ar...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Abbot [2]

borndied
15601618, Mar 2
an Anglican clergyman and academic, known as a polemical writer. He served as Master of Balliol College, Oxford, Regius Professor of Divinity, and Bishop of Salisbury from 1615. Among his four younger brothers, George became Archbishop of Canterbury and Maurice became Lord Mayor of London.
Links (5)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Gorham Dummer Abbott

borndied
1807, Sep 31874, Aug 3
an American clergyman, educator, and author. He was a significant figure in the movement to supply schools with textbooks, libraries, and educational journals.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Educators

Jacob Abbott

bornactivedied
1803, Nov 141825-1870s1879, Oct 31
an American writer of children's books. He was a prolific author, writing juvenile fiction, brief histories, biographies, religious books for the general reader, and a few works in popular science. He wrote 180 books and was a coauthor or editor of 31 more.
Links (8)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Stevens Cabot Abbott

bornactivedied
1805, Sep 191834-18761877, Jun 17
an American historian, pastor, and pedagogical writer. He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian ethics, and of popular histories, which were credited with cultivating a popular interest in history.
Links (4)


Cross-listed in Legal

Fermin Abella y Blave

aka: Fermín Abella y Blave
borndied
18321888
a Spanish writer and jurist. In 1856 he began his service to the State, holding different positions, up to Official in the Ultamar Ministry. From the beginning of his career he published various works devoted to writing and journalism.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

David Abercromby

bornactivedied
unknown1680s1702
a 17th-century Scottish physician and writer. Brought up at Douai as a Roman Catholic by Jesuit priests, he was converted to Protestantism in 1682 and came to abjure popery, and published Protestancy proved Safer than Popery (1686).
Links (1)


Torquato Accetto

borndied
1590/981640
an Italian writer in the first half of the 17th century born in Naples. He is particularly remembered for his book on conformity and hypocrisy, titled Della dissimulazione onesta.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Itty Achudan

borndied
1640 caunknown
a distinguished Ayurvedic physician, from the ancient Kollatt family of traditional Ezhava Ayurvedic Vaidyans (doctors) of Kerala. He was the major contributor of ethno-medical information for the compilation of Hortus Malabaricus, the botanical treatise on the medicinal properties of flora of 17th century Malabar (present day Kerala).
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Gilbank Ackland

borndied
17911844, Feb 20
an English clergyman. He published by subscription a volume of miscellaneous poems in the style of the 18th century. He was also the author of a few sermons.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Acland

borndied
1729 ca1795, Aug 14
a Church of England clergyman and an author of a pamphlet on poor law reform which foresaw a system of national insurance. In 1786 Acland published "A Plan for rendering the Poor independent on Public Contributions". From allusions in this pamphlet it seems that Acland's ‘plan’ was suggested to him by the failure of previous legislation for the encourage...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersClergy

Cristobal Diatriston de Acuna

aka: Cristóbal Diatristán de Acuña
borndied
15971676 ca
a Spanish missionary and explorer. He was admitted a Jesuit in 1612, and afterwards sent on mission work to Chile and Peru, where he became rector of the college of Cuenca. In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Teixeira in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government. His Nuevo Desc...
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Links (1)


Hernando de Acuna

aka: Acuña
borndied
1520 ca1580, Jun 22
a Spanish poet and translator of the Spanish Golden Age. He was admired by Emperor Charles V for both his military and literary talents. Hernando de Acuña represents the first generation of Petrachian poets in Spain. He is best known for sonnets, ecologues and elegies.
Links (1)


Melchior Adam

borndied
1575 ca1622, Dec 26
a German literature historian. His major achievement consisted of various literary historian biographies, which have been printed in Stuttgart and Heidelberg in five volumes.
Links (1)


Abijah Adams

borndied
1754 ca1816, Mar 18
a journalist who frequently found himself involved in controversies. In 1799 he was convicted of libel against the Federalist-controlled state government for his role in the newspaper's vocal opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Henry Cadwallader Adams

borndied
1817, Niv 41899, Oct 17
a 19th-century English cleric, schoolmaster and writer of children's novels, specialising in tales of Victorian Public School life and adventures in far-flung parts of the British Empire.
Links (1)


John Adams [1]

borndied
17041740
an American poet. Adams was distinguished for his intellect and piety. As a preacher he was much esteemed. He published a sermon on his ordination, and a poem on the love of money. He published two volumes of poetry.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

John Adams [2]

bornactivedied
1735, Oct 301797-18011826, Jul 4
an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat. He served as the second President of the United States (1797–1801), the first Vice President (1789–1797), and as a Founding Father was a leader of American independence from Great Britain. Adams was a political theorist in the Age of Enlightenment who promoted republicanism and a strong central governm...
more
Timeline (24)Links (33)Notes (4)


John Greenleaf Adams

borndied
18101897
co-editor with Dr. E.H. Chapin of the Universalist Hymns for Christian Devotion and alone for the Gospel Psalmist. His papers can be found at the Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Anthony Addington

borndied
17131790, Mar 22
an English physician. Addington was educated at Trinity College, where he took the degree of M.A. and M.D. He was a fellow of the College of Physicians, and went into practice in London, but was compelled by bad health to move to the country. His career gained considerable public attention when he appeared as an expert for the prosecution of Mary Blandy for ...
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Links (3)


Cross-listed in Composers

John Addison

borndied
1765 ca1844
a British composer and double-bass player. He wrote six operettas which were very popular at the time, and also authored a book on singing instruction.
Links (1)


Joseph Addison

borndied
1672, May 11719, Jun 17
an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician. He was the eldest son of The Reverend Lancelot Addison. His name is usually remembered alongside that of his long-standing friend, Richard Steele, with whom he founded The Spectator magazine.
Links (1)


William Addy

bornactivedied
unknown1680sunknown
a writing-master based in London, and the author of a system of shorthand published in 1685. The method, a modification of that of Jeremiah Rich, was so much practised that the Bible, the New Testament, and the Singing Psalms were published, according to its system, two years later. The 1695 edition of his work was entitled Stenographia, or the Art of Short-...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Educators

Jacob Georg Christian Adler

borndied
1756, Dec 81834, Aug 22
a German Generalsuperintendent for Holstein and Schleswig, Orientalist, Syriac language professor at the University of Copenhagen, Lutheran theologian, Oberkonsistorialrat, book writer, religious educator, coin collector and head of the Schleswig-Holsteinische Bibelgesellschaft.
Links (1)


Sophie Adlersparre

borndied
1823, Jul 61895, Jun 27
a women's rights activist, publisher, editor, writer and friherinna (baroness). Alongside Fredrika Bremer and Rosalie Roos, she is referred to as one of the three most notable pioneers and founders of the 19th century women's rights movement in Sweden. As an activist, she was much known under her official pseudonym Esselde.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Ady

bornactivedied
unknown1630s-1670sunknown
an English physician and humanist who was the author of three sceptical books on witchcraft and witch-hunting, using the Bible as the source. His first and best known work, Candle in the Dark: Or, A Treatise Concerning the Nature of Witches & Witchcraft, was used unsuccessfully by George Burroughs, a Baptist preacher, in his defense during the Salem witch tr...
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Links (1)


Arthur Agarde

borndied
15401615
an English antiquary. He was born in Foston, Derbyshire. Agarde was trained as a lawyer, but entered the exchequer as a clerk. He spent much labour in cataloguing the records and state papers, and made a special study of the Domesday Book, preparing an explanation of its more obscure terms. On his death he bequeathed to the exchequer all his papers relating ...
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Links (1)


Agehi

borndied
unknown1577/78
an Ottoman poet and historian born in Yenice-i Vardar (modern Giannitsa). As a mudarris and qadi, he traveled to many places, including Istanbul and Gallipoli. In poetry, he is famous for a qasida addressed to his sweetheart, a sailor, which uses much nautical slang. His poetry was apparently not collected into a diwan. In history, his Tarikh-i Ghazat-i Sige...
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Links (1)


Edward Aglionby

borndied
15201591 ca
an English Member of Parliament, official, translator and poet. He was closely associated with the Dudley family. He was born at Carlisle the son of Richard Aglionby, educated at Eton, and elected to King's College, Cambridge, 1536, where he distinguished himself, and became a fellow and M.A. He wrote a genealogy of Queen Elizabeth the First, for which she g...
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Links (1)


Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa

borndied
1486, Sep 141535, Feb 18
a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist. Agrippa studied briefly with Johannes Trithemius, and Agrippa sent him an early draft of his masterpiece, De occulta philosophia libri tres, a kind of summa of early modern oc...
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Links (1)


Maria Anna Agueda de San Ignacio

aka: María Anna Águeda de San Ignacio
borndied
1695, Mar 31756, Feb 25
a Mexican author. She was born in Atlixco in New Spain (now Mexico) to a Spanish father and an an American mother. In 1714, at the age of nineteen, she entered the Beaterio de Santa Rosa, a Catholic convent in Puebla. In 1740, she was elected abbess of the convent. Aguilar was a prolific writer on religious subjects and her writing was highly regarded during...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Francisco de Aguilar

borndied
14791571 ca
a Spanish conquistador who took part in the expedition led by Hernán Cortés that resulted in the conquest of the Aztec Empire and the fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec state in the central Mexican plateau. Late in his long life, in his early 80s, his fellow Dominicans urged him write an account of the Aztec conquest drawing from his experience...
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Links (1)


Joan Baptista Aguilar

bornactivedied
unknown1655-1690s1714
a dramatic author and poet who lived in Valencia, Spain from his birth until his death in 1714. In 1655 he was a teacher in the Convent of the Trinity in Valencia. He published a collection of poetry, entitled Varias hermosas flores del Parnaso (1680). His poetry also appears in several Valencian publications of the period. He was the author of the comedy Tr...
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Links (1)


Juan de Aguilar Villaquiran

aka: Aguilar Villaquirán
borndied
15641618
a Spanish writer and translator born in Toledo, Spain. He was the son of the doctor Escalona Alonso Hernández de Aguilar. He translated the works of Lucian making use of the Latin editions of James Moltzer and Gilbert Cousin cognatus and Ioannes Sambucus, and Italian I Dilettevoli Dialogi of Nicolo da Lonigo; in total, twenty seven dialogues, speeches and t...
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Links (1)


Esteban de Aguilar y Zuniga

aka: Zúñiga
borndied
1606, Aug 131681
a Spanish theologian and writer. He was born in Escalona del Alberche on 13 August 1606 and died in Madrid some time after 1681. He was the son of writer and humanist Juan de Aguilar Villaquirán.
Links (1)


