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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Gul Baba

aka: Gül
borndied
unknown1541
an Ottoman Bektashi dervish poet and companion of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent who took part in a number of campaigns in Europe from the reign of Mehmed II onwards.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Vicente Bacallar

borndied
1669, Feb 61726, Jun 11
a nobleman, military officer, linguist, historian, politician and Spanish ambassador. He was born to a noble Sardinian family when the kingdom of Sardinia was part of the Spanish crown. He wrote the short poem Las Tobias (The Tobies, 1709), the poem El Palacio de Momo (Momo's Palace, 1714), the treaty Monarchia Hebrea (The Hebrew Monarch...
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Delia Bacon

borndied
1811, Feb 21859, Sep 2
an American writer of plays and short stories and a sister of the Congregational minister Leonard Bacon. She is best known today for her work on the Shakespeare authorship question. She promoted the theory that the plays attributed to William Shakespeare were written by a group of men, including Francis Bacon, Sir Walter Raleigh and others.
Links (13)


Cross-listed in ScientistsLegal

Francis Bacon

aka: 1st Viscount St Alban
borndied
1561, Jan 221626, Apr 9
an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution.
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Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Nathaniel Bacon [3]

bornactivedied
1593, Dec 121645-16601660
an English Puritan lawyer, writer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660. Bacon was a Parliamentarian, active in support of the New Model Army from 1644, Bacon became Member of Parliament for Cambridge University in 1645, as a recruiter to the Long Parliament until he was excluded after Pride's Purge. Bacon's Hi...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Nathaniel Bacon [4]

aka: Southwell, Sotwel, Sotvellus
borndied
15981676
an English Jesuit who served in Rome from 1647 until his death as "Secretarius" of the Society of Jesus under four Jesuit generals. He produced an encyclopedic bibliography in folio, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu (Rome, 1676), much admired for its thoroughness and latinity, although the listings follow the traditional categorization according to aut...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Baddeley

borndied
1786/871823 ca
an English Roman Catholic priest in Manchester. Baddeley was the author of the Sure Way to find out the True Religion, a colloquial defence of Roman Catholic principles, largely mingled with invective against Protestantism. The author was stated to be dead in 1825. The tract reached a seventh edition in 1847, and provoked several replies.
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Charlotte Baden

borndied
1740, Nov 211824, Jun 6
a Danish writer, feminist and letter-writer. Daughter of major Gustav Ludvig von Klenau (1703–72) and Bolette Cathrine From (1696-1788). She was brought up by her relative Anna Sophie von den Osten, head lady-in-waiting to Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark, who financed her education and gave her a pension. She married professor Jacob Baden (1735-1804) ...
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Cross-listed in ClergyPhysiciansScientists

Charles David Badham

borndied
1805, Aug 271857, Jul 14
an English writer, physician, entomologist, and mycologist. David Badham seems to have started his medical career in Scotland, where he achieved some notoriety for setting a patient's irregular heartbeat to music. In 1833, a Radcliffe travelling fellowship allowed Badham to practise medicine in France and Italy, for some of the time as personal physician to ...
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Herman Bagger

borndied
1800, Jul 201880, Nov 24
a Norwegian newspaper editor and politician. In 1842 Bagger started the newspaper Skiensposten, but he grew tired and resigned as chief editor later that year. Bagger returned to the newspaper business, as co-editor of Bratsberg Amtstidende, founded by Peter Feilberg in 1840.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Giovanni Baglione

borndied
15661643, Dec 30
an Italian Late Mannerist and Early Baroque painter and art historian. He is best remembered for his acrimonious and damaging involvement with the slightly younger artist Caravaggio and his important collection of biographies of the other artists working in Rome in his lifetime, although there are many works of his in Roman churches and galleries and elsewhe...
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Edward Bagshaw

borndied
1589 ca1662, Sep/Oct 12
an English author and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1644. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. He was called to the bar at Middle Temple in 1615 and was Lent reader in 1640. As Reader, he delivered two discourses to the effect that 'a parliament may be held without bishops,' and that 'bishops may not meddle in c...
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Samuel Bagster the Younger

borndied
18001835
an English printer and author. Samuel was well read in the natural history of bees, and during the summer of 1834 his popular book, 'The Management of Bees,' was published. He later wrote 'The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge,' consisting of a rich and copious assemblage of more than 500,000 scripture references and parallel passages.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Guru Tegh Bahadur

borndied
16211675
revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus (Prophets) of the Sikh religion. Guru Tegh Bahadur continued in the spirit of the first guru, Nanak; his 115 poetic hymns are in the text Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly beheaded in 1675 on the orders of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi for refusing to convert to Islam. and resisting t...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Johann Karl Bahr

aka: Bähr
borndied
18011869
a German painter and writer. Enthusiastic about poetry, he moved in the circle of Ludwig Tieck in Dresden, and was a close friend of Julius Mosen. Bähr was in demand as a portraitist, and also painted some historical works. He also wrote several books.
Links (1)


Meera Bai

aka: Mira
borndied
14981546
a 16th-century Hindu mystic poet and devotee of Krishna. She is celebrated as a poet and has been claimed by the North Indian Hindu tradition of Bhakti saints. Thousands of devotional poems in passionate praise of Lord Krishna are attributed to Meera in the Indian tradition, but just a few hundred are believed to be authentic by scholars, and the earliest wr...
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Jean-Antoine de Baif

aka: Baïf
borndied
1532, Feb 191589, Sep 19
a French poet and member of the Pléiade. Baïf elaborated a system for regulating French versification by quantity, a system which came to be known as vers mesurés, or vers mesurés à l'antique. In the general idea of regulating versification by quantity, he was not a pioneer. Baïf's innovations also included a line of 15 syllables known as the vers Baï...
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Lazare de Baif

aka: Baïf
borndied
14961547
a French diplomat and humanist. His natural son, Jean-Antoine de Baïf, was born in Venice, while Lazare was French ambassador there. He published a translation of the Electra of Sophocles in 1537, and afterwards a version of the Hecuba. He was an elegant writer of Latin verse, and is commended by Joachim du Bellay as having introduced certain valuable words...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Jacob Bailey

borndied
1731, Apr 161808, Jul 26
an author and clergyman of the Church of England, active in New England and Nova Scotia. Bailey was born in Rowley, Massachusetts, and was educated at Harvard College, ranked at the bottom (by social order) of the class of 1755, which notably also included John Adams. He started his career in the ministry as a Congregational preacher in New Hampshire but con...
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Philip James Bailey

borndied
1816, Apr 221902, Sep 6
an English Spasmodic poet, best known as the author of his one voluminous poem, Festus, first published anonymously in 1839, and then expanded with a second edition in 1845. A vast pageant of theology and philosophy, it comprised in some twelve divisions an attempt to represent the relation of God to man, and to postulate "a gospel of faith and reason...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Thomas Bailey

borndied
17851856
an English topographer and miscellaneous writer. Bailey was born in Nottingham on 31 July 1785. His education was received partly in a day school in his native town, and partly in a boarding school at Gillingham, Yorkshire. Afterwards he was for some time engaged in business as a silk-hosier. Politically liberal, he came forward in 1830 as a candidate for th...
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Cross-listed in Cartographers

Thomas Bailey

borndied
1785, Jul 311856, Oct 23
an English topographer and miscellaneous writer. In 1845-6 he became proprietor and editor of the Nottingham Mercury, but his opinions were considered too temperate by his readers. The circulation of the paper declined, and in 1851 the mass of subscribers withdrew in protest at Bailey's views respecting the original error of the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, a...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Adrien Baillet

borndied
1649, Jun 131706, Jan 21
a French scholar and critic. He is now best known as a biographer of René Descartes. In 1676 he was ordained priest and was presented to a small vicarage. He accepted in 1680 the appointment of librarian to François-Chrétien de Lamoignon, advocate-general to the parlement of Paris. He made a catalogue raisonné (in 35 vols.) of its library, all written wi...
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Joanna Baillie

borndied
17621851
a Scottish poet and dramatist. Baillie was very well known during her lifetime and, though a woman, intended her plays not for the closet but for the stage. Admired both for her literary powers and her sweetness of disposition, she hosted a literary society in her cottage at Hampstead. Baillie died at the age of 88, her faculties remaining unimpaired to the ...
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Robert Baird

borndied
1798, Oct 61863, Mar 15
an American clergyman and author. He was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, and graduated at Jefferson College in 1818 and at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1822. He taught at an academy at Princeton, New Jersey for five years while tutoring at the College of New Jersey and preaching occasionally. (In 1824, he helped to create the Chi ...
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Pal Bajai

aka: Pál
bornactivedied
unknown1760sunknown
a Hungarian Franciscan friar of the Observant reform and spiritual writer during the 18th century. His only surviving work is De gratiis atque beneficiis beatissimae V. Mariae Reginae in Ungaria (On the Favors and Blessings of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen of Hungary), published in 1766.
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Jozef Ignac Bajza

aka: Jozef Ignác
borndied
1755, Mar 51836, Dec 1
an ethnically Slovak writer, satirist and Catholic priest in the Kingdom of Hungary. He is best known for his novel René mládenca príhody a skúsenosti, which was the first novel written in Slovak language. He is buried in the St. Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava.
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Augustine Baker

aka: Fr. Austin Baker
borndied
1575, Dec 91641, Aug 9
a well-known Benedictine mystic and an ascetic writer. He was one of the earliest members of the English Benedictine Congregation which was newly restored to England after the Reformation. Of more than thirty treatises chiefly on spiritual matters written by Father Baker, many are to be found in manuscript at Downside Abbey, Ampleforth Abbey, Stanbrook Abbey...
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David Bristow Baker

borndied
18031852, Jul 24
an English religious writer. Baker was born in 1803, the second son of David Bristow Baker, a Blackfriars merchant. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1829, and M.A. in 1832. Though admitted to the Middle Temple in 1824, he was never called to the Bar. From 1841 until his death in 1852 he was perpetual curate of Clay...
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David Erskine Baker

borndied
1730, Jan 301767, Feb 16
an English writer on drama. In 1764 he published his Companion to the Play House. A revised edition, under the title of Biographia Dramatica, appeared in 1782, edited by Isaac Reed. He also wrote a small dramatic piece, 'The Muse of Ossian,' 1763, and translated an Italian comedy in two acts, 'The Maid the Mistress' (La Serva Padrona) which was performed at ...
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Henry Baker

borndied
1734, Feb 101766, Aug
an English author. He contributed occasional poetry and essays to periodicals, and in 1756 published, in two volumes, Essays Pastoral and Elegiac. According to Chalmers, he left ready for the press an arranged collection of all the statutes relating to bankruptcy, with cases, precedents, &c., entitled The Clerk to the Commission, which is supposed to have b...
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Pacificus Baker

borndied
16951774
an English Minorite friar and noted Catholic spiritual writer of the 18th century. Baker's works were mostly guides for meditation for the proper reception of the Blessed Sacrament and on the liturgical seasons of the Church year. His reputation as a writer suffered in latter years. He was one of several religious authors who developed a series of books to a...
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Sir Richard Baker [1]

borndied
1568 ca1645, Feb 18
a politician, historian and religious writer. He was the English author of the Chronicle of the Kings of England and other works. In 1603 Baker was knighted by King James I at Theobalds Palace. At the time he was living in Highgate. He held the office of Justice of the Peace for Middlesex. In 1620 he was High Sheriff of Oxfordshire, where he inherited the ma...
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Richard Baker [2]

borndied
17411818
an English theological writer. Baker was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. (as seventh senior optime) in 1762, M.A. in 1765, and D.D. in 1788. He was elected to a fellowship in his college, and in 1772 was presented to the rectory of Cawston-with-Portland in Norfolk, which he held till his death in 1818.
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Samuel Baker

bornactivedied
1821, Jun 81846-18911893, Dec 30
a British explorer, officer, naturalist, big game hunter, engineer, writer and abolitionist. He also held the titles of Pasha and Major-General in the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. He served as the Governor-General of the Equatorial Nile Basin, which he established as the Province of Equatoria. He is mostly remembered as the discoverer of Lake Albert, as an expl...
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Baki

aka: Bâkî, Mahmud Abdülbâkî
borndied
15261600
an Ottoman poet. Considered one of the greatest contributors to Turkish literature, Bâkî came to be known as Sultânüs-suarâ, or "Sultan of poets". Bâkî lived during the height of the Ottoman Empire, and this affected his poetry greatly. Love, the joy of living, and nature are the primary subjects of his poems. Although almost no Sufi influence is foun...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Mihaly Bakos

aka: Mihály, Miháo Bakoš, Mihael Bakoš
borndied
1742 ca1803, Apr 9
a Hungarian Slovene Lutheran priest, author, and educator. Between 1784 and 1785, Bakos served as pastor in Križevci (Hungarian Tótkeresztúr), in Prekmurje. He later returned to Somogy, where he served as the dean for Somogy and Zala counties. In 1791, he wrote the Slovene hymnal Krszcsánszke peszmene knige (Christian Hymnal).
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Mikhail Bakunin

borndied
1814, May 181876, Jul 1
a Russian revolutionary anarchist, and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism, and one of the principal founders of the "social anarchist" tradition. Bakunin's enormous prestige as an activist made him one of the most famous ideologues in Europe, and he gained substantial influence among radicals t...
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Richard Balam

bornactivedied
unknown1650sunknown
an English mathematician. Balam was the author of Algebra, or the Doctrine of composing, inferring, and resolving an Equation (1653). It is a possible source of developments in John Wallis, Mathesis Universalis (1657), relating to geometric progressions treated as an axiomatic theory.
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Alan Balatine

bornactivedied
unknown1530s-1560unknown
a supposed historian mentioned by Edward Hall in the list of the English writers from whose works he compiled his Chronicle. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography makes it clear that this person is very likely a misnomer for John Bellenden, and never actually existed.
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Cesare Balbo

aka: Conte di Vinadio
borndied
1789, Nov 211853, Jun 3
an Italian writer and statesman. Reluctantly,and with frequent endeavours to obtain some appointment, he gave himself up to literature as the only means left him to influence the destinies of his country. The great object of his labours was to help in securing the independence of Italy from foreign control. Of true Italian unity he had no expectation and no ...
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Bernardino Baldi

borndied
1553, Jun 61617, Oct 10
an Italian mathematician and writer. He is said to have written upwards of a hundred different works, the chief part of which have remained unpublished. His various works show his abilities as a theologian, mathematician, geographer, antiquary, historian and poet. The Cronica dei Matematici (published at Urbino in 1707) is an abridgment of a larger work on w...
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William Baldwin

bornactivedied
unknown1547-1569unknown
an English author. From the West Country, England, Baldwin studied logic and philosophy at Oxford. On leaving Oxford, he became a corrector of the press to the printer Edward Whitchurch. During the reigns of Edward VI and Queen Mary, it appears that Baldwin was employed in preparing theatrical exhibitions for the court. Of Baldwin's closing years we have no ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Edward Baldwyn

borndied
17461817, Feb 11
an English clergyman and pamphleteer. Baldwyn was educated at St John's College, Oxford (B.A., 1767; M.A., 1784). For some years he was resident in Yorkshire, master of Bradford Grammar School from 1784. Under the pseudonym of 'Trim,' he engaged in a literary squabble with the Rev. William Atkinson and other clergymen (John Crosse, and Atkinson's brother Joh...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Bale

borndied
1495, Nov 211563, Nov
an English churchman, historian and controversialist, and Bishop of Ossory. He wrote the oldest known historical verse drama in English (on the subject of King John), and developed and published a very extensive list of the works of British authors down to his own time, just as the monastic libraries were being dispersed. His unhappy disposition and habit of...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Bale

borndied
unknown1503, Nov 11
an English Carmelite friar and scholar. Bale was a native of Norfolk, and when very young entered the Carmelite monastery at Norwich. Having a great love of learning, he spent a portion of every year in the Carmelite priories at Oxford or Cambridge. He became prior of the monastery of his order at Turnham Norton. Bale enjoyed a high reputation for learning, ...
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Clara Lucas Balfour

borndied
1808, Dec 211878
an English temperance campaigner, lecturer and author. In the period 1837 to 1840, Balfour wrote Common Sense versus Socialism, a tract directed at a local Owenite group. Jane Carlyle called to thank her, and began a friendship. Importantly in practical terms, around this time Balfour also met the campaigner John Dunlop of Gairbraid. He gave her paid editori...
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Francis Balfour

bornactivedied
unknown1810sunknown
a British medical officer and medical author who lived and worked primarily in British India. The Forms of Harken translated into English by Francis Balfour, was published at Calcutta in 1781, and republished in London in 1804. It is a state letter-writer in Persian; a vocabulary is given by the translator at the end. Balfour was one of the earliest members ...
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James Balfour

aka: Lord Pittendreich
borndied
1525 ca1583
a Scottish legal writer, judge and politician. He wrote a major work on Scots law, called Practicks. This was completed about 1579 and was widely circulated in manuscript copies. It was published in 1754, and republished in 1962: Peter G B McNeil (ed), The Practicks of Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich (1962, Stair Society).
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Charles Balguy

borndied
17081767, Feb 28
an English physician and translator. He practised at Peterborough, and was secretary of the literary club there. He contributed to the ' Philosophical Transactions, and in 1741 he published, anonymously, a translation of Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron. This was the best translation in English at the time and was reprinted several times. He wrote some medical...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Antoine de Balinghem

borndied
15711630, Jan 24
a Belgian Jesuit. He was the author of Moral Theology books and ascetic. He studied philosophy at Brescia for three years and then returned to the Netherlands . He was Professor of philosophy and humanities at the college Anchin of Douai then at Louvain , he was ordained priest in 1598 and spent the rest of his life teaching and translating many books of the...
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Charles Ball

borndied
1780unknown
an African-American slave from Maryland, best known for his account as a fugitive slave, The Life and Adventures of Charles Ball (1837). Charles Ball lived in Calvert county, Maryland, until about age four. After his mother died in the 1780s, Charles and his other three siblings were all sold to separate purchasers. Ball's history/memoir is a fascinating rea...
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Edward George Ballard

borndied
1791, Apr 221860, Feb 14
an English miscellaneous writer. He helped John Gough Nichols in the works undertaken for the Camden Society. In 1848 he brought out some parts of a continuation of John Strype's Ecclesiastical Annals in a publication called the Surplice, but this paper and Ballard's scheme soon came to an end. He wrote occasionally in The Gentleman's Magazine, and in Notes ...
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George Ballard

borndied
1706 ca1755, Jun
an English antiquary and biographer, the author of Memoirs of British Ladies (1752). This quarto volume was published by subscription, and dedicated to Sarah Talbot of Kineton, the wife of the clergyman William Talbot of Kineton who had helped him receive patronage as a young man, and Mary Delany. The first woman treated by Ballard's Memoirs was Juliana of N...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Istvan Baller

aka: István Ballér, Balliér
borndied
1760, Aug 281835, Apr 2
an ethnic Slovene Lutheran priest, dean of Zala and Somogy, and writer. He lived and worked in the Kingdom of Hungary. Born in the Slovene Circumscription (Prekmurje) in the village of Lon?arovci (then officially Ger?háza), he received his schooling in ?rség and Nemescsó and higher education in Sopron. He was successively cantor and teacher among the Somo...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Jacques Balmat

borndied
17621834
a mountaineer, a Savoyard mountain guide, born in the Chamonix valley in Savoy, at this time part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. A chamois hunter and collector of crystals, Balmat completed the first ascent of Mont Blanc with physician Michel-Gabriel Paccard on 8 August 1786. For this feat, King Victor Amadeus III gave him the honorary title le Mont Blanc. Balm...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

James Balmford

borndied
15561623+
an English clergyman. Balmford published in 1594 a Short and Plaine Dialogue concerning the unlawfulness of playing at cards, London. This short tract against card games is dedicated to the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of Newcastle-on-Tyne. It is stated in Hazlitt's Handbook that the Dialogue appeared also in broadside form. In 1623 there was a religious c...
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Honore de Balzac

aka: Honoré
borndied
1799, May 201850, Aug 18
a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La Comédie Humaine, which presents a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, is generally viewed as his magnum opus. Owing to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature. He is renowned for his multi-...
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John Bancks

aka: Banks
borndied
17091751, Apr 19
an English writer. Very little is known about the details of his life. Bancks was born in Sonning, Berkshire, and became apprenticed to a weaver in Reading. He suffered an accident, and left the apprenticeship before completion, becoming a bookseller in Spitalfields. He wrote poetry and biography, including works on the lives of Jesus, Oliver Cromwell and Wi...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