Benjamin Agus

bornactivedied
unknown1660sunknown
an English divine, and was one of the most distinguished of the earlier vindicators of the nonconformists, and as such second only to Richard Baxter, and hardly second to Vincent Alsop. His Vindication of Nonconformity and Antidote to Dr. Stillingfleet's Unreasonableness of Separation; being a defence of the former, have been allowed to slip out of sight; bu...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Sofia Ahlbom

borndied
1803, Nov 251868, Jun 8
a Swedish drawing artist, engraver, lithographer, photographer, map maker, writer, poet and feminist. She displayed an early talent in drawing as a child, and was tutored by the engraver Grandel in first drawing and later in engraving. Sofia Ahlbom was also active as a writer, and produced publications in both poetry and prose.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Johann Georg Ahle

borndied
16511706
a German composer, organist, theorist, and Protestant church musician. In 1671 his first book of arias was published, Neues Zehn Geistlicher Arien; all copies of this work are now lost, though a fragment survives. He, like his father, also became a city councilman in Mühlhausen. In 1680 he was named poet laureate by Emperor Leopold I. Ahle's most well-known...
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Links (1)


Catharina Ahlgren

borndied
17341800 ca
a Swedish feminist writer, poet, translator, managing editor, and one of the first identifiable female journalists in Sweden. She is also known for her correspondence with Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht. Ahlgren was a leading person in the 'Female literary world of the 1750s and 1770s' in Sweden. She later emigrated to Finland, where she published the first F...
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Links (1)


Etienne Aignan

aka: Étienne
borndied
1773, Apr 91824, Jun 21
a French translator, political writer, librettist and playwright born in Beaugency, Loiret. In 1814 he was made a member of the Académie française, replacing Bernardin de Saint-Pierre in Seat 27.
Links (1)


George L. Aiken

borndied
1830, Dec 191876, Apr 27
a nineteenth-century American playwright and actor who is best known for writing the most popular of the numerous stage adaptations of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Aiken was a writer of dime novels before he turned to theatre. He became an actor in the troupe of his cousin, George C. Howard. In 1852, shortly after the publication of Stow...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Arthur Aikin

borndied
1773, May 191854, Apr 15
an English chemist, mineralogist and scientific writer. was a founding member of the Chemical Society (now the Royal Society of Chemistry). He first became its Treasurer in 1841, and later became the Society's second President.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Charles Rochemont Aikin

borndied
17751847
an English doctor and chemist. He was born at Warrington, Lancashire into a distinguished literary family of prominent Unitarians. From an early age he devoted himself to science, and aided his eldest brother Arthur in his first published works and public lectures. Subsequently he applied himself to medicine, became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons,...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Aikin

borndied
1747, Jan 151822, Dec 7
an English doctor and writer. n 1798 Aikin retired from medicine and devoted himself with great industry to various literary undertakings, among which his General Biography (10 vols., 1799–1815) holds a conspicuous place. His other works included Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain (1780) and The Lives of John Selden, Esq., and Archbishop Ush...
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Links (1)


Lucy Aikin

aka: Mary Godolphin.
borndied
1781, Nov 61864, Jan 29
an English historical writer. Aikin was interested in early education, and as such published several works to assist young readers. Aikin also was responsible for translating various French texts.
Links (1)


William Harrison Ainsworth

borndied
1805, Feb 41882, Jan 3
an English historical novelist born in Manchester. He trained as a lawyer, but the legal profession held no attraction for him. While completing his legal studies in London he met the publisher John Ebers, at that time manager of the King's Theatre, Haymarket. Ebers introduced Ainsworth to literary and dramatic circles, and to his daughter, who became Ainswo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Henry Airay

borndied
15601616, Oct 6
an Anglican priest, theologian, and academic. His Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians (1618, reprinted 1864) is a specimen of his preaching before his college, and of his fiery denunciation of Roman Catholicism and his fearless enunciation of that Calvinism which Oxford in common with all England then prized. In 1598 he was chosen provost of ...
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Links (6)


Charlotte Aisse

aka: Aïssé
borndied
1694 ca1733, Mar 13
a French letter-writer. Her letters to her friend Madame Calandrini contain much interesting information with regard to contemporary celebrities, especially on Mme. du Deffand and Mme. de Tencin, but they are above all of interest in the picture they afford of the writer's own tenderness and fidelity. Her Lettres were edited by Voltaire (1787), by J. Ravenel...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Mark Akenside

borndied
17211770
an English poet and physician. The best edition of Akenside's Poetical Works is that prepared (1834) by Alexander Dyce for the Aldine Edition of the British Poets, and reprinted with small additions in subsequent issues of the series. See Dyce's Life of Akenside prefixed to his edition, also Johnson's Lives of the Poets, and the Life, Writings and Genius of ...
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Links (2)


Anna Akerhielm

aka: Åkerhielm
borndied
16421698, Feb 11
a Swedish writer and traveller. She was the first woman in Sweden to have been ennobled for her own actions (1691). Contemporary accounts describe how they spent their time in scientific investigations during their stay and at the ruins of Acropolis in Athens. She also describes how they conversed with learned Greeks about science and philosophy. After the P...
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Links (1)


Lucy Evelina Metcalf Akerman

borndied
1816, Feb 211874, Feb 21
an American Unitarian writer. This daughter of Thomas Metcalf was born in Wrentham, Massachusetts and married Charles Akerman of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. She also lived in Providence, Rhode Island. She wrote the hymn Nothing but leaves, the Spirit grieves circa 1858 that was chiefly used by the Baptists.
Links (1)


Rachel Akerman

borndied
15221544
an Austrian-Jewish poet. The earliest Jewish woman to write German poetry; born probably at Vienna, 27 March 1522; died at Iglau, Moravia, 1544. She appears to have received an excellent education, having studied both Latin and Greek. She soon exhibited poetical powers, and began to exercise them at an early age. On account of her poem, 'Geheimniss des Hofes...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Sculptors

Benjamin Paul Akers

bornactivedied
1825, Jul 101850-18611861, May 21
Born in Saccarappa, ME. Trained on wood (Maine) and plaster casting (Boston). Wrote articles about art for The Atlantic and The Crayon magazines. Worked in Maine and Rome. Won the Commemorative Silver Medal in 1854. Married in 1860. Died in Philadelphia, PA from tuberculosis, age 35.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Sergey Aksakov

borndied
1791, Sep 201859, Apr 30
a 19th-century Russian literary figure remembered for his semi-autobiographical tales of family life, as well as his books on hunting and fishing. In 1843 Aksakov settled in the village of Abramtsevo, where he entertained writers including Gogol, Turgenev, and Tolstoy and which was also frequented by his Slavophile sons, Konstantin and Ivan. In the late 1850...
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Links (1)


Butrus al-Bustani

borndied
18191883
a writer and scholar from present day Lebanon. His prolific output and groundbreaking work led the creation of modern Arabic expository prose. While educated by westerners and a strong advocate of western technology, he was a fierce secularist, playing a decisive role in formulating the principles of Syrian nationalism.
Links (1)


Abu Abdallah Mohammed al-Murabit al-Dila'i

borndied
unknown1678
a renowned linguist and scholar of Arabic grammar and usul-al-fiqh (law). He wrote treatises on law (Al Kitab Zawahir al-Fikri), poems in praise of the prophet Mohammed (Zahr al-hada'ih and Al-Zahr al-nadi fi-l-khuluk al-muhammadi). and an urdjuza (poem in a specific metre) about the shorfa (descendants of the prophet), Durrat al-tidjan.
Links (1)


Abd al-Aziz al-Fishtali

borndied
15491621
the secretary of state for correspondence and leading poet from Ahmad al-Mansur's court. He wrote 69 poems, numbering 1016 verses. The one surviving work from the pen of al-Fishtali, as the chief scribe of al-Mansur's state is: Manahil al-safa fi ma'athir mawalina al-shurafa. Editor: Abd al-Karim Kurayyim. (Rabat, 1973). It is considered to be the main sour...
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Links (1)


Mohammed ibn abd al-Wahab al-Ghassani

borndied
unknown1707
an ambassador for the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail. He is especially well-known because of the account of his journey to Spain in 1690–1691, entitled Rihlat al-Wazir fi Iftikak al-Asir (The Journey of the Minister to Ransom the captive). The purpose of his diplomatic mission was to ransom a number of captives in that country. Al-Ghassani describes the soc...
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Links (1)


Mohammed al-Haik

bornactivedied
unknown1780sunknown
a Moroccan poet, musician and author of a songbook (el-kunash) comprising eleven nubas, that had been handed down for generations. The songbook, written in 1789, doesn´t include the musical notation of the songs and is the single most important source on the early tradition of Classical Andalusian music.
Links (1)


Ahmed al-Mandjur

borndied
15201587
a Moroccan scholar of theology and law and a prominent teacher at the Qarawiyyin University. He is known to have educated qadis for several Moroccan towns. Between 1579 and 1585 he spent much time in Marrakesh, where he taught the Moroccan sultan Ahmad al-Mansur. He is the author of theological commentaries and especially his fahrasa (account of his scholarl...
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Links (1)


Al-Masfiwi

bornactivedied
unknown1570s-1600sunknown
a poet in the time of Ahmad al-Mansur. The surviving poetry of al-Masfiwi can be found in Manahil al-Safa, as well as in Kitab al-Istiqsa li-akhbar duwal al-Maghrib al-Aqsa by the nineteenth-century Moroccan historian, Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri al-Salawi. The section on Ahmad al-Mansur is found in Volume Five of this work. This volume has been ...
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Links (1)


Mohammed al-Qadiri

borndied
17121773
a Moroccan historian and author of Nashir al-Mathani. This work is a biographical dictionary of 18th-century Morocco, but each year is usually accompanied by a summary of events. In this sense, the form of the book tends toward being both that of a biographical dictionary and a chronicle. Mohammed al-Qadiri is the grandson of the genealogist Abd as-Salam al-...
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Links (1)


Abu-l-Hasan al-Tamgruti

borndied
1560 ca1594/95
a Moroccan author, ambassador, fqih and one of the most important officials of the Saadian court during the reign of Ahmad al-Mansur. He was in charge of the embassy to the Turkish sultan Murad III together with secretary of state Abd al-Aziz al-Fishtali. He is best known because of the rihla of his journey to Istanbul in 1590-91. He was buried in the sanctu...
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Links (1)


Nasif al-Yaziji

borndied
1800, Mar 251871, Feb 8
an Ottoman author and father of Ibrahim al-Yaziji. He was one of the leading figures in the Nahda movement. When Yaziji moved to Beirut in 1840, he became an Arabic tutor and it was in this role that he came into contact with American and British Protestant missionaries. He would help fulfil one of the greatest ambitions of the missionaries – the translati...
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Links (1)


William Alabaster

bornactivedied
1567, Feb 271592-16371640, Apr 28
an English poet, playwright, and religious writer. He became a Roman Catholic convert in Spain when on a diplomatic mission as chaplain. His religious beliefs led him to be imprisoned several times; eventually he gave up Catholicism, and was favoured by James I. He received a prebend in St Paul's Cathedral, London, and the living of Therfield, Hertfordshire....
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Links (8)