George Bancroft

borndied
unknown1573 ca
an English clergyman and translator. He was rector of Grittleton, Wiltshire, and chaplain to William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton, in the 1540s. Under Mary I of England Bancroft was sheltered by the patronage of Andrew Baynton, having a living at Bromham when he lost that at Grittleton. Under Elizabeth I of England his position then improved. Bancroft t...
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John Bancroft

borndied
unknown1696
an English dramatist, by profession a surgeon. He was buried in St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden. He is said to have had a good practice among frequenters of the theatres, and to have been led to write for the stage. One tragedy, the materials for which are drawn from Plutarch, is unquestionedly his. This is Sertorius, which was licensed for performance 10 M...
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Angelo Maria Bandini

borndied
1726, Sep 251803
an Italian author and librarian born in Florence. Having been left an orphan in his infancy, he was supported by his uncle, Giuseppe Bandini, a lawyer of some note. He received his education among the Jesuits, and showed a special inclination for the study of antiquities. In 1747 he undertook a journey to Vienna, in company with the bishop of Volterra, for w...
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Cathrinus Bang

borndied
1822, Jun 101898, Jun 4
a Norwegian literary historian. Little is known about his life. He was born in Drammen, and unmarried adoptive father of physician and feminist Dagny Bang. He was appointed professor of Scandinavian literature at the University of Oslo from 1869. Bang was the first holder of this chair, and was succeeded by Gerhard Gran.
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansEducators

John Banister [1]

borndied
15331610
an English anatomist, surgeon and teacher. He published The Historie of Man, from the most approved Authorities in this Present Age in 1578. He edited Hans Jacob Wecker, with corrections, ‘A Compendious Chyrurgerie gathered and translated (especially) out of Wecker,’ London, 1585. He compiled a collection of remedies and prescriptions, ‘An Antidotarie ...
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Richard Banister

borndied
unknown1626
an English oculist of Stamford, Lincolnshire. He was educated under his relative, John Banister, the surgeon. He devoted himself especially to certain branches of surgery, such as ‘the help of hearing by the instrument, the cure of the hare-lip and the wry-neck, and diseases of the eyes.’ In 1622 Banister published a second edition of a Treatise of One H...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Bankhead

borndied
17381833
an Irish presbyterian minister. In 1786 he published a catechism, valuable as indicating the departure from the old standards of doctrine, already hinted at in the terms of his subscription. The questions are precisely those of the Westminster Shorter Catechism; the answers are naked extracts from Scripture, without comment. In the second edition, 1825, a fu...
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George Linnaeus Banks

borndied
1821, Mar 21881, May 3
husband of author Isabella Banks, was a British journalist, editor, poet, playwright, amateur actor, orator, and Methodist. George was born in Birmingham, the son of a seedsman familiar with the plant nomenclature of Linnaeus. After a brief experience in a variety of trades, in his late teens George Banks became a contributor to various newspapers, and subs...
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George Bannatyne

borndied
15451608
an Edinburgh merchant and burgess. He is, however, most famous as a collector of Scottish poems. He was a native of Angus. He compiled an anthology of the Scots poetry of his age. His work extended to eight hundred folio pages, divided into five parts. The Bannatyne Manuscript is, with the Asloan and Maitland manuscripts, one of the great sources of Middle S...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Bannatyne

borndied
unknown1605
a Scottish clergyman and scribe who served as secretary to John Knox. Little is known about the details of his life. His place in history is substantiated in his role as the compiler of the historical record, Memorials of Transactions in Scotland from 1569 to 1573.
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Benjamin Banneker

bornactivedied
1731, Nov 91753-17971806, Oct 9
a free African American almanac author, surveyor, naturalist and farmer. His knowledge of astronomy helped him author a commercially successful series of almanacs. He corresponded with Thomas Jefferson, drafter of the United States Declaration of Independence, on the topics of slavery and racial equality. Abolitionists and advocates of racial equality promot...
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John Bannister

borndied
18161873, Aug 30
an English philologist. Bannister was the son of David Bannister, by his wife Elizabeth Greensides. He was born at York on 25 February 1816, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1844; M.A., 1853; LL.B. and LL.D., 1866). He was curate of Longford, Derbyshire, 1844–5, and perpetual curate of Bridgehill, Duffield, Derbyshire, from 1846 till 1857, wh...
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Pierre-Marie-Francois Baour-Lormian

aka: Pierre-Marie-François, Louis-Pierre-Marie-François, Pierre-Marie-François-Louis or Pierre-Marie-Louis
borndied
1770, Mar 241854, Dec 18
a French poet and writer. Baour-Lormian was born at Toulouse. Baour first published satires, then in translations in verse (1795) of Ossian's poems and of Torquato Tasso Jerusalem Delivered. He successfully put on a production of the tragedy of Omasis, ou Joseph en Égypte as well as the operas La Jérusalem délivrée, Aminte, and Alexandre à Babylone. He ...
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Yevgeny Baratynsky

borndied
1800, Feb 191844, Jul 11
lauded by Alexander Pushkin as the finest Russian elegiac poet. A member of the noble Baratynsky, or, more accurately, Boratynsky family (ru), the future poet received his education at the Page Corps at St. Petersburg, from which he was expelled at the age of 15 after stealing a snuffbox and five hundred roubles from the bureau of his accessory's uncle. He p...
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Thomas Barbar

bornactivedied
unknown1580sunknown
an English divine. His name is attached to the ‘Book of Discipline,’ and he belonged to the presbyterian church at Wandsworth, formed as early as 1572. In 1591 he was examined in the Star Chamber with other puritan divines for having taken part with Cartwright and others in a synod held at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1589, when it was agreed to cor...
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Anna Laetitia Barbauld

borndied
1743, Jun 201825, Mar 9
a prominent English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and children's author. A "woman of letters" who published in multiple genres, Barbauld had a successful writing career at a time when female professional writers were rare. She was a noted teacher at the Palgrave Academy and an innovative children's writer; her primers provided a model for pedagogy...
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Francois Barbe-Marbois

aka: François Barbé-Marbois
borndied
1745, Jan 311837, Feb 12
a French politician. In 1829 he wrote the book Histoire de la Louisiane et la cession de cette colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis de l'Amérique septentrionale ; précédée d'un discours sur la constitution et le gouvernement des Etats-Unis ("History of Louisiana and of Its Cession to the United States of Northern America; Preceded by a Discourse on the C...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Edward Barber

borndied
unknown1674 ca
an English Baptist minister. Barber was originally a clergyman of the established church, but long before the beginning of the civil wars he adopted the principles of the baptists. He had numerous followers, who assembled for worship in the Spital in Bishopsgate Street, London, and appear to have been the first congregation among the baptists that practised ...
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Jules Amedee Barbey d'Aurevilly

aka: Jules Amédée
borndied
1808, Nov 21889, Apr 23
a French novelist and short story writer. He specialised in mystery tales that explored hidden motivation and hinted at evil without being explicitly concerned with anything supernatural. He had a decisive influence on writers such as Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Henry James and Marcel Proust.
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Niccolo Barbieri

aka: Niccolò
borndied
15861641
an Italian writer and actor of the commedia dell'arte theatrical genre. He was also known as Beltrame di Milano ("Beltrame of Milan") in reference to one of his most popular characters, Beltrame; this was the main character of one of Barbieri's best known plays, L'inavertito, which is known to have inspired Moliere's L'Étourdi ou Les Contretemps ("The Blund...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Duarte Barbosa

bornactivedied
1480 ca1500-15211521, May 1
a Portuguese writer and Portuguese India officer between 1500 and 1516–1517, with the post of scrivener in Cannanore factory and sometimes interpreter of the local language (Malayalam). His Book of Duarte Barbosa (Livro de Duarte Barbosa) is one of the earliest examples of Portuguese travel literature, written c. 1516, shortly after the arrival in the Indi...
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Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve

borndied
1685, Nov 281755, Dec 29
a French author influenced by Madame d'Aulnoy, Charles Perrault, and various précieuse writers. She is particularly noted for her La Belle et la Bête, which is the oldest known variant of the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast.
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Alexander Barclay

borndied
1476 ca1552, Jun 10
an English/Scottish poet. From the numerous incidental references in his works, and from his knowledge of European literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad. Thomas Cornish, suffragan bishop in the diocese of Bath and Wells, and provost of Oriel College, Oxford, from 1493 to 1507, appointed him chaplain of the college of Ottery St Mary, D...
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John Barclay

borndied
1582, Jan 281621, Aug 15
a Scottish writer, satirist and neo-Latin poet. His early education was obtained at the Jesuit College at Pont-a-Mousson. While there, at the age of nineteen, he wrote a commentary on the Thebais of Statius. In 1609 Barclay edited the De Potestate Papae, an anti-papal treatise by his father, who had died in the preceding year, and in 1611 he issued an Apolog...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Robert Barclay

borndied
1648, Dec 231690, Oct 3
a Scottish Quaker, one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Religious Society of Friends and a member of the Clan Barclay. He was also governor of the East Jersey colony in North America through most of the 1680s, although he himself never resided in the colony. Barclay was an absentee governor, never having set foot in the colony. he governed throug...
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William Barclay

borndied
1570 ca1630 ca
a Scottish writer on miscellaneous subjects. He was educated for the pursuit of medicine, but is best known by a pamphlet, printed in Edinburgh in 1614, and entitled Nepenthes, or the Vertues of Tobacco. Barclay studied at Louvain under the learned Justus Lipsius, to whom he afterwards addressed several letters which have been printed. Two years after the ap...
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Pierre Bardin

borndied
15901635, May 29
born in Rouen, was a French philosopher and mathematician and Doctor of Letters. He was one of the first members of the Académie française and the first occupant of Seat 29. He studied at the Jesuit philosophy, mathematics and theology. He is the author of a book on the label of the Grand Chamberlain of France , published in 1623 , and a paraphrase of Eccl...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Sir James Lomax Bardsley

borndied
1801, Jul 71876, Jul 10
an English physician. In 1834 he became president of the Manchester Medical Society, and in 1850 a similar position in the Manchester Medico-Ethical Association was given to him. Bardsley published a volume of Hospital Facts and Observations in 1830, wrote the articles on diabetes and hydrophobia in the Cyclopædia of Practical Medicine (1833), and made othe...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Samuel Argent Bardsley

borndied
1764, Apr 271851, May 29
an English physician. Dr. Bardsley published in 1800 ‘Critical Remarks on the Tragedy of Pizarro, with Observations on the subject of the Drama;’ and in 1807 a volume of ‘Medical Reports of Cases and Experiments, with Observations chiefly derived from Hospital practice; also an Enquiry into the Origin of Canine Madness.’ To the ‘Memoirs’ of the L...
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Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti

borndied
1719, Apr 241789, May 5
an Italian literary critic, poet, writer, translator, linguist and author of two influential language-translation dictionaries. During his years in England he was often known as Joseph Baretti. Baretti's life was marked by controversies. Baretti's first notable work was the Italian Library (1757), a useful catalogue of the lives and works of several Italian ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Foster Barham

borndied
1794, Sep 101869, Mar 3
an English physician and classical scholar. Dr. Barham published many theological works, including A Monthly Course of Forms of Prayer for Domestic Worship and (with the Rev. Henry Acton) a volume of Forms of Prayer for Public Worship. His chief work, which dealt with many social questions -- such as temperance, cultivation of waste lands and small farms —...
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Jane Barker

borndied
16521732
a popular English fiction writer, poet, and a staunch Jacobite. She went into self-imposed exile when James II fled England during the Glorious Revolution in 1688. Although not known for her letter writing, four extant letters are located in the British Library and within the Magdalen Manuscript at the Oxford Magdalen library, written between 1670-88. Jane B...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