Cross-listed in GovernanceScientists

Lucas Alaman

aka: Alamán
borndied
1792, Oct 181853, Jun 2
a Mexican scientist, politician, historian and writer. He frequently traveled on his credentials as a scientist and diplomat, becoming one of the most educated men in Mexico. For most of the 1840s, he devoted himself primarily to writing the history of Mexico from the perspective of a conservative.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Luigi Alamanni

borndied
14951556
an Italian poet and statesman. He was regarded as a prolific and versatile poet. He was credited with introducing the epigram into Italian poetry. He wrote a large number of poems, distinguished by the purity and excellence of their style.
Links (1)


Pierre-Joseph Alary

borndied
1689, Mar 191770, Dec 15
a French ecclesiastic and writer. Prior of Gournay-sur-Marne and sous-précepteur to Louis XV, he attended the salon of Madame de Lambert, was elected to the Académie française in 1723 and the following year was one of the founders of the Club de l'Entresol.
Links (1)


Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair

borndied
1698 ca1770
a Scottish poet, lexicographer, political writer and memoirist, respected as perhaps the finest Gaelic language poet of the 18th century. He served as a Jacobite military officer and Gaelic tutor to Prince Charles Edward Stuart.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Educators

Crescenzo Alatri

bornactivedied
18251850s1897, Feb 12
an Italian writer; born at Rome. He was educated in the Talmud Torah of his native city, and graduated as rabbi, but never held any office. Alatri was the author of a History of the Jews in Rome, several extracts of which were published in the Educatore Israelita(1856). This work is still extant in manuscript. He is often mentioned as the Itali...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Heinrich Albert

borndied
16041651
a German composer and poet of the 17th century. He was a member of the Königsberg Poetic Society (Königsberger Dichterkreis). As a song composer, he was strongly influenced by Heinrich Schutz.
Links (1)


Vicente Alberti y Vidal

borndied
17861859
a Spanish writer. He dominated several classics and some modern languages. He wrote Diccionario de voces sagradas, técnicas, históricas y mitológicas in 10 volumes. In addition, he left a version the Spaniard 's poem The Alonsiada of Juan Ramis and several comedies of Goldoni , Menastasio and Molière. Some of his writings have remained unpublished.
Links (1)


Jules-Edouard Alboize de Pujol

aka: Jules-Édouard
borndied
18051854, Apr 9
a French historian and playwright. Director of the Théâtre de l'Atelier in Montmartre, Alboize Pujol wrote several dramas and comedies, either alone or in collaboration.
Links (1)


Sophie Albrecht

borndied
1757, Dec1840, Nov 16
a German actress and writer. She played leading roles in plays by Friedrich Schiller and was a good friend of the author. She wrote poetry, novels, and prose, and was married to the doctor and writer, Johann Friedrich Ernst Albrecht.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Jeronimo de Alcala

aka: Jerónimo de Alcalá
borndied
15711632
a Spanish physician and writer. There is very little information available about the details of his life. Most of his works were published after 1615. He was born in Murcia, and died in Segovia.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Ramon Alcaraz

aka: Ramón
bornactivedied
unknown1840sunknown
an officer in the Mexican Army who wrote many books about the Mexican-American War, including 1848's Apuntes para la historia de la guerra entre México y los Estados Unidos (which in 1850 Albert C. Ramsey translated into English as The Other Side, or: Notes for the History of the War Between Mexico and the United States, Written in Mexico).
Links (1)


Baltasar del Alcazar

aka: Alcázar
borndied
15301606
a Spanish poet There is very little information available about the details of his life. He was born in Seville and died in Ronda. He was the sixth child of Luis del Alcázar. His poetry was about life and love, most of it spiced with a keen sense of humor. He mostly wrote epigrams and sonnets.
Links (5)


Cross-listed in Educators

Amos Bronson Alcott

bornactivedied
17991823-18841888
an American teacher, writer, philosopher, and reformer. As an educator, Alcott pioneered new ways of interacting with young students, focusing on a conversational style, and avoided traditional punishment. He hoped to perfect the human spirit and, to that end, advocated a vegan diet before the term was coined. He was also an abolitionist and an advocate for ...
more
Links (17)


Bernardo de Alderete

borndied
15651645
a Spanish erudite and writer. His main work is Del origen y principio de la lengua castellana (first published 1606) about the origins of Spanish language.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Aldrich

aka: Aldridge
borndied
unknown1555
a Bishop of Carlisle in the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary. In 1534 he was appointed Canon of the tenth stall at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, a position he held until 1537.
Links (1)


Leonard Alea

aka: Léonard Aléa
borndied
unknown1812
a French polemical writer of the early years of the nineteenth century. He published anonymously in 1801 his first book, L'antidote de l'athéisme, and the following year a new edition appeared, enlarged to two volumes, with its title changed to La religion triomphante des attentats de l'impiété, and bearing the name of its author. The book was written to ...
more
Links (1)


Vasile Alecsandri

borndied
18211890
a Romanian poet, playwright, politician, and diplomat. He collected Romanian folk songs and was one of the principal animators of the 19th century movement for Romanian cultural identity and union of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Links (1)


Tudur Aled

borndied
1465 ca1525
a late medieval Welsh poet, born in Llansannan, Denbighshire. He is regarded as one of the finest poets of his period and was a master of cynghanedd. Tudur was himself a nobleman and one of the greatest of the Beirdd yr Uchelwyr (Poets of the Nobility). His most important patrons were the Salisbury family of Dyffryn Clwyd. He was one of the instigators of th...
more
Links (1)


Mateo Aleman

aka: Alemán
borndied
1547, Sep1615 ca
a Spanish novelist and writer. In 1599, he published the first part of Guzmán de Alfarache, a celebrated picaresque novel which passed through no less than sixteen editions in five years; a spurious sequel was issued in 1602, but the authentic continuation did not appear until 1604.
Links (1)


Alexander Ales

aka: Alexander Alane
borndied
1500, Apr 231565, Mar 17
a Scottish theologian of the school of Augsburg. His writings were both exegetical and controversial, but chiefly the latter. They include Expositio Libri Psalmorum Davidis (1550). His controversial works refer to such subjects as the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, against Servetus, etc. Ales published a large number of exegetical, dogmatic an...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Pope Alexander VII

aka: Fabio Chigi
bornactivedied
1599, Feb 131655-16671667, May 22
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667. Alexander VII disliked the business of state, preferring literature and philosophy; a collection of his Latin poems appeared at Paris in 1656 under the title Philomathi Labores Juveniles. He also encouraged architecture, and the general improvement of Rome, where houses were razed to ...
more
Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cecil Frances Alexander

borndied
1818, Apr1895, Oct 12
a hymn-writer and poet. She began writing verse in her childhood, being strongly influenced by Dr Walter Hook, Dean of Chichester. Her subsequent religious work was strongly influenced by her contacts with the Oxford Movement and in particular with John Keble, who edited one of her anthologies. By the 1840s she was already known as a hymn writer and her comp...
more
Links (1)


Isaac Alexander

bornactivedied
unknown1770s-1780sunknown
a German author. He lived in South Germany in the second half of the 18th century, and wrote on philosophical subjects from a rationalistic point of view. His works include: Von dem Dasein Gottes, die Selbstredende Vernunft, Ratisbon, 1775; Anmerkungen über die Erste Geschichte der Menschheit nach dem Zeugnisse Mosis, Nuremberg, 1782; Vereinigung der Mosais...
more
Links (1)


William Alexander

aka: 1st Earl of Stirling
borndied
1567 ca1640, Sep 12
a Scottish courtier and poet who was involved in the Scottish colonisation of Port Royal, Nova Scotia and Long Island, New York. His literary works include Aurora (1604), The Monarchick Tragedies (1604) and Doomes-Day (1614, 1637).
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Tsarevna Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia

borndied
1673, Aug 221716, Jun 18
a Russian playwright. She was the elder daughter of Tsar Alexis and his second wife, Natalia Naryshkina, and the sister of Peter the Great. She was young when Peter instituted his Western reforms, and in contrast to her half-sisters, it was not hard for her to adjust to the new ideals. In her work as a playwright, she served her brother's reforms: her plays ...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in PiratesExplorers

Jean Alfonse

aka: João Alfonso
borndied
1484 ca1544/49
a Portuguese navigator, explorer and corsair, prominent in the European age of discovery. He had an early career in Portugal and later served the King of France.His writings were published as Les voyages avantureux du Capitaine Ian Alfonce, the Rutter of Jean Alphonse and La cosmographie avec l’espère et régime du soleil du nord par Jean Fonteneau dit Al...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Marian Alford

borndied
18171888
an English artist, art patron, and author. She was an accomplished artist, inheriting her tastes from both her parents. She did not receive any regular education in art, but her drawings and paintings attained a high standard. For many years she collected materials for a history of needlework, which she published in 1886 under the title of Needlework as Art....
more
Links (1)


Michael Alford

borndied
15871652, Aug 11
an English Jesuit missionary and ecclesiastical historian. He left two major works, Britannia Illustrata, Annales Ecclesiastici et Civiles Britannorum also known as Annales Ecclesiae Britannicae.
Links (1)


Mustafa Ali

aka: Âlî
borndied
15411600
an Ottoman historian and bureaucrat of Croatian ancestry. He wrote the earliest known biography of Ahmed Bican. He also wrote poetry and essays on religious and other subjects. Prof. Cornell Fleischer's biography of Mustafa Âlî in one of the most famous works in contemporary Ottoman studies.
Links (1)


Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi

borndied
17491798, Oct 29
an Ottoman ambassador and an Ottoman author of the late-18th century and he is notable for his novel "Muhayyelât" (Imaginations), a unique work of fiction blending personal and fantastic themes, well in the current of the traditional Ottoman prose, but also exhibiting influences from Western literature.
Links (1)


Alphonse Alkan

aka: Alphonse the Elder
borndied
18091889
a French printer, bibliographer, and author. He was a brother of Eugène Alcan but the reason for the difference in the orthography of the family name has never been explained. He first worked as a practical printer, then wrote for various typographical and bibliographical reviews, and subsequently was appointed secretary and proof-reader to the Count de Cla...
more
Links (1)


James McGrigor Allan

borndied
18271890 ca
a British anthropologist and writer. He opposed women's right to vote, arguing that universal suffrage would cause the disruption of domestic ties, the desecration of marriage and the dissolution of the family. He attributed the agitation for equal rights to the problem of the 'superfluous women', on account of emigration and the growing objection of middle ...
more
Links (1)


Peter John Allan

borndied
1825, Jun 61848, Oct 21
a Canadian poet. For a time Allan studied law, but after the success of some published poems began to write full-time. Before his first book of verse was printed, he went down with fever, and died, after a brief illness, at the age of 23.
Links (1)


Hortense Allart

borndied
1801, Sep 71879, Feb 28
an Italian-French feminist writer and essayist. Her first work was published in 1821. Her novels, based on her adventures, did not have much success, except for Les enchantements de Prudence, Avec George Sand ('The Enchantment of Prudence, with George Sand') (1873), which had a succès de scandale.
Links (1)