John Barker

borndied
17081748
an English medical writer. While at Salisbury he published in 1742 ‘An Inquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of the Epidemic Fever of that and the two preceding years.’ In this treatise he objected to bleeding as a part of the treatment, and was consequently attacked by another Salisbury physician, a Mr. Hele, in a local newspaper. Barker replied in a...
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Matthew Henry Barker

borndied
17901846, Jun 29
an English sailor, journalist, newspaper editor and writer of sea tales. Under the name of ‘The Old Sailor,’ he wrote a number of lively and spirited sea-tales, very popular in their day. He was naval editor of the United Service Gazette, and a frequent contributor to the Literary Gazette, Bentley's Miscellany, and the Pictorial Times. For some astronomi...
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Samuel Barker

borndied
16861759
an English Hebraist. He wrote (in Latin) several learned tracts, which were collected and published (1761) in one quarto volume after his death, together with a Hebrew grammar, on which he had long been engaged. John Nichols said of it, 'This was a juvenile production - the produce of the ingenious Author's leisure hours.'
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William Higgs Barker

borndied
17441815
an English Hebraist. He was elected master of Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School at Carmarthen 22 July 1767, an office which he held for the rest of his life. He was also rector of Bleddfa from 1793. He published a short work, entitled ‘Grammar of the Hebrew Language adapted to the use of schools, with Biblical examples,’ 1774; and a ‘Hebrew and English ...
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Clement Barksdale

borndied
16091687
an English author. He entered Merton College, Oxford, as ‘a servitor,’ in Lent term 1625, but removed shortly to Gloucester Hall (afterwards Worcester College, Oxford), where he took his degrees in arts. He entered holy orders, and in 1637 acted as chaplain of Lincoln College. In the same year he proceeded to Hereford, where he became master of the free ...
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Caspar Barlaeus

borndied
1584, Feb 121648, Jan 14
a Dutch polymath and Renaissance humanist, a theologian, poet, and historian. Barlaeus published many volumes of poetry, particularly Latin poetry. He also wrote the eulogy that accompanies the 1622 portrait of cartographer Willem Blaeu. Barlaeus was involved in various aspects of cartography and history. He translated Antonio de Herrera's Description of the...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Barling

borndied
1804, Aug 111883
an English dissenting minister. He was educated for the ministry at Homerton, and settled as a congregationalist minister at Square Chapel, Halifax, in 1829. His opinions becoming unitarian, he resigned his charge in 1834, and became a worshipper at Northgate End Chapel. After a sojourn of some years in the south of England he returned to Halifax, and made p...
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Cross-listed in ClergyInventors

Edward Barlow

aka: Booth
borndied
16391719
an English priest and mechanician. Barlow invented the rack and snail striking mechanism for striking clocks about 1676. This was a great improvement over the previous mechanism used in striking clocks, the count wheel. This invention was afterwards applied to pocket watches. He wrote several treatises on religion and mechanics.
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Henry Clark Barlow

borndied
1806, May 121876, Nov 8
an English writer on Dante. In 1851 Barlow was in England, where he published a short work ‘Industry on Christian Principles, London, 1851. He published at London ‘Letteratura Dantesca: Remarks on the Reading of the 114th Verse of the 7th Canto of the Paradise of the “Divina Commedia”’ (1857), and two years afterwards ‘Francesca da Rimini, her La...
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Edward William Barnard

borndied
17911828, Jan 10
an English divine, poet and scholar. In 1817 he published anonymously, 'Poems, founded upon the Poems of Meleager,' which were re-edited in 1818 under the title of 'Trifles, imitative of the Chaster Style of Meleager.' The latter volume was dedicated to Thomas Moore, who describes the poems as 'done with much elegance.' Barnard was presented to Brantingthorp...
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John Barnard

borndied
unknown1683
the biographer of Peter Heylen. Barnard was the author of a pamphlet in three sheets quarto, entitled Censura Cleri, against scandalous ministers not fit to be restored to the church's livings in prudence, piety, and fame. This was published in the latter end of 1659 or beginning of 1660, ‘to prevent such from being restored to their livings as had been ej...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Ambrose Barnes

borndied
16271710
an English nonconformist and Mayor of Newcastle. Barnes wrote a Breviate of the Four Monarchies, an Inquiry into the Nature, Grounds, and Reasons of Religion, and a Censure upon the Times and Age he lived in. Extracts only from these works, which all display much learning, have been published; they went in manuscript in the library of the Literary and Philos...
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Barnabe Barnes

borndied
1571 ca1609
an English poet. He is known for his Petrarchan love sonnets and for his combative personality, involving feuds with other writers and culminating in an alleged attempted murder. Barnabe Barnes was well acquainted with the work of contemporary French sonneteers, to whom he is largely indebted, and he borrows his title, apparently, from a Neapolitan writer of...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Barnes

borndied
unknown1661
an English Benedictine monk. Barnes was a Lancashire man by extraction, if not by birth. He was educated at Oxford University, but after being converted to Catholicism he went to Spain and studied divinity in the University of Salamanca under Juan Alfonso Curiel, who "was wont to call Barnes by the name of John Huss, because of a spirit of contradiction whic...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Barnes

borndied
1801, Feb 221886, Oct 7
an English writer, poet, Church of England priest, and philologist. He wrote over 800 poems, some in Dorset dialect, and much other work, including a comprehensive English grammar quoting from more than 70 different languages. Barnes first contributed the Dorset dialect poems for which he is best known to periodicals, including Macmillan's Magazine; a collec...
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Richard Barnfield

borndied
15741620
an English poet. His obscure though close relationship with William Shakespeare has long made him interesting to scholars. It has been suggested that he was the "rival poet" mentioned in Shakespeare's sonnets. In November 1594, in his twenty-first year, Barnfield published anonymously his first work, The Affectionate Shepherd, dedicated with familiar devotio...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Ernst Gottlieb Baron

borndied
1696, Feb 171760, Apr 12
a German lutenist, composer and writer on music. In Nuremberg he published his "Historisch-theoretische und practische Untersuchung des Instruments der Lauten", the work for which he is principally remembered. Baron’s Untersuchung is a valuable source of information about lutenists and lute playing in the late Baroque era.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Baron [1]

borndied
15961639
a Scottish theologian and one of the so-called Aberdeen doctors. He is commemorated in the Calendar of saints of the Scottish Episcopal Church on 28 March. Baron was a firm supporter of the Anglicanising religious policies of Kings James VI and Charles I. He opposed the National Covenant of 1638 both through preaching and writings, including three tracts tha...
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Robert Baron [2]

borndied
1630unknown
an English poet and dramatist. He was a very successful plagiarist, his thefts passing unrecognised for more than a century after his death. Baron's first printed work, "the Cyprian Academy," is dated from "my chambers in Gray's Inn, 1 April 1647." It is dedicated to James Howell, the well-known author of "Epistolæ Ho-Elianæ," who was perhaps his uncle. Ho...
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Cross-listed in Military

Francois Baron de Tott

aka: François Barbé-Marbois
borndied
1733, Aug 171793, Sep 24
an aristocrat and a French military officer of Hungarian origin. Born in Chamigny, a village in northern France, the descendant of a Hungarian nobleman, who had emigrated to the Ottoman Empire and then moved on to France with the cavalry of Count Miklós Bercsényi, and was later raised to the rank of baron. François Baron de Tott's Memoirs were published i...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Caesar Baronius

aka: Cesare Baronio
borndied
1538, Aug 301607, Jun 30
an Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian of the Roman Catholic Church. His best-known works are his Annales Ecclesiastici ("Ecclesiastical Annals") which appear in twelve folio volumes (1588–1607). Baronius' cause of canonization has commenced and he has the title of Servant of God. Pope Benedict XIV conferred upon him the title of Venerable but it...
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William Vincent Barre

aka: Barré
borndied
1760 ca1829
a European, a translator and author mainly notable for his writings on Napoleon. In 1805 appeared, in English, Barré's Rise, Progress, Decline, and Fall of Buonaparte's Empire in France, the second part of the former History, which is preceded by an ‘advertisement’ of ten pages, in which he attacks the reviewers of his first book in the Annual Review an...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Gabino Barreda

borndied
18181881
a Mexican physician and philosopher oriented to French positivism. After participating in the U.S.-Mexican War defending his country as a volunteer, he studied medicine in Paris (1847–1851). There he became acquainted with Auguste Comte's doctrine of positivism, before his first publications in philosophy. Upon returning to Mexico City, he introduced the p...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Barret

borndied
16311713
a prominent English Presbyterian divine and writer on religion. Barret was a prolific writer. Many of his books were about leading a Christian life, examples being The Christian Temper, or, A Discourse Concerning the Nature and Properties of the Graces of Sanctification (1678), and The Evil and Remedy of Scandal, a Practical Discourse on Psalm Cxix.Clxv (171...
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William Barrett

borndied
unknown1584
the English consul at Aleppo. He was there when John Eldred and his companion, William Shales, arrived there on 11 June 1584; he died eight days after their arrival, as is recorded in Eldred's narrative. He wrote a treatise on ‘The Money and Measures of Babylon, Balsara, and the Indies, with the Customes, &c.,’ which occupies pp. 406 to 416 of the second...
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Miguel de Barrios

borndied
1625 ca1701, Feb
a Spanish poet and historian from a converso family. He was born in Montilla, Spain and died in Amsterdam. Miguel was the son of a converso, Simon de Barrios—who also called himself Jacob Levi Caniso—and Sarah Valle. His grandfather was Abraham Levi Caniso. To escape the persecution of the Spanish Inquisition, Simon fled to Portugal, and remained for a t...
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Sir George Barrow

aka: 2nd Baronet
borndied
1806, Oct 221876
an English civil servant. In early life Sir George too exhibited poetic taste in a translation of some odes of Anacreon, which was spoken of favourably by William Gifford, first editor of the Quarterly Review. In 1850, Sir George laid the foundation-stone of the Barrow monument erected to his father's memory on the Hill of Hoad, Ulverston. In 1857, Sir Georg...
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Philip Barrow

bornactivedied
unknown1590sunknown
an English medical writer. Barrow was the son of John Barrow, of Suffolk. He obtained from the university of Cambridge, in 1559, a license to practise chirurgery, and in 1572 a similar license to practise physic. It is probable that he practised his profession in London. He is the author of the Method of Phisicke. This popular work, which is dedicated to the...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

William Barrowby

borndied
16821758, Dec 30
an English physician. Barrowby was born in London, the son of John Barrowby, a physician. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Oxford, taking degrees of M.B. in 1709, and of M.D. in 1713. He was elected a fellow of the College of Physicians of London in 1718, and Fellow of the Royal Society in 1721. He is know mostly for his medical writings.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Henry Barrowe

aka: Barrow
borndied
1550 CA1593, Apr 6
an English Separatist Puritan, executed for his views. In about 1580 or 1581 he was impressed by a sermon; he retired to the country, and was led by study and meditation to a strict form of Puritanism. Subsequently he came into close relations with John Greenwood, the Separatist leader, whose views he adopted. He was associated with "the brethren of the Sepa...
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Cross-listed in Military

Antoine Joseph Barruel-Beauvert

borndied
17561817
a French military officer and journalist. He was born Comte de Barruel-Beauvert, at the castle of Beauvert, in Languedoc, but was impoverished by the Revolution. He took part in some events of the French Revolution. He was also the first biographer of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. After the Bourbon Restoration, Barruel-Beauvert's disappointment at not receiving the...
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Edward Barry

borndied
17591822
an English writer, who mainly wrote on religious and medical topics. During his lifetime he was considered one of the most popular preachers in London, and has published papers and books on multiple topics. The most notable was Friendly Call to a New Species of Dissenters, which was published multiple times. He was grand chaplain to the Freemasons. On one oc...
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Cross-listed in Pirates

Lording Barry

borndied
15801629
a 17th-century English dramatist and pirate. Barry is known as the author of one comedy, Ram Alley, or Merry Tricks (1608), which was included in the second and subsequent editions of Robert Dodsley's Old Plays. Anthony Wood says it was acted by the Children of the King's Revels before 1611. Barry went into debt to finance his theatrical ventures, and was ja...
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John Barston

borndied
1545 ca1612 ca
an English writer, law and 'important civic figure'. There is little known about the details of his life .Barton was from Tewkesbury. He went to St John's College, Cambridge and the Inns of Court. In 1576, he published his work, The Safeguard of Society, describing the corporate life of Tewkesbury.
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Heinrich Barth

bornactivedied
1821, Feb 161844-18641865, Nov 25
a German explorer of Africa and scholar, thought to be one of the greatest European explorers of Africa, as his scholarly preparation, ability to speak and write Arabic, learning African languages, and character meant that he carefully documented the details of the cultures he visited. He was among the first to comprehend the uses of oral history of peoples,...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Barthlet

aka: Bartlett
bornactivedied
unknown1560sunknown
an English theological writer. Barthlet was a minister of the Church of England, and held strongly Calvinistic opinions. In 1566 he published a work entitled the ‘Pedegrewe [Pedigree] of Heretiques, wherein is truly and plainely set out the first roote of Heretiques began in the Church since the time and passage of the Gospel, together with an example of t...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Ann Charlotte Bartholomew

borndied
1800, Mar 201862, Aug 18
an English flower and miniature painter, and author. In 1840 she published Songs of Azrael and other poems under the name of Mrs Turnbull. In the same year she became the second wife of the flower painter, Valentine Bartholomew. Her play The Ring, or the Farmer's Daughter, a domestic drama in two acts, appeared in 1845, and another, a farce called It's Only ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Bartlet

borndied
unknown1682
an English independent minister. Bartlet was educated at New Inn Hall, Oxford, was found officiating to a congregation at Wapping in 1647, and was lecturer at Bideford two years later. He was one of the commissioners for Devonshire; was ejected from Bideford 1662; was once imprisoned; and died in 1682.
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Benjamin Bartlett

borndied
17141787
an English numismatical and topographical writer. His only literary venture was a memoir on the Episcopal Coins of Durham, and the Monastic Coins of Reading, minted during the reigns of Edward I, II, and III, appropriated to their respective owners, this having been the substance of a paper read before the Society of Antiquaries on 5 March 1778. He had, howe...
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John Bartlett

borndied
1820, Jun 141905, Dec 3
an American writer and publisher whose best known work, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, has been continually revised and reissued for a century after his death. He began keeping a commonplace book of quotations to answer queries and in 1855 privately printed the first edition of his Familiar Quotations. That edition of 258 pages contained entries from 169 au...
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Francesco Bartoli

borndied
17451806
an Italian actor born in Bologna, playwright, and writer. He is most remembered today for his biographical dictionary, Notizie istoriche de' comici italiani. It was the first serious attempt to document the lives and works of Italian actors from the commedia dell'arte in 1550 through the late 18th century and is still considered one of the most important sou...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Benjamin Smith Barton

borndied
1766, Feb 101815, Dec 19
an American botanist, naturalist, and physician. Barton corresponded with naturalists throughout the United States and Europe, and made significant contributions to the scientific literature of his day. In 1803 Barton published Elements of botany, or Outlines of the natural history of vegetables, the first American textbook on botany. Barton's work in...
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Louisa Barwell

borndied
18001885
an English musician and educational writer. At the age of eighteen she was associated with her father in the editorship of the Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review. After her marriage with John Barwell, wine merchant at Norwich (born 1798, died 1876), she devoted attention to educational works, developing a comprehension of child nature, physical and mental...
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Richard Barwell

borndied
1741, Oct 81804, Sep 2
an early trader with the East India Company and amassed one of the largest fortunes in early British India. Barwell was born in Calcutta in 1741 and appointed a writer on the Bengal establishment of the East India Company in 1756 and landed at Calcutta on 21 June 1758. After a succession of lucrative appointments, he was nominated in the Regulating Act (13 G...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Abramo Basevi

borndied
1818, Dec1885, Nov
an Italian musicologist and composer. Basevi was born in Livorno. He began as a physician in Florence (1858) but then devoted himself exclusively to music. His first attempts as a composer failed but in time he composed operas (Romilda ed Ezzelino 1840; and Enrico Howard, 1847) and other music. Basevi was editor of the musical journal L'Armonia. He founded t...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

William Richard Basham

borndied
18041877
an English physician. In 1833 he went to Edinburgh, and took his M.D. degree in the following year. After this he made a voyage to China, where, in a skirmish on the Canton River, he received a wound in the leg. In 1843 he was appointed physician to the Westminster Hospital, and he devoted himself to the school, giving lectures on medicine until 1871. He was...
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Giambattista Basile

aka: Gian Alesio Abbatutis
borndied
15661632, Feb 23
a Neapolitan poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. Basile's earliest known literary production is from 1604 in the form of a preface to the Vaiasseide of his friend the Neapolitan writer Giulio Cesare Cortese. The following year his villanella Smorza crudel amore was set to music and in 1608 he published his poem Il Pianto della Verging. He is chiefly re...
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Thomas Baskerville

borndied
1812, Apr 261840 ca
an English botanical writer. Baskerville served a four-year apprenticeship to Mr. Soulby, of Ash, Kent. From 1829 to 1834 he attended lectures on anatomy under Jones Quain, dissection under Richard Quain, and surgery under Samuel Cooper. In November 1834 he attended the North London Hospital, obtained the membership of the College of Surgeons on 22 December...
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William Basset

borndied
16441695
an English divine. Basset was the son of Thomas Basset, minister of Great Harborough in Warwickshire, was baptised there 22 October 1644, became a commoner of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1660, and afterwards a demy of Magdalen College, also at Oxford University. He graduated M.A., and took orders, was beneficed first in Surrey, afterwards (1671) at Brinklow in...
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Carlo Bassi

bornactivedied
18071833-18561856
an Italian entomologist. Bassi wrote Description du genre Malacogaster in Guérin-Méneville's Magasin de Zoologie, d'Anatomie com- parée et de Paleontologie 1833 and in the 1834 issue of Annales de la Société entomologique de France) he erected the carabid genus Cardiomera.
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Frederic Bastiat

aka: Frédéric
borndied
1801, Jun 301850, Dec 24
a French classical liberal theorist, political economist, Freemason, and member of the French National Assembly. He was notable for developing the economic concept of opportunity cost, and for introducing the Parable of the Broken Window or the "Glazier's fallacy". His ideas have provided a basis for libertarianism and the Austrian School.
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Samuel Batchelder

borndied
1784, Jun 81879, Feb 5
a United States inventor and author. About 1832 he devised the first stop motion to the drawing frame, which afterward was used both in the United States and England. In 1832 he patented the steam cylinders and connections which became universally used in dressing frames for drying yarns. His greatest invention was the dynamometer used for ascertaining the p...
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James Bate

borndied
17031775
an English scholar and writer. He passed B.A. 1723, and was elected fellow shortly after; but he accepted later from the Bishop of Ely a fellowship in St John's College. He commenced M.A. in 1727. In 1730 Bate became moderator of the university, and in 1731 one of the taxers. Bate accompanied Horace Walpole as chaplain when the latter went to Paris as ambass...
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Julius Bate

borndied
17111771, Jan 20
an English divine, known as a Hutchinsonian and Hebraist. He entered St. John's College, Cambridge, became B.A. 1730, and M.A. 1740. Bate, in 1745, wrote a pamphlet called Remarks upon Mr. Warburton's remarks, showing that the ancients knew there was a future state, and that the Jews were not under an equal providence. Bate published other pamphlets in defen...
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David Bates

borndied
1809, Mar 61870, Jan 25
an American poet. He was born in Indian Hill, Ohio, and educated in Buffalo, New York, before working in first Indianapolis then Philadelphia. In 1849, he published a volume of poetry, Eolian. Among his best-known works are "Speak Gently", which was parodied by Lewis Carroll in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, as well as "Chiding", and "Childhood".
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Henry Walter Bates

bornactivedied
1825, Feb 81843-1880s1892, Feb 16
an English naturalist and explorer who gave the first scientific account of mimicry in animals. He was most famous for his expedition to the rainforests of the Amazon with Alfred Russel Wallace, starting in 1848. Wallace returned in 1852, but lost his c...
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Links (1)