Eliza Allen

borndied
1826, Jan 27unknown
a Maine woman who, in 1851, published a memoir called The Female Volunteer; Or the Life and Wonderful Adventures of Miss Eliza Allen, A Young Lady of Eastport, Maine. In it, she described her life. As a teenager, she was not allowed to marry the man whom she loved, and so as a result, she disguised herself as a man and had many adventures, including fighting...
more
Links (1)


Elizabeth Chase Allen

borndied
18321911
an American author, journalist and poet. She began to write at the age of fifteen, under the pen name Florence Percy, and in 1855 published under that name a volume of poems entitled Forest Buds. She started contributing to the Atlantic Monthly in 1858.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernanceCommerce

Ethan Allen

bornactivedied
1737, Jan 101757-17891789, Feb 12
a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with more
Timeline (4)Links (7)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Richard Allen [2]

bornactivedied
1760, Feb 141777-18311831, Mar 26
a minister, educator, writer, and one of America's most active and influential black leaders. In 1794 he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), the first independent black denomination in the United States. He opened his first AME church in 1794 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Elected the first bishop of the AME Church in 1816, Allen focused on...
more
Timeline (2)Links (20)


Cross-listed in Commerce

Richard L. Allen

bornactivedied
1803, Oct 201833-18651869, Sep 22
an American writer on agriculture. In 1842 he started the American Agriculturist in partnership with his elder brother, Anthony B. Allen, but soon after left for New Orleans on a business venture. In 1847, he rejoined his brother, now in New York City, where he had established an agricultural business in connection with the journal. Richard L. Allen resided ...
more
Links (3)


Thomas Allen [1]

borndied
16081673, Sep 21
a nonconformist minister and divine. His books are rare. His Invitation to Thirsty Sinners to come to their Saviour, was published in Boston, Massachusetts. His Glory of Christ set forth, with the Necessity of Faith, furnishes an excellent example of the average sermons of the ‘ejected’. The work that won him most reputation was his Chain of Scripture Ch...
more
Links (1)


Thomas Allen [2]

borndied
16811755
an English clergyman and divine. He was the author of various religious writings. ‘The Practice of a Holy Life, or the Christian's Daily Exercise,’ 1716, a collection of prayers and meditations, is his chief work. He is also the author of an ‘Apology for the Church of England, and Vindication of her Learned Clergy’ (1725), in reply to Thomas Woolston...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Cartographers

Thomas Allen [3]

bornactivedied
18031827-18331833
an English topographer. In 1827 Allen published a quarto volume, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Lambeth and the Archiepiscopal Palace, with illustrations, mainly drawn and etched by himself. He later published several volumes of local English history.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceInventorsScientistsCommerceLegal

Zachariah Allen

borndied
1795, Sep 151882, Mar 17
an American textile manufacturer, scientist, lawyer, writer, inventor and civil leader from Providence, Rhode Island. He was educated at Phillips Exeter Academy and at Brown University where he graduated in 1813. Allen became a textile manufacturer and in 1822 constructed a woolen mill in which he incorporated innovative fire-safety features and his own mech...
more
Timeline (1)Links (5)


Edouard Alletz

aka: Édouard
bornactivedied
17981822-18461850
a French diplomat who wrote a large variety of poems, history, and essays between the years of 1822 and 1846. In 1822 he won the special prize of the French Academy, on "The dedication of French doctors and sisters of St. Camille, on the occasion of yellow fever in Barcelona" against competitors as prestigious as Delphine Gay, Casimir Delavigne or St.-Marc G...
more
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

William Alley

aka: Alleyn, Alleigh
borndied
15101570, Apr 15
an Anglican prelate and the Bishop of Exeter during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. He is known to the literary world by his Poor Man's Librarie, printed in folio by John Day, London, 1565, or Lectures upon the First Epistle of Saint Peter, red publiquely in the Cathedrall Church of Saint Paule, within the Citye of London, in 1560. Here are adioyned at the e...
more
Links (1)


John Allibond

borndied
15971658
the master of Magdalen College School. Allibond published anonymously ‘Rustica Acad. Ox. nuper reformatæ descriptio in Visitatione fanatica Octobris 6o, &c., 1648, cum Comitiis ibidem anno sequente . . . habitis,’ 1648. This was reprinted in 1705, in 1717 (with English verse translation by Ned Ward), and again in 1834. It appears also in Somer's Tracts...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Henry Alline

borndied
1748, Jun 141784, Feb 2
minister, evangelist, and writer, who became known as "The Apostle of Nova Scotia". Born at Newport, Rhode Island. He became a New England Planter and served as an itinerant preacher throughout Maritime Canada and Northeastern New England from 1776 to 1784. His ministry coincided with the second Great Awakening period and he became the leader of the New Ligh...
more
Timeline (2)Links (1)


William Allingham

borndied
1824/281889
an Irish poet, diarist and editor. He wrote several volumes of lyric verse, and his poem 'The Faeries' was much anthologised; but he is better known for his posthumously published Diary, in which he records his lively encounters with Alfred, Lord Tennysonmore
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Richard Allison

borndied
1565 ca1608 ca
an English composer. He wrote de la Tromba, a fine broken consort piece which has several professional recordings and first became well known due to the Julian Bream Consort. His publications are: The Psalms of David in Meter (1599) and An Hour's Recreation in musicke, apt for instruments and voyces (1606). His work also appears in Michael East's and Thomas ...
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Links (1)


Robert Allott

bornactivedied
unknown1600sunknown
an Elizabethan editor of poetry who published the verse compilation England's Parnassus in 1600. He is probably the same Robert Allott who was a fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Sonnets in English and Latin are also attributed to Allott, and he may also be the same Robert Allott who was a publisher in the early 17th century.
Links (1)


Thomas Allsop

borndied
1795, Apr 101880
an English stockbroker and author. Allsop is commonly described as the favourite disciple of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He also took part in violent radical politics.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Washington Allston

bornactivedied
1779, Nov 51801-18411843, Jul 9
an American painter and poet, born in Waccamaw Parish, South Carolina. Allston pioneered America's Romantic movement of landscape painting. He was well known during his lifetime for his experiments with dramatic subject matter and his bold use of light and atmospheric color. In London in 1813, he published The Sylphs of the Seasons, with Other Poems, republi...
more
Timeline (2)Links (1)


Jacques Almain

borndied
unknown1515
a prominent professor of theology at the University of Paris who died at an early age. Born in the diocese of Sens, he studied Arts at the Collège de Montaigu of the University of Paris. He served as Rector of the University in 1507. Almain wrote in several academic genres. His earliest works were concerned with logic and the Physics of Aristotle. His Mora...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Giambattista Almici

borndied
17171793
an Italian jurist. He was born near Brescia, and educated under the Jesuits there and at the University of Padua. He finally gave himself up to legal studies. After some official employments in which he gained great popularity, he traveled over Italy and Sicily. His marriage in 1771, and his numerous family, seem only to have induced him to live in a more re...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Oliver Almond

bornactivedied
unknown1590s-1620sunknown
a Roman Catholic priest and writer, born in the diocese of Oxford. He is believed by Foley to have been the brother of the martyr, the Ven. John Almond; but Gillow has shown that this is probably a mistake. Oliver was educated at the English Colleges at Rome (1582-87) and Valladolid, and was a missionary in England. He presented the English College at Rome w...
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Links (1)


Carl Jonas Love Almqvist

borndied
1793, Nov 281866, Sep 26
a romantic poet, early feminist, realist, composer, social critic and traveller. He wrote many books and poems. Some dealt with his radical views on society and politics; in his novel Drottningens juvelsmycke, his main character, Tintomara, is neither male nor female, and arouses both men and women to fall in love, and in his novel Det går an (It is accepta...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Johann Heinrich Alsted

bornactivedied
1588, Mar1608-16381638, Nov 9
a German Calvinist minister and academic, known for his varied interests: in Ramism and Lullism, pedagogy and encyclopedias, theology and millenarianism.
Links (4)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Francisco Alvares

aka: Álvares
bornactivedied
14651515-1530s1536~1541
a Portuguese missionary and explorer. In 1515 he traveled to Ethiopia as part of the Portuguese embassy to emperor Lebna Dengel accompanied by returning Ethiopian ambassador Matheus. The embassy arrived only in 1520 to Ethiopia where he joined long sought Portuguese envoy Pêro da Covilhã. There he remained six years, returning to Lisbon in 1526-27 having w...
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Links (1)


Nicasio Alvarez de Cienfuegos

aka: Álvarez de Cienfuegos
borndied
1764, Dec 141809
a Spanish poet and publicist. His poems, published in 1798, immediately attracted attention. He was successively editor of the Gaceta and Mercurio, and was condemned to death for having published an article against Napoleon; on the petition of his friends, he was spared and deported to France; he died at Orthez early in the following year.
Links (1)


Antal Amade de Varkony

aka: Amade de Várkony
bornactivedied
unknown1790-1809unknown
a Hungarian Count and Prefect of Zagreb in Croatia, who established the first public theatre in the city of Zagreb in 1797. He was an active writer between the years of 1790 and 1809.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Princess Amalie of Saxony

aka: A. Serena, Amalie Heiter
borndied
17941870
a German composer writing under the pen name A. Serena, and a dramatist under the name Amalie Heiter. She began writing music in 1811 and composed numerous operas, popular among the Dresden elite. Her most popular compositions were her comedic operas. In 1829/30, she published two dramas. Others of her plays were also adapted to the French stage.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Guru Amar Das

borndied
14791574
the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and was given the title of Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552. He died at an age of 95. Known for Introducing the Anand Karaj, writing the Anand Sahib and starting the Sikh Manji and Piri Systems.
Links (1)


Josefa Amar y Borbon

aka: Amar y Borbón
borndied
17491833
a Spanish writer, who belonged to a group of intellectuals that were bound together by a common concern for the decadent conditions of Spain and a desire to fix the situation through education.
Links (1)


Denis Amelote

aka: Amelot, Amelotte
borndied
16091678, Oct 7
a French Biblical writer and scholar who is notable for his French translation of the New Testament (4 vols. 1666-170). In his translation he quoted Greek minuscule manuscripts: 42, 43, 44, and 149 (in Gregory-Aland numbering).
Links (1)


Nicholas Amhurst

aka: Caleb D'Anvers
borndied
1697, Oct 161742, Apr 27
an English poet and political writer. His politics were sufficiently evident in many of his works. In London he became a prominent pamphleteer on the opposition (whig) side. On the 5 December 1726 he issued the first number of The Craftsman, a weekly periodical, which he conducted under the pseudonym of Caleb D'Anvers.
Links (1)