Elizabeth Bath

borndied
1776, Feb 171844, Oct 3
the author of a collection of sixty-six poems published by subscription in 1806 in Bristol. She was a member of the Society of Friends. Elizabeth Bath's book is dedicated to a friend "whose sincerity is equaled only by the stability which has ever marked her character." The poems take a variety of forms — some are sonnets; some are longer poems — and the...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Richard Bathurst

borndied
unknown1762
a British essayist and physician, born in Jamaica and sent to England to study medicine. In 1745 he took the degree of M.B. at Peterhouse, Cambridge, and afterwards studied medicine in London. In September 1754 Bathurst was elected physician to the Middlesex Hospital, but went to Barbadoes, whence he wrote two letters to Johnson in 1757 (published by Croker)...
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Theodore Bathurst

borndied
unknown1651
an English poet and translator who wrote in the Latin language. His most notable work is Calendarium Pastorale (English: The Pastoral Calendar). While at Pembroke, he executed his translation of Spenser's ‘Shepherd's Calendar’. This translation had the honour of being highly commended by Sir Richard Fanshawe, who has himself left us specimens of Latin tr...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Stephen Batman

aka: Bateman
borndied
unknown1584
an English translator and author. Batman was born at Bruton, Somerset and, after a preliminary education in the school of his native town, went to Cambridge, where he had the reputation of being a learned man and an excellent preacher. It is supposed he was the Bateman who in 1534 took the degree of LL.B., being at that time a priest and a student of six yea...
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Janos Batsanyi

aka: János Batsányi
borndied
1763, May 91845, May 12
a Hungarian poet. In 1785, he published his first work, a patriotic poem, "The Valour of the Magyars". In the same year he obtained a job as clerk in the treasury of the Hungarian city of Kassa (Kosice), and there, in conjunction with other two Hungarian patriots, edited the Magyar Museum, which was suppressed by the government in 1792.
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientistsEducators

William Batt

borndied
1744, Jun 181812, Feb 9
an English physician, chemist, and botanist. On completing his studies he returned to England, but on account of his health he subsequently removed to Genoa, where he obtained an extensive medical practice, and in 1774 was appointed professor of chemistry in the university. Previous to this the study of chemistry in the university of Genoa had been much negl...
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Konstantin Batyushkov

borndied
1787, May 181855, Jul 7
a Russian poet, essayist and translator of the Romantic era. He also served in the diplomatic corps, spending an extended period in 1818 and 1819 as a secretary to the Russian diplomatic mission at Naples. 1802 is conventionally considered the beginning of Batyushkov's poetic career. He wrote in a letter to Nikolai Gnedich on 1 April 1810 that he had compose...
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Florian Baucke

aka: Paucke, Pauke
borndied
1719, Sep 241779, Jul 14
a Silesian and Bohemian Jesuit missionary, who recorded the native traditions of South America. Baucke was born in Winzig, Austrian Silesia. On 1736, He became a member of the Society of Jesus (Jesuite). He worked mainly in the Río de la Plata, Imperial Spain, and drew and painted the customs of the region. He returned to Austria and Bohemia on 1768. He die...
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Antoine Baudeau de Somaize

aka: sieur de Somaize
bornactivedied
1630 ca1660sunknown
a secretary to Marie Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin. There is not much information known about the details of his life. He published a Grand Dictionnaire des Prétieuses, ou La Clef de la Langue des Ruelles in 1660; a much enlarged edition was published in 1661. The same year he published a comedy, Le Procez des prétieuses, en vers burlesques.
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Charles Baudelaire

borndied
1821, Apr 91867, Aug 31
a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His first published work was his art review "Salon of 1845", which attracted immediate attention for its boldness. Many of his critical opinions were novel in their time, including his championing of Delacroix, and some of his views seem rem...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Francois Baudouin

aka: François Balduinus
borndied
15201573
a French jurist, Christian controversialist and historian. Among the most colourful of the noted French humanists, he was respected by his contemporaries as a statesman and jurist, even as they frowned upon his perceived inconstancy in matters of faith: he was noted as a Calvinist who converted to Catholicism. Baudouin was a prolific writer on juridical and ...
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Eduard von Bauernfeld

borndied
1802, Jan 131890, Aug 9
an Austrian dramatist, was born at Vienna. As a writer of comedies and farces, Bauernfeld takes high rank among the German playwrights of the century; his plots are clever, the situations witty and natural and the diction elegant. His earliest essays, the comedies Leichtsinn aus Liebe (1831); Des Liebes-Protokoll (1831) and Die ewige Liebe (1834); Burgerlich...
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Jacob Bauthumley

borndied
16131692
a significant English radical religious writer, usually identified as a central figure among the Ranters. He is known principally for The light and dark sides of God (1650). This work was regarded as blasphemous. After the Blasphemy Act of August 1650, he was arrested, convicted, and bored or burned through the tongue. Bauthumley denied that the Bible was th...
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Guillaume Bautru

aka: comte de Serrant
borndied
15881665, Mar 7
a French satirical poet, court favourite and a protégé and diplomatic agent of cardinal Richelieu. He was lord of Louvaines, conseiller d'État under Louis XIII and Louis XIV, herald of ambassadors in the king's court, minister plenipotentiary and ambassador to the archduchess of Flanders, and king's envoy to Spain, England and the Duchy of Savoy. He was a...
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William Bavand

bornactivedied
unknown1550sunknown
an English writer. Bavand, having been educated at Oxford, became a student in the Middle Temple, and published in 1559 ‘A work touching the good ordering of a Common Weale in 9 Books,’ a translation from Ferrarius Montanus. The book is dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. Scattered up and down the work are several verse-translations of passages from classical ...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Baroness Sophie Bawr

aka: Comtesse de Saint-Simon, Baronne de Bawr, M. François
borndied
1773, Oct 81860, Dec 31
a French writer, playwright and composer. Her Suite d'un bal masque was highly successful and received 246 performances between 1813 and 1869. Alexandrine-Sophie de Bawr wrote plays, musical theater, songs, several novels, educational texts and her own memoirs. Her nonfiction texts provide important historical information.
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George A. Baxter

borndied
1771, Jul 221841
an American university administrator. He served as the President of Washington and Lee University and Hampden–Sydney College. His publications include An Essay on the Abolition of Slavery, published in Richmond in 1836. It argued that slaves were better off in slavery than they would be in freedom. It was a response to the rising tide of abolitionist actio...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Roger Baxter

borndied
17841827, May 24
an English Jesuit, a Catholic missionary in the United States. Baxter was a native of Walton-le-Dale, near Preston, in Lancashire. He finished his studies at Stonyhurst College, and entered the Society of Jesus in 1810. After rendering great services to the missions of Maryland and Pennsylvania, he died at Philadelphia.
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Robert Bayfield

bornactivedied
16291650s-1660sunknown
an English physician. He was born in Norwich and wrote with much energy on both religious and medical subjects. He was the author of Enchiridion Medicum (1655), Exercitationes Anatomicæ (1668), Treatise de morborum capitis essentiis et prognosticis (1663), Bulwarke of Truth (1657) and Tractatus de Tumoribus præter naturam; or a treatise of preternatural T...
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Pierre Bayle

borndied
1647, Nov 181706, Dec 28
a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697. Bayle was a Protestant. As a forerunner of the Encyclopedists and an advocate of the principle of the toleration of divergent beliefs, his works subsequently influenced the development of the Enlightenment.
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F. W. N. Bayley

borndied
18081853
an English miscellaneous writer. Bayley, in 1825 accompanied his father, who was in the army, to Barbados, and remained in the West Indies for four years. About the time of his return to England in 1829, he found that he was able to write in verse with considerable facility. He conducted a publication called the Omnibus, and was the first editor of the Illus...
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Sir John Bayley

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
17631841
an English judge. Though nominated for King's College, Cambridge, he did not go up to the university, and was admitted to Gray's Inn on 12 November 1783. After practising some time as a special pleader, he was called to the bar on 22 June 1792, and went the home circuit. In 1799 he became a serjeant-at-law, and was for some time recorder of Maidstone. In May...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Bayley

borndied
1800 ca1859, Nov 14
an English independent minister. Bayley was educated at Highbury Theological College, and on quitting that institution was appointed to a pastorate at Louth, Lincolnshire. After some years of labour at that place he removed (1835) to Sheffield to take charge of the Howard Street congregation, where he remained for about ten years. While there he exerted hims...
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Solomon Bayley

borndied
1771 ca1839 ca
an African American slave who was born in Delaware. He is best known for his 1825 autobiography entitled A Narrative of Some Remarkable Incidents in the Life of Solomon Bayley, Formerly a Slave in the State of Delaware, North America. Bayley's birth and death dates were never recorded like many African Americans who lived in America during the 19th century, ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Anselm Bayly

borndied
unknown1794
an English churchman and author of various works, chiefly of a theological and critical nature. He was also a singer and musical theorist, associated with the performance of works by Georg Handel. Bayly was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took the degree of B.C.L. on 12 June 1749. He entered the church and rose to some distinction in that profess...
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Cross-listed in Legal

John Baynes

borndied
17581787
an English lawyer and miscellaneous writer. Baynes contributed political articles to the London Courant. He wrote (anonymously) political verses and translations from French and Greek poems; some of these were published in the European Magazine (xii. 240). He is mentioned by Andrew Kippis as supplying materials for the Biographia Britannica. The archæologic...
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Paul Baynes

borndied
1573 ca1617
an English clergyman. Described as a “radical Puritan”, he was unpublished in his lifetime, but more than a dozen works were put out in the five years after he died. His commentary on Ephesians is his best known work; the commentary on the first chapter, itself of 400 pages, appeared in 1618. Baynes was an important influence on the following generation ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Baynton

borndied
1761, Oct 51820, Aug 31
an English medical writer and surgeon. Baynton was from Bristol, where he served his apprenticeship with Mr. Smith, a physician of considerable eminence. He afterwards acquired a large practice of his own, and obtained a high reputation by discoveries in the curative part of his profession, especially in the treatment of ulcers and wounds. He published Descr...
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John Beadle

borndied
unknown1667
an English clergyman, known as a diarist. Beadle was one of the 'classis' for the county of Essex. He was also one of the signatories to the historical' Essex Testimony.' In 1650 he is returned as 'an able preacher.' He was the author of the Journal or Diary of a Thankful Christian. Presented in some Meditations upon Numbers xxxiii. 2. By John Beadle, Master...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Beal

borndied
1815, Sep 91870, Apr 20
an English religious writer. William Beal was born in Sheffield, the son of William Beal, a Wesleyan minister. He was educated at King's College London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1841. In the same year he was ordained deacon. Headmaster of Tavistock Grammar School from 1837 to 1847, he was made vicar of Brooke near Norwich i...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Relly Beard

borndied
18001876
an English Unitarian minister, schoolmaster, university lecturer, and translator who co-founded Unitarian College Manchester and wrote more than thirty books. Beard published popular education manuals, theological works and, as both an editor and a journalist, engaged in vigorous Unitarian propaganda. He is best remembered for The Life of Toussaint L'Ouvertu...
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Thomas Beard

bornactivedied
unknown1590s-1620s1632
an English clergyman and theologian, of Puritan views. He is known as the author of The Theatre of God's Judgements, and the schoolmaster of Oliver Cromwell at Huntingdon. Beard's earliest and most famous book first appeared in 1597; a work in the tradition of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments, it was popular, plagiarised and pirated. In 1625 he published a wor...
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Pierre-Francois Godard de Beauchamps

aka: Pierre-François
borndied
16891761, Mar 12
a playwright, theater historian, libertine novelist and French translator. In his youth he was the secretary of François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, who became governor of the child King Louis XV of France. His most famous works are Arlequin amoureux par enchantement (Harlequin in love by magic) and Les Amans réunis (The lovers of reunion).
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Cross-listed in Artists

Jean de Beaugrand

borndied
15841640
the foremost French lineographer of the seventeenth century. Though born in Mulhouse, de Beaugrand moved to Paris in 1581. He also worked as a mathematician and published works on geostatics. He lived and worked in Paris as an artist until his death in 1640.
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Cross-listed in Military

Jean de Beaugue

aka: Beaugué
bornactivedied
unknown1540s-1550sunknown
a French soldier who served in Scotland in the 1540s during the war of the Rough Wooing. He wrote a memoir of the fighting which, first published in 1556, is still an important source for historians. Much of the book concerns the activities of the French commander in Scotland, André de Montalembert, who is often called d'Esse in British histories.
Links (1)


Fanny de Beauharnais

borndied
1737, Oct 41813, Jul 2
a French lady of letters and salon-holder. She wrote poetry from her childhood onwards and, after separating from her husband, devoted herself to literature, become friends with literary figures such as Claude Joseph Dorat and Michel de Cubières-Palmézeaux. Her salon became a choice social venue, and she became a member of the Académie des Arcades. In 178...
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Eustorg de Beaulieu

aka: Hector
borndied
1495 ca1552, Jan 8
a French poet, composer and pastor. There is very little information available about the details of his life. He was one of the first French authors to convert to protestantism.
Links (1)


Pierre Beaumarchais

aka: Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais
borndied
1732, Jan 241799, May 18
a French polymath. At various times in his life, he was a watchmaker, inventor, playwright, musician, diplomat, spy, publisher, horticulturist, arms dealer, satirist, financier, and revolutionary (both French and American). His name as a writer was established with his first dramatic play, Eugénie, which premiered at the Comédie Française in 1767. This wa...
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Francis Beaumont

borndied
15841616, Mar 6
a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher. He became a student of poet and playwright Ben Jonson; he was also acquainted with Michael Drayton and other poets and dramatists, and decided that was where his passion lay. His first work, Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, appeared in 1602.
Links (1)


Robert Beaumont

bornactivedied
unknown1639 caunknown
Master of Trinity College Cambridge from 1561 to 1567 and twice Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge (1564, 1566). Beaumont was a prominent figure in the movement of the Calvinists at Cambridge against conforming to the ordinances of Elizabeth I and Matthew Parker.
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Louis de Beaupoil de Saint-Aulaire

borndied
1778, Apr 91854, Nov 13
a French politician. After attending school at the École des ponts et chaussées and polytechnique (Where he graduated in 1794), he served as chamberlain to Napoleon I of France, then prefect of the Meuse in 1813 then of Haute-Garonne in 1814. He was elected to the chambre des députés in 1815, reelected by the Gard département in 1818, 1822 and 1827, but...
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Cross-listed in Military

Francois-Joseph de Beaupoil de Sainte-Aulaire

aka: François-Joseph, marquis de Sainte-Aulaire
borndied
1643, Sep 61742, Dec 17
a French poet and army officer. After a botched education, St. Aulaire entered the army and distinguished himself by his bravery, which led him to Lieutenant General rank. He also frequently fought a duel over a restless youth. He left the military career and came to live in Paris. He was a man of pleasant manners, delicate and sharp. He was welcomed in livi...
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Louis de Beausobre

borndied
1730, Aug 191783, Dec 3
a German philosopher and political economist of French Huguenot descent. Beausobre was educated at the Collège Français in Berlin, where he was taught and greatly influenced by Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey. He went on to study philosophy at Frankfurt an der Oder, and later in Paris. On his return to Berlin he was received as a member of the Prussian Acade...
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Nicolas Beauzee

aka: Beauzée
borndied
1717, May 91789, Jan 23
a French linguist, author of Grammaire générale (published 1767) and one of the main contributors to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert on the topic of grammar. In 1772 he was named as the successor to Charles Pinot Duclos in the Académie française. The Church register for the parish of Saint-Sauveur lists his father ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Beccon

aka: Becon, Theodore Basille
borndied
1511 ca1567
an English cleric and Protestant reformer from Norfolk. He was arrested for Protestant preaching and was forced to recant around 1540. He then began to write under the pen name of Theodore Basille. When Edward VI came to the throne in 1547, Beccon was made chaplain to the Lord Protector. Thomas Cranmer made him one of the Six Preachers of Canterbury, and a c...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Johann Joachim Becher

borndied
1635, May 61682, Oct
a German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer, best known for his development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, and his advancement of Austrian cameralism. At the beginning of 1680, he presented a paper to the Royal Society in which he attempted to deprive Huygens of the honour of applying the pendulum to the measurement...
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William Thomas Beckford

borndied
1760, Oct 11844, May 2
an English novelist, a profligate and consummately knowledgeable art collector and patron of works of decorative art, a critic, travel writer and sometime politician, reputed at one stage in his life to be the richest commoner in England. His parents were William Beckford and Maria Hamilton, daughter of the Hon. George Hamilton. He was Member of Parliament f...
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Julia Catherine Beckwith

borndied
1796, Mar 101867, Nov 28
credited as being Canada's first novelist. It took nearly over ten years for Beckwith to find someone who would publish her work. In 1824, Hugh C. Thomson agreed to publish St. Ursula’s Convent or, The Nun of Canada; Containing Scenes from Real Life, and as Beckwith wished, as an anonymous author. However only 165 copies were made. After Beckwith's romanti...
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Gustavo Adolfo Becquer

aka: Bécquer
borndied
1836, Feb 171870, Dec 22
a Spanish post-romanticist poet and writer (mostly short stories), also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented in drawing. In 1853, at the age of seventeen, he moved to Madrid to follow his dream of making a name for himself as a poet. A year later, in 1854, he moved to Toledo with his brother Valeriano, a lovely place in which he was able to write h...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Joseph-Isidore Bedard

aka: Bédard
borndied
1806, Jan 91833, Apr 14
a lawyer and political figure in Lower Canada. He articled in law with Georges-Barthélemi Faribault and was called to the bar in 1829. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada for Saguenay in 1830. He opposed an elected legislative council and voted against the expulsion of Robert Christie from the assembly. Bédard wrote the words to the ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Lovell Beddoes

borndied
1803, Jun 301849, Jan 26
an English poet, dramatist and physician. He published in 1821 The Improvisatore, which he afterwards endeavoured to suppress. His next venture, a blank-verse drama called The Bride's Tragedy (1822), was published and well reviewed, and won for him the friendship of Barry Cornwall. Beddoes' work shows a constant preoccupation with death. He continued to writ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles Beecher

borndied
1815, Oct 11900, Apr 21
an American minister, composer of religious hymns and a prolific author. He was the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the famous author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the brother of renowned Congregationalist minister, Henry Ward Beecher. He attended Boston Latin School and Lawrence Academy in Groton, Massachusetts, graduated from Bowdoin College in 1834, and the...
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Aphra Behn

aka: Astrea
borndied
1640, Dec 14 ca1689, Apr 16
a British playwright, poet, translator and fiction writer from the Restoration era. As one of the first English women to earn her living by her writing, she broke cultural barriers and served as a literary role model for later generations of women authors. Rising from obscurity, she came to the notice of Charles II, who employed her as a spy in Antwerp. Upon...
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John Bekinsau

borndied
1496 ca1559
an English classical scholar and theologian. Bekinsau was educated at Winchester School, and proceeded to New College, Oxford; he was made Fellow of his college in 1520, and took the degree of M.A. in 1526. His only extant work is a treatise De supremo et absoluto Regis imperio (London, 1546), republished in Melchior Goldast's Monarchia in 1611; this work is...
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Links (1)


Vissarion Belinsky

borndied
1811, Jun 111848, Jun 7
a Russian literary critic of Westernizing tendency. He was an associate of Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin (he at one time courted one of his sisters), and other critical intellectuals. Belinsky played one of the key roles in the career of poet and publisher Nikolay Nekrasov and his popular magazine Sovremennik.
Links (1)