Thomas Amory

borndied
1691 ca1788, Nov 25
a writer of Irish descent. In 1755 he published Memoirs containing the lives of several ladies of Great Britain, a History of Antiquities and Observations on the Christian Religion, which was followed by the Life of John Buncle, Esq. (Vol. I, 1756, and Vol. II, 1766), practically a continuation. The contents of these works are miscellaneous—philology, natu...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Samuel Ampzing

borndied
1590, Jun 241632, Jul 29
a Dutch minister, poet and purist. In 1617, he began writing a description of Haarlem in poetic form, aided by Petrus Scriverius. Its poetry was printed and published in 1628. Apart from the historical importance of his writing, his poetry was not considered quite lyrical, but it was striking in its groomed linguistic usage.
Links (1)


Jacques Amyot

borndied
1513, Oct 301593, Feb 6
a French Renaissance writer and translator, was born of poor parents, at Melun. He translated seven books of Diodorus Siculus (1554), the Daphnis et Chloë of Longus (1559) and the Opera Moralia of Plutarch (1572). His vigorous and idiomatic version of Plutarch, Vies des hommes illustres, was translated into English by Sir Thomas North, and supplied Shakespe...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Virginie Ancelot

borndied
17921875
a French painter, writer and playwright. Ancelot was born to a parliamentary family in Dijon, and was married to playwright Jacques-François Ancelot. From 1824 to 1866 Ancelot hosted a literary salon on Paris's rue de Seine. Her plays were collected in four volumes and published as Theâtre complet in 1848. She published two memoirs: Les Salons de Paris, fo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Jose de Anchieta

aka: José
borndied
1534, Mar 191597, Jun 9
a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. A highly influential figure in Brazil's history in the first century after its European discovery, Anchieta was one of the founders of São Paulo in 1554 and of Rio de Janeiro in 1565. He is the first playwright, the first grammarian and the first poet born...
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Links (1)


Hans Christian Andersen

bornactivedied
1805, Apr 21822-18641875, Aug 4
a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children; his stories, called eventyr in Danish or 'fairy-tales' in English, express themes that transcend age and nationality.
Timeline (2)Links (18)


Anthony Anderson

borndied
unknown1593, Oct 10
an English theological writer and preacher. His published works, which are of a puritanic character, consist of sermons, prayers, and expositions of scriptural passages. From the fact that he dedicated one of his publications to ‘Edmund Anderson, Esq., sergeant-at-law to the queen’, it is possible that he was related to the lord chief justice of that nam...
more
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Patrick Anderson

bornactivedied
unknown1618-1635unknown
a physician and author. Anderson was the author of ‘The Colde Spring of Kinghorne Craig’ (1618), and a very rare book called ‘Grana Angelica'. He wrote a history of Scotland in three folio volumes, preserved in manuscript in the Advocates' Library.
Links (1)


Robert Anderson

bornactivedied
unknown1668-1696unknown
an English mathematician and silk-weaver. He wrote articles and books devoting special attention to improving the art of gunnery, and during at least twenty-one years from 1671 conducted some thousands of experiments with cannon mounted at his own expense on Wimbledon Common, showing that his means must have been considerable.
Links (1)Notes (1)


William J. Anderson

borndied
1811, Jun 2unknown
William’s mother was a free woman, but his father was a slave, belonging to a Mr. Shelton. Later in William’s life he wrote a narrative about himself that was published by the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Links (1)


Laurence Anderton

borndied
15771643
a learned English Jesuit. He was remarkable for his talent in preaching, and gave proof of his ability in controversy in his publications. Dodd, the historian, relates that Anderton, ‘being much addicted to reading books of controversy, could not get over some difficulties he met with concerning the origin and doctrines of the Reformation, which at last en...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Bernard Andre

aka: André, Andreas
borndied
14501522
a French Augustinian friar and poet, who was a noted chronicler of the reign of Henry VII of England, and poet laureate. A native of Toulouse, André was tutor to Prince Arthur of England, and probably had a share in the education of the future King Henry VIII. H...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Andree

bornactivedied
unknown1780s-1790sunknown
an English surgeon. Andree published several books, chiefly on surgical subjects. Through not being connected with a large hospital, he never took a leading position as a surgeon in London, but he performed one operation of historical importance. This was a successful operation of tracheotomy for the relief of croup of the larynx in February 1782, which, if ...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Domingo Andres

aka: Andrés
borndied
15251599
a Spanish humanist, writer and poet, born in Alcañiz. He specialized in Latin heroic and religious poetry, plus numerous short poems genres. He also wrote elegies, one about the life of Christ.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Juan Andres [2]

aka: Andrés
borndied
1740, Feb 151817, Jan 12
a Spanish Jesuit priest, Christian humanist and literary critic of the Age of Enlightenment. He was the creator of world history and comparative literature (i.e. of Letters and Sciences of the eighteenth century) through the most important and extensive of his works: Dell'Origine, progressi e stato d'ogni attuale letteratura (1st ed. Italian, Parma, 1782–1...
more
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Lancelot Andrewes

borndied
15551626, Sep 25
an English bishop and scholar, who held high positions in the Church of England during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. During the latter's reign, Andrewes served successively as Bishop of Chichester, of Ely and of Winchester and oversaw the translation of the King James Version of the Bible (or Authorized Version). In the Church of England he is comme...
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Links (1)


George Andrews

bornactivedied
unknown1770sunknown
a barrister-at-law. Andrews published reports of cases argued in the court of King's Bench during the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth years of the reign of George II of the United Kingdom (1737–1740). Andrews's 'Reports' are seldom now referred to, but they had a high reputation in the last century. A folio edition was published in 1754, and an octavo ed...
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John Andrews [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1610sunknown
an English poet. Andrews was the author of a poem called the ‘Anatomie of Basenesse’ (1615), which was reprinted in the ‘Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library’ (vol. ii.). All the religious books of John Andrews have interspersed verses of the same stamp as those to be found in the ‘Anatomie of Basenesse.’
Links (1)Notes (1)


John Andrews [2]

borndied
17361809
a historical writer and pamphleteer. Born in Kennington, England. Andrews produced numerous works between the years of 1774 and 1806. The Gentleman's Magazine for February 1809 has the following obituary announcement: "At his house at Kennington, Surrey, in his seventy-third year, Dr. John Andrews, a gentleman well known in the literary world. By his death t...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Baltasar Anduaga y Espinosa

borndied
18171861
a Spanish politician, jurist, writer and translator. He held public office three times, and published legal, historical, and literary books. He translated and edited the works of Jeremy Bentham in fourteen volumes between 1841 and 1843, as well as the two volume Una Historia Constitucional de la Monarquía Española (A Constitutional History of the Spanish M...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Guru Angad

borndied
15041552
the second of the ten Sikh Gurus. Guru Angad popularized the present form of the Gurmukhi script. It became the medium of writing the Punjabi language in which the hymns of the Gurus are expressed. This step had a far-reaching purpose and impact. First, it gave the people who spoke this language an identity of their own, enabling them to express their thoug...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Angel

bornactivedied
unknown1550sunknown
a chaplain to King Philip and Queen Mary I, is said to have been a 'person of singular zeal and learning'. He published a work on the Real Presence under the title The Agreement of the Holy Fathers, 1555.
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Juan de los Angeles

aka: Ángeles, Juan Martinez
borndied
15361609
Born in Lagartera , Toledo, a religious writer of Philip II of Spain. He belonged to the Franciscan Order , and had a great knowledge of the classics of antiquity . Died in Madrid.
Links (1)Notes (1)


John Angell

bornactivedied
unknown1750sunknown
an Irish professional shorthand writer. Angell was from Dublin, and professor of the art there. Angell published in 1758 Stenography, or Shorthand Improved; being the most compendious, lineal, and easy method hitherto extant. … By John Angell, who has practised his art above 30 years, London, 1758. Angell was also the author of an Essay on Prayer (London, ...
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Christopher Angelus

borndied
unknown1638
a native of the Peloponnesus, who was persecuted by the Ottoman governor of Athens. Having been released from prison at the request of some of the town's leaders, he sailed in an English ship for Yarmouth in 1608. The clergy of Norwich received him hospitably, and he was sent by the bishop to Trinity College, Cambridge.
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Auguste Anicet-Bourgeois

borndied
1806, Dec 251871, Jan 12
a French dramatist. He was born in Paris. The first play to bear his name is L'Ami et le mari, ou le Nouvel Amphitryon, a vaudeville in one act. It was produced in 1825, when the author was still in his teens. Over the course of his career he was credited in the writing of nearly 200 plays, as many as ten a year. However the nature of theatrical collaboratio...
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Tomas de Anorbe y Corregel

aka: Tomás de Añorbe y Corregel
borndied
16861741
a Spanish priest, dramatist and poet who spent his life engaged in charitable missions, an activity he combined with the cultivation of poetry (bitterness of death and thoughts Christians, 1731) and, especially, the Teato, an area in which is a crucial link in the late Baroque theater
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Frederick Rinehart Anspach

borndied
1815, Jan1867, Sep 16
a Lutheran clergyman and writer. A sermon delivered on the occasion of the death of Henry Clay was his first publication. His Sons of the Sires, Sepulchres of our Departed (Philadelphia, 1854), The Two Pilgrims (1857), and other works appeared in rapid succession....
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Juan Antolinez de Burgos

aka: Antolínez
borndied
15611644
a Spanish historian and writer. He wrote Historia de Valladolid. The work describes extensively the churches, convents, chapels, tombs, inscriptions and coats of arms of Valladolid; describing the facts and events that each has witnessed, even including anecdotes, ghost stories, miracles and legends.
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Robert Anton

bornactivedied
unknown1610sunknown
an English poet and satirist. A unique quarto prose tract of Anton's, in black letter, entitled Moriomachia, imprinted at London by Simon Stafford, 1613, is preserved in Sir Charles Isham's library at Lamport Hall. Moriomachia – featuring a bull-turned-man engaging in mock-heroic battle over his armour at the court of Moropolis – was 'one of the earliest...
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Giovanni Antoniano

borndied
unknown1588
a Dutch Patristic scholar, and writer and an opponent of Protestanism. Antoniano published (Cologne, 1537), the work of Gregory of Nyssa on the creation of man and the Hexameron of Basil of Caesarea, both in the Latin translation of Dionysius Exiguus. He also published (Cologne, 1560) the writings of Paulinus of Nola, and the letters of St. Jerome in Antwerp...
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Domingo de la Anunciacion

aka: Anunciación, Juan de Ecija, Ecía
borndied
15101591
a Spanish Dominican missionary in New Spain (now Mexico). He was considered of the most zealous instructors of the Mexican Indians and during the epidemic of 1545, went from village to village to attend the natives, thoughtless of his own health. In 1565 he published a bilingual Spanish/Nahuatl book of Christian doctrine, Doctrina cristiana breve y compendio...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Nicolas Appert

borndied
1749, Nov 171841, Jun 1
the French inventor of airtight food preservation. Appert, known as the "father of canning", was a confectioner. In 1795 the French military offered a cash prize of 12,000 francs for a new method to preserve food. After some 14 or 15 years of experiment, Appert submitted his invention and won the prize in January 1810 on condition that he make the method pu...
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Etienne Arago

aka: Étienne
borndied
1802, Feb 91892, Mar 7
a French writer and politician, and co-founder (with Maurice Alhoy) of the newspaper Le Figaro. He was born in Perpignan. He pursued literary interests and was an acquaintance of Honoré de Balzac (they co-wrote an unsuccessful novel). In 1829, he became director of the Théâtre du Vaudeville; it closed in 1838, leaving him with considerable debts.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Astronomers

Francois Arago

aka: François
bornactivedied
1786, Feb 261804-18521853, Oct 2
a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, freemason, supporter of the carbonari and politician. In 1818 or 1819 he proceeded along with Biot to execute geodetic operations on the coasts of France, England and Scotland. They measured the length of the seconds-pendulum at Leith, Scotland, and in the Shetland Islands, the results of the observations being ...
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Cross-listed in ArtistsExplorers

Jacques Arago

borndied
1790, Mar 61855, Nov 27
a French writer, artist and explorer, author of a Voyage Round the World. Jacques Arago joined Louis de Freycinet on his 1817 voyage around the world aboard the ship Uranie, which inspired his witty Voyage autour du monde. Although Arago lost his sight in 1837, he went on traveling and writing for the theater. In Curieux voyage autour du monde (1853), he tel...
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Pedro Antonio de Aragon

aka: Aragón
borndied
16111690
a Spanish nobleman, military figure and politician who served under Kings Philip IV and Charles II of Spain. He published a book on Geometria Militar in 1671.
Links (1)


Thoinot Arbeau

aka: Jehan Tabourot
borndied
1519, Mar 171595, Jul 23
Tabourot is most famous for his Orchésographie, a study of late sixteenth-century French Renaissance social dance. He was born in Dijon and died in Langres.
Links (1)


Antonio Arbiol y Diez

aka: Arbiol y Díez
borndied
16511726
a Spanish franciscan and writer on morals. His works include many on topics such as the task of comforting the sick and the education of children and various moral advice.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Jeronimo de Arbolanche

aka: Jerónimo, Jerome, Jerome Arbolánchez Arbolancha
borndied
15461572
a Spanish writer of the Golden Age, best known for a curious poem epic novel, The Abidas. It seems that he spent much of his life in Tudela . There frequented the social gathering that organized the Marquis Pedro de Magallon Vergara and Veraiz in the Palacio de San Adrian , who was attending a group of humanists linked to Study Grammar Tudela (1571-15...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Juan Jose Arboli y Acaso

aka: Juan José Arbolí y Acaso
borndied
17951863
a Spanish priest, writer and essayist. He was bishop of Guadix and Cádiz as well as a professor of philosophy. His main work is the Treaty of Philosophy, General Grammar and exposure to Her Majesty the Queen on government circulars concerning ecclesiastical censure and preaching.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Arbuthnot

borndied
1667, Apr1735, Feb 27
a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London. He is best remembered for his contributions to mathematics, his membership in the Scriblerus Club (where he inspired both Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels book III and Alexander Pope's Peri Bathous, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry, Memoirs of Martin Scriblerus, and possibly The Dunciad), and for inven...
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Johann Wilhelm von Archenholz

borndied
1741, Sep 31812, Feb 28
a Prussian officer, Professor of History and a publicist. His book about the history of the Seven Years' War (1756–63) was the basis for many reprints, as well as for school books. Archenholz commissioned a Berlin artist, Johann Friedrich Bolt, to produce a copper etching for Archenholz's History of Gustav Vasa of the famous Swedish Nobility. He died in Ö...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Archer

bornactivedied
unknown1660-1684unknown
a court physician in the reign of Charles II. Of his origin nothing is certainly known; but he was probably an English Protestant born in Ireland. Archer, although a royal physician, was what would be called in these days an advertising quack. His book, 'Every Man his own Doctor,' purporting to be a manual of health, but really treating of various diseases, ...
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Thomas Archer [1]

borndied
15541630 ca
an English divine. He kept an obituary of eminent persons who died in his time, and also wrote an account (extracts from which are preserved among the Baker MSS. at Cambridge) of the parish and neighbourhood of Houghton Conquest. His manuscripts were lent in 1760 by Dr. Zachary Grey, then rector of Houghton Conquest, to William Cole, the author of Athenæ Ca...
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Links (1)


Thomas Archer [2]

borndied
unknown1848
an actor and dramatist. He was the author of many successful dramas, adaptations from the French, including the 'Black Doctor,' the 'Little Devil,' produced at the minor theatres, and of one original play of historical interest, entitled 'Blood Royal, or the Crown Jewels.'
Links (1)


James Arderne

borndied
16361691
the dean of Chester who authored several sermons and other writings. He is said to have had the promise of succession to the bishopric of Chester, but the events of the revolution prevented James II from giving him any further promotion.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Richard Argall

bornactivedied
unknown1621unknown
a poet, of whom little is known, and whose existence is disputed. His name appears on the title-page of a unique volume of poems (1621). Two of his poems were later included in a collection of Robert Aylett, one of the masters of the high court of Chancery. It is unlikely that the name Richard Argall had been adopted as a nom de plume, and it is equally unli...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Richard Argentine

borndied
unknown1568
an English physician and divine who wrote and published several, mainly religious, essays and books. Argentine went to Ipswich 'in a serving-man's coat,' and afterwards was successively usher and master of the grammar school in that town, where he also practised as a physician and read a lecture in divinity.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Ludovico Ariosto

borndied
14741533
an Italian poet. He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso (1516). The poem, a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, describes the adventures of Charlemagne, Orlando, and the Franks as they battle against the Saracens with diversions into many sideplots. Ariosto composed the poem in the ottava rima rhyme scheme a...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Guru Arjan

borndied
15631606
the first martyr of Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten Sikh Gurus, who compiled writings to create the eleventh, the living Guru, Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan introduced the Masands, a group of representatives who taught and spread the teachings of the Gurus and received the Dasvand, a voluntary offering of a Sikh's income in money, goods or service.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

George Armstrong

borndied
1720 ca1789
a Scottish physician,born as the 8th child of the Minister of Castleton Church, in the Liddel Valley, Roxburgh . He is now recognised as an important early paediatrician. In 1767 Armstrong published an Essay on the Diseases most fatal to Infants;'
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

George Dod Armstrong

borndied
1813, Sep 151899, May 11
a Presbyterian minister and author born in Mendham, New Jersey. In 1855 his family was nearly destroyed by Yellow Fever losing 3 children and his wife. In 1856 he authored a personal account of the epidemic: The Summer of the Pestilence, and wrote several religious tracts afterwards.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

James Armstrong

borndied
17801839
an Irish Unitarian minister. He was one of the founders of the Irish Unitarian Society (1830) and of the Association of Irish Nonsubscribing Presbyterians (1835 He published several religious sermons.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Armstrong

borndied
1784, May 81829, Dec 12
an English physician. While at Sunderland, Armstrong published, besides several memoirs in the Edinburgh Medical Journal, Facts and Observations relative to the Fever commonly called Puerperal (London, 1814), and Practical Illustrations of Typhus and other Febrile Diseases (London, 1816), by which he became known to the medical profession. He p...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Francois Arnaud

aka: François
borndied
1721, Jul 271784, Dec 2
a French clergyman, writer and philologist. Abbé of Grandchamp and librarian to the count of Provence (the future Louis XVIII of France), he contributed to the Journal étranger and the Gazette littéraire de l'Europe. A friend of Suard, he also attended the s...
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Antoine Arnauld

borndied
16161698
a French memoirist. Eldest son of Robert Arnauld d'Andilly, Antoine Arnauld was born in 1616. His first tutor was Martin de Barcos, the nephew of the Abbot of St. Cyran. He was then sent to the college of Lisieux in order to finish his studies. In his memoirs, he describes himself as a gentle man who could not win the affection of his father, who had high ho...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Simon Arnauld

aka: Marquis de Pomponne
borndied
1618, Nov1699, Sep 26
a French diplomat and minister. He wrote a number of poems for the "Guirlande de Julie", and was a friend of important writers, such as Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné, Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette, and the duke François de La Rochefoucauld.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Louis Daniel Arnault de Nobleville

borndied
1701, Dec 211778, Feb 1
a French physician and naturalist. He was charged by the Généralité d'Orléans with preventing and fighting epidemic disease and became a Correspondant of the Société royale de Médecine shortly after its foundation. Aside from medicine he was interested in music and natural history.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Ernst Moritz Arndt

borndied
17691860
a German patriotic author and poet. Early in his life, he fought for the abolition of serfdom, later against Napoleonic dominance over Germany. Arndt had to flee to Sweden for some time due to his anti-French positions. He is one of the main founders of German nationalism and the movement for German unification. After the Carlsbad Decrees, the forces of the ...
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Links (1)


Bettina von Arnim

borndied
17851859
a German writer and writer, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist, an illustrator, patron of young talent, social activist and novelist. She was the archetype of the Romantic era’s zeitgeist and the crux of many creative relationships of canonical artistic figures.
Links (1)


Ludwig Achim von Arnim

borndied
17811831
a German poet and novelist, and, together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism. His works were collected, with an introduction by Wilhelm Grimm, in twenty volumes (1839–48).
Links (1)


Matthew Arnold

borndied
18221888
an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School, and brother to both Tom Arnold, literary professor, and William Delafield Arnold, novelist and colonial administrator. Matthew Arnold has been characterised as a sage writer, a type of writer who chastises and inst...
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Links (1)


Richard Arnold [1]

borndied
unknown1521 ca
an English antiquary and chronicler. Arnold's work is a book dealing with London antiquities. It contains the chief charters granted to the city, accounts of its customs, and notes on a variety of topics chiefly but not entirely connected with commerce. Thomas Hearne called it a chronicle; but its only claim to that title rests on its opening section, which ...
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Links (1)


Samuel James Arnold

borndied
17741852
an English dramatist and theatrical manager. Under his management the Lyceum Theatre, London became the English Opera House, and staged the first English productions of many operas, including in 1824 Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Arnold

borndied
17421816
an English physician and writer on mental illness. Arnold published a two-volume work titled Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes and Prevention of Insanity, the first volume appearing in 1782 and the second in 1806. Volume one included chapters on whether insanity was more common in England than elsewhere, chapters on the definition and arrangement of ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Kerchever Arnold

borndied
18001853, Mar 9
an English theologian and voluminous writer of educational works. He also wrote many volumes of theology. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, was seventh junior optime in the mathematical tripos of 1821, and was elected fellow of his college shortly afterwards. He took his degree of B.A. in the same year, and that of M.A. in 1824. In 1830 he was p...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansInventors

Neil Arnott

borndied
1788, May 151874, Mar
a Scottish physician. He was the author of several works on physical science or its applications, the most important being his Elements of Physics (1827), which went through six editions in his lifetime. From his earliest youth, Arnott had an intense love of natural philosophy, and to this added an inventiveness which served him in good stead in his profess...
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Arthur Arnould

borndied
1833, Apr 171895, Nov 26
a French writer, and journalist. He wrote under the pen name Arthur Matthey. He was a member of the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor and the Theosophical Society. He married the widowed painter Delphine de Cool in 1890. He is listed in the French dictionary of anarchists.
Links (1)


Stefano Arteaga

aka: Esteban de Arteaga y López
borndied
1747, Dec 261799, Oct 30
a Spanish-born writer on theater and music, active in Italy. His work, entitled Rivoluzioni del teatro musicale Italiano, dalla suo origine fine al presente, (two vols., 1783), is an important source for the history of music. A second edition, in three vols., appeared at Venice in 1785. He also left behind him a manuscript treatise on the rhythm of the ancie...
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Links (2)


Thomas Arthur

borndied
unknown1532
an English divine and dramatist. He wrote: 1. Microcosmus, a tragedy. 2. Mundus plumbeus, a tragedy. 3. In quosdam Psalmos. 4. Homeliæ Christianæ. 5. A translation of Erasmus, De Milite Christiano.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsScientists

Francisco de Artiga

bornactivedied
16501670s-17111711
an engraver, an architect, a mathematician, and an author of reputation. He painted several 'Sibyls,' 'Conceptions,' and perspective views, remarkable for their invention, design, and colouring.
Links (2)


Francis Arundell

borndied
17801846
an English antiquary, Anglican clergyman and oriental traveller. In the church of Landulph is a brass to the memory of Theodoro Palaeologus, descended from the last of the Byzantine emperors, who died on 21 January 1637, and an account of this inscription, and of the person whom it commemorated, was printed by Jago in the volume of the Archæologia for 1817,...
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Links (1)


Peter Christen Asbjornsen

aka: Asbjørnsen
borndied
1812, Jan 151885, Jan 6
a Norwegian writer and scholar. He and Jørgen Engebretsen Moe were collectors of Norwegian folklore. They were so closely united in their lives' work that their folk tale collections are commonly mentioned only as "Asbjørnsen and Moe".
Links (1)


Anthony Ascham

bornactivedied
unknown1550sunknown
an English astrologer who wrote various treatises about astronomical and astrological matters. Ascham is also the suggested author, by some researchers, of the Voynich manuscript.
Links (1)


Roger Ascham

borndied
1515 ca1568, Dec 30
an English scholar and didactic writer, famous for his prose style, his promotion of the vernacular, and his theories of education. He acted as Princess Elizabeth's tutor in Greek and Latin between 1548 and 1550, and served in the administrations of Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I. Ascham was educated at the house of Sir Humphrey Wingfield, a barrister, A...
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Links (1)


John Asgill

borndied
1659, Mar 251738, Nov 10
an eccentric English writer and politician. In 1700 Asgill had published An Argument Proving, that … Man may be Translated, a pamphlet aiming to prove that death was not obligatory upon Christians, which, much to his surprise, caused a public outcry and led to his expulsion from the Irish House of Commons in 1703, only a short time after he had stood succe...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Ash [1]

borndied
1724 ca1779
an English Baptist minister at Pershore, Worcestershire, divine, and author of an English dictionary and grammar books. He studied for the ministry at Bristol, under Bernard Foskett, became pastor at Loughwood Meeting House, a Baptist chapel in Dorset, and while there contributed to periodicals. He settled in the ministry at Pershore in 1746, as the result o...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Ash [2]

borndied
17231798, Jun 18
an English physician. Dr. Ash is described as a man of great skill in his profession, and of considerable general attainments. He was the founder of a social and literary club, called the Eumelian, from a punning allusion to his own name, and was a fellow of the Royal Society. He wrote: 'Experiments and Observations to investigate by Chemical Analysis the p...
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Links (3)


George Ashby

borndied
17241808
an English learned antiquary and sometime president of St. John's College, Cambridge. Although Ashby published little, his varied learning was the admiration of the best known literary antiquaries of the 18th century, all of whom he reckoned among his friends. He dealt with a wide range of antiquarian topics there; in one letter he proposed an emendation of ...
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Links (1)


Jonathan Ashe

bornactivedied
unknown1810sunknown
an Irish masonic write born in Limerick. Very little is known of him except that he commenced and perfected his masonic studies in Dublin. While in Bristol in 1813 he published a work entitled 'The Masonic Manual, or Lectures on Freemasonry, containing the Instructions, Documents, and Discipline of the Masonic Economy.'
Links (1)


Thomas Ashe [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1600-1618unknown
an English legal writer. Ashe entered as a student of Gray's Inn in 1574, was called to the bar 24 January 1582-3, and became pensioner of his inn 17 October 1597.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Thomas Ashe [2]

borndied
17701835, Dec 17
an Irish novelist and miscellaneous writer. He wrote accounts of his travels and various other memoirs. Returning to Dublin, Ashe was appointed secretary to the Diocesan and Endowed Schools Commission, but, getting into debt, resigned his office and retired to Switzerland. He then spent several years in foreign travel, living, according to his own account, i...
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Links (1)


Robert Ashley

borndied
15651641, Oct
an English miscellaneous writer of the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I, and Member of Parliament for Dorchester. When Ashley was a boy he delighted in reading Bevis of Hampton, Guy of Warwick, Valentine and Orson, Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, and laterthe Decameron of Boccace and the Heptameron of the Queen of Navarre.
Links (1)Notes (1)


John Ashmore

bornactivedied
unknown1620sunknown
the first who attempted a translation into English of selected odes of Horace. In 1621 he published 'Certain selected Odes of Horace Englished, and their Arguments annexed.'
Links (1)


Peter Ashton

bornactivedied
unknown1540sunknown
a translator. Ashton translated into English, in 1546, the Turcicarum rerum Commentarius of Paulus Jovius, under the title of A Shorte Treatise upon the Turkes Chronicles, compyled by Paulus Jovius, byshop of Nucenie, and dedicated to Charles V, Emperour. Drawen out of the Italyen tong in to Latyne by Franciscus Niger Bassianates. And translated out of Latyn...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Ashton

borndied
17161775
an English cleric. Ashton was the author of a number of sermons, collected in a volume of Sermons on several Occasions, 1770. In 1754 he had an altercation with a Methodist minister of the name of Jones, to whom he addressed A Letter to the Rev. Thomas Jones, intended as a rational and candid answer to his sermon preached at St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. He also...
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Links (1)


Bartholomew Ashwood

borndied
16221680
an English puritan divine. He wrote several religious-oriented volumes. He continued to preach for many years, in spite of the severe restrictions imposed on nonconformists. In his old age he seems to have been left in sore straits, and died 'about 1680.' He was the father of John Ashwood.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Ashwood

borndied
16571706
an English Nonconformist minister and author. Before he began to preach he taught a school at Axminster, and afterwards at Chard, Somerset. Driven from Chard as a conscience-ruled Nonconformist by high-church intolerance, he decided with some friends to emigrate to Carolina in January 1683; but was prevented by a sudden attack of smallpox.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

Henry Ashworth

borndied
1794, Sep 41880, May 17
an English cotton manufacturer, friend of Richard Cobden, and vigorous supporter of the Anti-Corn Law League. His major work is Recollections of Richard Cobden and the Anti-Corn Law League (two editions, London 1876 and 1881), written with John Watts, in addit...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Ashworth

borndied
1813, Jul 81875, Jan 26
an English preacher, manufacturer, and author. He wrote 'Walks in Canaan' and 'Back from Canaan,' and had begun an account of his 'Rambles in the New World' when death overtook him; but his chief work was 'Strange Tales,' followed after a time by a similar gathering of 'Simple Records.' These were printed as separate tracts, and have had a circulation that i...
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Links (1)


Egeon Askew

borndied
1576unknown
an English divine. Brotherly Reconcilement was the title of his work. He preached in Oxford for the union of some, and now published with larger meditations for the unity of all in this church and common-wealth. With an apology of the use of the Fathers and secular learning in sermons.' Lond. 4to, 1605. The dedication to King James is dated from Greenwich, 2...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

James Aspinall

borndied
unknown1861
a miscellaneous writer and popular preacher. In 1831 was the incumbent of St. Luke's, where he preached a remarkable sermon called "The Crisis, or the Signs of the Times with regard to the Church of England". Later he delivered an address at the great free-trade meeting, held at Hull, at which Bright and more
Links (1)


Edward Aspinwall

borndied
unknown1732
an English polemical divine. Aspinwall received his education at Cambridge University, and was appointed chaplain to the Earl of Radnor. Afterwards he became sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, and in 1729 was instituted prebendary of Westminster. Aspinwall was the author of a Preservative against Popery, 1715, and an Apology, being a series of Arguments in Proof ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Aspinwall

bornactivedied
unknown1648-1662unknown
a nonconformist English minister. He proceeded B.A. in 1657, but having obtained orders, went no further. His first living was Maghull, in Lancashire. Aspinwall left his cure in 1655–6 to be ordained at Mattersey, Nottinghamshire, and was in that year inducted to Mattersey, in the church at Clayworth, in the same county, along with John Cromwell, B.A., an...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


William Asplin

borndied
1686/871758
a British writer, theologian, and churchman. Asplin was a man of considerable learning, and corresponded with Dr. John Ward, the Gresham Professor of Rhetoric, on matters relating to archaeological lore and natural history.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

William Assheton

borndied
16411711
an English cleric, a prolific writer and life assurance pioneer. Assheton was more a compiler than an original writer. Having entered holy orders and taken his master's degree, he became a frequent preacher. James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, who was chancellor of the university, appointed him chaplain, and in that capacity he served both in England and Ire...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Ludmilla Assing

borndied
1821, Feb 221880, Mar 25
a German writer, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Achim Lothar and Talora. Her mother Rosa Maria Assing was an author and her sister Ottilie Assing a feminist activist.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Jean Astruc

borndied
1684, Mar 191766, May 5
a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture. Astruc was the first to try to demonstrate — using the techniques of textual analysis that wer...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Asty

borndied
1672 ca1730
an English dissenting clergyman. He published only a single sermon, on the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Fleetwood, preached at Stoke Newington on 23 June 1728 from Job ix. 12. He also prefixed a memoir to the collective folio volume of the Sermons and Tracts of Dr. John Owen (1721). Among the 1662 farewell sermons is one by John Asty, the ejected clergyman of Str...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Atherton

borndied
17751850
a Wesleyan minister. Atherton published several works, among which were a sermon on the 'Insecurity of Life,' in 1818; an abridged 'Life of Lady Maxwell,' in 1838; and an 'Address on the Character, Agencies, and Religious Effectiveness of Wesleyan Methodism,' in 1839.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in NavalPhysicians

John Atkins

bornactivedied
16851703-17421757
a British Royal naval surgeon. Atkins published two books, both of which have had more than one edition. The ‘Navy Surgeon’ was published first (1732). It is a general treatise on surgery, with remarks on mineral springs, empirics, amulets, and infirmaries. It shows the author to have been an observant but somewhat prejudiced practitioner. The cases are ...
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Joseph Atkinson

borndied
17431818
an Irish dramatist. He served in the army until he obtained a captain's commission. In 1785, Atkinson produced a comedy in Dublin, the Mutual Deception, which, in the following year, was altered by Colman, the serious scenes being omitted, and, under the title of Tit for Tat presented at the Haymarket. Atkinson professed himself indebted to an Italian origin...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Louisa Atkinson

borndied
1834, Feb 251872, Apr 28
an early Australian writer, botanist and illustrator. While she was well known for her fiction during her lifetime, her long-term significance rests on her botanical work. She is regarded as a ground-breaker for Australian women in journalism and natural science, and is significant in her time for her sympathetic references to Australian Aborigines in her wr...
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Links (1)


Richard Atkyns

borndied
16151677
an English writer on printing. He first endeavoured to establish that printing in England began at Oxford; and that Stow, Sir Richard Baker, and Howell, in asserting that the art of printing was introduced into England in 1472, "do most erroneously agree together", although their error might have arisen "through the mistake of the first writer only." His dis...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom

borndied
1790, Jan 191855, Jul 21
a Swedish romantic poet, and a member of the Swedish Academy. Among Atterbom's independent works the most celebrated is Lycksalighetens Ö (The Fortunate Island), a romantic drama of extraordinary beauty, published in 1823. Before this he had published a cycle of lyrics, Blommorna (The Flowers), of a mystical character, somewhat in the manner of Novalis. Of ...
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Links (1)


Abbe Aubert

aka: Abbé, Jean-Louis Aubert
borndied
1731, Feb 151814, Nov 10
a French dramatist, poet and journalist, son of the violinist and composer Jacques Aubert (1686-1753). Aubert was educated at the Collège de Navarre and entered the order. In 1741, Aubert entered the editorial staff of the Affiches Annonces et Avis Divers, where he was literary critic. In 1752, he created the Affiches et Annonces de Province. He opposed the...
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Phillipe-Ignace Francois Aubert de Gaspe

aka: Phillipe-Ignace François Aubert de Gaspé
borndied
18141841, Mar 7
a Canadian writer; he worked as a journalist at the Quebec Mercury and Le Canadien and is credited with writing the first French Canadian novel, L'influence d'un livre. The story is made up of various fictionalised historical events, legends and folksongs which show the influence of father's recollections. Despite now being recognised as a major landmark in ...
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Napoleon Aubin

aka: Napoléon
borndied
1812, Nov 91890, Jun 12
a Canadian journalist, publisher, playwright, and scientist. Born in Geneva, Aubin sailed to the United States in 1829. In 1835 he moved to Montreal and shortly thereafter to Quebec City. Aubin contributed to a number of newspapers as well as publishing his own periodicals. In addition to journalism, Aubin worked as a scientist and, from 1875, as the honorar...
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Links (1)


Penelope Aubin

borndied
1679 ca1738 ca
an English novelist, poet, and translator. She was the daughter of Sir Richard Temple and Anne Charleton. Her mother Anne was the daughter of the physician and natural philosopher Walter Charleton. Aubin married her husband, Abraham Aubin, in 1696, and they had three children: Marie, Abraham, and Penelope. Aubin died in April 1738, survived by her husband un...
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Links (1)


Jane Austen

bornactivedied
1775, Dec 161787-18171817, Jul 18
an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism, biting irony and social commentary as well as her acclaimed plots have gained her historical importance among scholars and critics.
Timeline (3)Links (21)


Henry Austin [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1610sunknown
an English poet postulated by Alexander Balloch Grosart as author of The Scourge of Venus, or the Wanton Lady. With the Rare Birth of Adonis. The Second Impression, corrected and enlarged, by H. A. (1614). Grosart's identification in the Dictionary of National Biography depended on a remark about "Austin" by Thomas Heywood. The modern Oxford Dictionary of Na...
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Links (1)


Robert Austin

borndied
1592/93unknown
a puritan theologian and divine. In 1644, Austin published a tract in the quarto format, entitled Allegiance not impeached. In 1647 Austin published The Parliaments Rules and Directions concerning Sacramental Knowledge drawn into Questions and Answers, a duodecimo of eight leaves.
Links (1)


Samuel Austin the Younger

borndied
unknown1665 ca
a poetical writer, who inherited little of his father's humility, and seems, indeed, to have been an arrant coxcomb. At Oxford he made a laughing-stock of himself by his inordinate self-conceit. Wood is very severe on him: 'Such was the vanity of this person that he, being extremely conceited of his own worth, and overvaluing his poetical fancy more than tha...
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William Austin

borndied
15871634
an English miscellaneous writer. He was a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, and resided for many years in Southwark, where he acquired a great local reputation. His works, which are mainly of a religious character, were all published posthumously, but in his lifetime he distributed copies of them among his friends.
Links (1)


Alonso Fernandez de Avellaneda

aka: Alonso Fernández
bornactivedied
unknown1620sunknown
the pseudonym of a man who wrote a sequel to Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote. The identity of Fernández de Avellaneda has been the subject of many theories, but there is no consensus on who he was. One theory holds that Avellaneda’s work was a c...
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Links (1)


Francisco de Avellaneda

borndied
1625 ca1684
a Spanish poet and dramatist of the Golden Age. Of Avellaneda's life little is known except that he was a canon at Osma Cathedral in 1669 and styled himself at one time "Censor of plays to His Majesty Charles II". He wrote mainly in collaboration with other poets and playwrights of the time, and is best known as an entremesista or writer of stage 'interludes...
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Links (1)


Saint Teresa of Avila

aka: Ávila, Saint Teresa of Jesus, Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada
borndied
1515, Mar 281582, Oct 4
a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, author during the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross. In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pop...
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Avvakum

aka: Avvakum Petrov
borndied
1620/21, Nov 201682, Apr 14
a Russian protopope of Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikon's reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church. His autobiography and letters to the tsar, to Boyarynya Morozova and other Old Believers are considered masterpieces of 17th-century Russian literature.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Simon Awad

bornactivedied
16831708-17561756, Feb 12
the Maronite Patriarch of Antioch from 1743 to his death in 1756, remembered as an Arab writer. In 1708, he was ordained as a priest by his uncle patriarch Jacob Awad, who reigned from 1705 to 1733, and whom he served as secretary. On January 27, 1716 he was consecrated bishop of Damascus, always by his uncle. Simon Awad played a leading role in the 1736 Mar...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


John Awdely

bornactivedied
unknown1559-1577unknown
an English printer in London, known as a writer of popular and miscellaneous works. Many of his publications were of his own composition. One of the earliest of them, The Wonders of England, 1559, a folio sheet of eleven ten-line stanzas, relating to English historical events from the death of Edward VI to the accession of Elizabeth, was from his pen. Best k...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Jacob Axelsson Lindblom

bornactivedied
1746, Jul 271779-18191819, Feb 15
a Swedish scholar who eventually became archbishop of Uppsala for the Lutheran Swedish Church, a position he held between 1805-1819. Axelsson Lindblom was son of a clergyman. He received his secondary education at Linköping gymnasium and matriculated at Uppsala University in 1763. In Uppsala he became student of the philologist Johan Ihre and the Latinist P...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles Aylmer

borndied
17861847
an Irish Jesuit. For the use of the British Catholics in that city he, in conjunction with two of his brethren, Paul Ferley and Bartholomew Esmonde, compiled 'A short Explanation of the Principal Articles of the Catholic Faith' (Palermo, at the royal printing-oftice), 1812, 12mo; and 'The Devout Christian's Daily Companion, being a Selection of pious Exercis...
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Links (1)


John Ayres

bornactivedied
unknown1680-1700unknown
an English author, scribe and publisher. About 1680 he commenced the execution and publication of calligraphic works which made him famous as one of the great reformers in the writing commonwealth, and the introducer into this country of the beautiful Italian hand. Robert More, in his essay on the First Invention of Writing, prefixed to his own Specimens of ...
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Links (1)


Philip Ayres

borndied
16381712
the author of numerous books and pamphlets, flourished in the latter part of the seventeenth century; was born at Cottingham, and educated at Westminster, and St John's College, Oxford. He became tutor in the family of Montague Garrard Drake, of Agmondesham, Bucks, and lived in the family till his death on 1 December 1712. His chief work is his lyric Poems m...
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Links (1)


William Ayrton

borndied
1777, Feb 221858, May 8
an English impresario and music critic. From 1823 to 1833 he edited and contributed largely to the 'Harmonicon, a periodical. In 1834-5 he published his Sacred Minstrelsy, and in 1834-5-6 the work known as the Musical Library, an early cheap collection of vocal and instrumental music.
Links (1)


George Edward Ayscough

borndied
unknown1779
an English dramatist and traveller. He published some account of his travels in Italy. He was the editor of the Miscellaneous Works of his uncle, Lord Lyttelton, published in 1774.
Links (1)


Edward Ayscu

aka: Ayscough, Askew
borndied
15501616/17
an English historian. Ayscu was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1586-1587. He afterward resided at Cotham, in Lincolnshire, from which place he dates the preface to his only work, A Historie contayning the Warres, Treaties, Marriages, and other occurrents betweene England and Scotland, from King William the Conqueror until...
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Richard Ayton

borndied
17861823
an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer. In 1811 he returned to London, and accepted a situation in a public office; but this he relinquished in 1813, to accompany William Daniell A.R.A., in a voyage round Great Britain. An account of the voyage, with views drawn and engraved by Daniell, appeared in 8 vols. folio, 1814–25; but the letterpress of only...
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Links (1)


Robert Aytoun

borndied
15701638
a Scottish poet. He appears to have been well known to his literary contemporaries in Scotland and England. He became court poet to the queen of King James I and VI. He wrote poems in Latin, Greek, and English, and was one of the first Scots to write in standard English. His major work was Diophantus and Charidora. Inconstancy Upbraided is perhaps the best o...
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Links (1)


Angela de Azevedo

aka: Ángela , Acevedo
borndied
1600 caunknown
a Portuguese playwright. She wrote several plays, three of which have survived to the present. All three are written in Spanish and placed in Portugal. The first has a secular theme, while the remaining two have typically religious themes. Given her ties to the court, it is thought that her plays may have been staged in the palace.
Links (1)


Martin de Azpilcueta

aka: Martín
borndied
1491, Dec 131586, Jun 1
an important Basque canonist and theologian in his time, and an early economist, the first to develop monetarist theory. His Manuale sive Enchiridion Confessariorum et Poenitentium (Rome, 1568) originally written in Spanish was long a classical text in the schools and in ecclesiastical practice. In his work on the revenues of benefices, first publishe...
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