Andrew Bell

bornactivedied
unknown1827-1863unknown
a Scottish-born Canadian journalist. He was well educated. His work and life is well known in the period indicated. Bell was a successful lecturer and journalist in Scotland when he became involved with a collection of letters belonging to General James Wolfe. This, no doubt, attracted him to Canada and he arrived there in about 1857. In 1858 he was the edit...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Bell

bornactivedied
15511573-1610unknown
an English Roman Catholic priest, and later an anti-Catholic writer. He was mentioned in 1592 as one ill-affected to the government, and he shared the fate of other seminary priests in being arrested.After leaving Catholicism he participated in the persecution of Catholics, advocating the use of the rack, leading night time searches of Catholic homes and mad...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Bell

borndied
1780, May 281857, Aug 16
a Presbyterian minister, born in Scotland and an immigrant to Perth, Upper Canada, in 1817. He was a significant figure in promoting and expanding the Presbyterian faith among the settlers in his region. He assisted in starting congregations in Beckwith Township, Lanark, Smiths Falls and Richmond. His carefully constructed diaries and other writings provide ...
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Thomas Bellamy

borndied
17451800, Aug 29
an English tradesman and writer. In 1787 Bellamy started the General Magazine and Impartial Review, which was published for some months. Another venture was Bellamy's Picturesque Magazine and Literary Museum, which contained engraved portraits of living persons, with some account of their lives; but it was a commercial failure. Later he set up The Monthly Mi...
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Francois de Belleforest

borndied
15301583, Jan 1
a prolific French author, poet and translator of the Renaissance. Belleforest wrote on cosmography, morals, literature and history, and he translated the works of Matteo Bandello, Boccaccio, Antonio de Guevara, Lodovico Guicciardini, Polydore Vergil, Saint Cyprian, Sebastian Münster, Achilles Tatius, Cicero and Demosthenes into French. He is also the author...
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John Bellenden

aka: Ballantyne
bornactivedied
unknown1533-1587 caunknown
a Scottish writer of the 16th century. At the request of James V he translated Hector Boece's Historia Gentis Scotorum. This translation, Croniklis of Scotland is a very free one, with a good deal of matter not in the original, so that it may be almost considered as a new work. It was published in 1536 in Edinburgh by Thomas Davidson. Another work, the Banne...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Chippendall Montesquieu Bellew

borndied
1823, Aug 31874, Jun 19
an English author, preacher, and public reader. Ordained in 1848, he was appointed a curate of St. Andrews in Worcester, and in 1850 transferred to a curacy at Prescot, Lancashire. In the following year he went to the East Indies. There, almost immediately upon his arrival in 1851 at Calcutta, he was nominated chaplain of St. John's Cathedral there. He held ...
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Giuseppe Gioachino Belli

borndied
1791, Sep 71863, Dec 21
an Italian poet, famous for his sonnets in Romanesco, the dialect of Rome. After a period of employment in straitened circumstances, in 1816 he married a woman of means, Maria Conti, and this enabled him the ease to develop his literary talents. Belli is mainly remembered for his vivid popular poetry in the Roman dialect. He produced some 2,279 sonnets that ...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersNavalCartographers

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

bornactivedied
1778, Sep 91796-18521852, Jan 13
a Baltic-German officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral. He participated in the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe and subsequently became a leader of another circumnavigation expedition, which discovered the continent of Antarctica.
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Cross-listed in ExplorersScientists

Pierre Belon

aka: Pierre Belon du Mans, Petrus Bellonius Cenomanus
borndied
15171564
a French explorer, naturalist, writer and diplomat. Like many others of the Renaissance period, he studied and wrote on a range of topics including ichthyology, ornithology, botany, comparative anatomy, architecture and Egyptology. Belon was typical of the renaissance scholar and took an interest in "all kinds of good disciplines" in his lifetime. He was int...
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Jacques Testu de Belval

borndied
1626 ca1706, Jun
a French ecclesiastic and poet. Best known for his light poetry, he was also a preacher, translator and king's almoner. He was linked with Madame de Sévigné, Madame de Coulanges, Madame de Brancas, Madame de Schomberg, Madame de La Fayette and Marie-Madeleine de Rochechouart, abbess of Fontevrault Abbey. He was elected to the Académie française in 1665 ...
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Claude Bendier

bornactivedied
unknown1670s-1680s1677
a doctor of the Sorbonne, canon of Saint-Quentin, Aisne, and a well-known French bibliophile. Born in Saint-Quentin in an unknown year, he always remained strongly attached to his native city, to which he bequeathed his 3000 volume library on the condition that it be open to the public twice a week. His Life of St. Quentin was read in many primary schools du...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Pope Benedict XIV

bornactivedied
1675, Mar 311740-17581758, May 3
Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1740 until his death in1758. Perhaps one of the greatest scholars in Christendom, yet often overlooked, he promoted scientific learning, the baroque arts, reinvigoration of Thomism, and the study of the human form. Firmly established with great devotion and adherence to the Council of Trent and authentic Catholic teachi...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Benese

borndied
unknown1546
a canon of the Augustinian priory of Merton. Benese supplicated for the degree of B.C.L. at Oxford University 6 July 1619. He signed the surrender of the Augustinian priory of Merton to Henry VIII on 16 April 1538. He had previously written a book upon the art and science of surveying land. The book was prepared for the press by Thomas Paynell, also a canon ...
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Elizabeth Benger

borndied
1775, Jun1827, Jan 9
an English biographer, novelist and poet. Elizabeth wanted to become a playwright, but she had no success and soon turned to poetry with a social message. "The Abolition of the Slave Trade" appeared in 1809, with verse by James Montgomery and James Grahame on the same subject. Then came two novels, the second of which was also translated into French. She lat...
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Cross-listed in PiratesExplorersMilitary

Maurycy Beniowski

aka: Baron Maurice de Benyowski, Móric Benyovszky, Móric Benyovszky
bornactivedied
1746, Sep 201762-17861786, May 23
a Hungarian nobleman of Polish and Hungarian ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, the self-declared King of Madagascar, and a military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. He is considered a national hero in Hungary, Slovakia and Poland.
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Cross-listed in Architects

Asher Benjamin

bornactivedied
1773, Jun 151794-18411845, Jul 26
an American architect and author whose work transitioned between Federal style architecture and the later Greek Revival. His seven handbooks on design deeply influenced the look of cities and towns throughout New England until the Civil War. Builders also copied his plans in the Midwest and in the South.
Links (1)


Anna Maria Bennett

aka: Agnes Maria Bennett
borndied
1750 ca1808, Feb 12
an English novelist. Her best-known work is the epistolary novel Agnes de-Courci. Anna was probably born in Glamorganshire, Wales, the daughter of David Evans, described variously as a customs officer or grocer. She was briefly married to customs officer Thomas Bennett, but while working in a chandler's shop after moving to London, she met Vice-Admiral Thoma...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Peter Benoit

borndied
1834, Aug 171901, Mar 8
a Flemish composer of Belgian nationality. Benoit's most important compositions include the Flemish oratorios De Schelde (The river Scheldt) and Lucifer (which met complete failure when it was staged in London in 1888), the operas Het Dorp in 't Gebergte (The village in the mountains) and Isa, and the Drama Christi, a huge body of songs, choruses, small cant...
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Isaac de Benserade

borndied
1613, Nov1691, Oct 10
a French poet. Benserade provided the words for the court ballets, and was, in 1674, admitted to the Academy, where he wielded considerable influence. In 1675 he provided the quatrains to accompany the thirty nine hydraulic sculpture groups depicting Aesop's fables in the labyrinth of Versailles. In 1676 the failure of his Métamorphoses d'Ovide in the form ...
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Robert Benson

borndied
1797, Feb 51844, Jun 21
a barrister and author who served as recorder of Salisbury. He became a barrister in 1821 at the bar of the Middle Temple, and practised in the courts of equity. In 1823 he went to Corsica as one of the commissioners to carry out the bequests of former Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli. On his return Benson published a book called Sketches of Corsica; or a Jour...
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Elizabeth Bentley

borndied
17671839
a poet. Her first collection, Genuine Poetical Compositions (1791), had an impressive 1,935 subscribers. Her poetry celebrates the countryside and engages in public debates on topics such as abolitionism and cruelty to animals. Cowper compared her favourably with Mary Leapor, a labouring-class poet of the previous generation, citing her "strong natural geniu...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Eric Benzelius the Younger

bornactivedied
1675, Jan 71742-17431743, Sep 23
a priest, theologian, librarian, bishop of Linköping, 1731-1742 and Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, 1742–1743, for the Lutheran Swedish Church. He was a highly learned man and one of Sweden's important Enlightenment figures. Benzelius' theology was marked by his father's orthodox beliefs and he wrote and published several books in theology, as well as in d...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Joseph Frederic Berard

aka: Joseph Frédéric Bérard
borndied
1789, Nov 41828, Apr 16
a French physician and philosopher, who was born at Montpellier. Educated at the medical school of that town, he afterwards went to Paris, where he was employed in connexion with the Dictionnaire des sciences medicales. He returned in 1816, and published a work, Doctrine medicale de l'école de Montpellier (1819), which is indispensable to a proper understan...
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Cross-listed in Educators

François-Joseph Berardier de Bataut

aka: Bérardier de Bataut
borndied
17201794
a French teacher, writer and translator living in the Age of Enlightenment. François-Joseph Bérardier de Bataut is born in Paris in 1720. Having studied theology, he became professor of rhetoric at the Collège du Plessis a part of the University of Paris. He is the author, notably, of a Précis de l'histoire universelle (Treaty of Universal History) which...
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Links (1)


Marta Berendes

aka: Märta
borndied
16391717
a Swedish Baroness and diary writer. She served as Mistress of the Robes at the Swedish royal court from 1693 to 1717. She is the author of a diary written between 1676 and 1698, which as been published and the object of research. She served as maid of honour to queen Christina of Sweden and to the next queen, Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp. From 1687, ...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Alphonse-Marie-Marcellin-Thomas Berenger

aka: Bérenger, Thomas Bérenger, Berenger de la Drôme
borndied
1785, May 311866, May 1
a French lawyer and politician. He was the son of a deputy of the third estate of Dauphiné to the Constituent Assembly. In 1833, he had shared in the foundation of a society for the reclamation of young criminals, in which he continued to be actively interested to the end. In 1851 and 1852, on the commission of the academy of moral sciences, he had travelle...
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Nikolai Berg

borndied
1823, Apr 51884, Jun 28
a Russian poet, journalist, translator and historian. In the early 1850s he joined the 'young faction' of Moskvityanin and, along with Boris Almazov, Evgeny Edelson, Lev Mei, Terty Filippov, and Apollon Grigoriev, became a member of what came to be known as the Ostrovsky circle. In 1853 he went to Sevastopol as a correspondent, and stayed there until the end...
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Luisa Bergalli

borndied
17031779
a Venetian writer. She married in 1738 to Gasparo Gozzi. She participated in the work of Gozzi in the translations of novels, plays and other work. She herself translated Terenzio and Racine. She produced poems, compositions, comic and tragic plays as well as a novel, Le avventure del poeta, 1730.
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Charlotta Berger

borndied
1784, Aug 211852, May 25
a Swedish writer, translator, poet and songwriter. Charlotta Berger debuted as a translator of foremost French poems. Early on, she started to publish her own poems in a number of papers, often historical anecdotes in the form of verse. Her composer spouse added music to some of her poems. Her most popular poem has been referred to as »Korset på Idas grav...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Johann Georg Bergmuller

aka: Bergmüller
borndied
1688, Apr 151762, Apr 2
a painter, particularly of frescoes, of the Baroque. Bergmüller quickly acquired a high reputation in Augsburg and created works of art, few of which have survived however. He became the most important teacher of fresco painting at the Imperial City of Augsburg Academy, founded in 1710. His style of composition and his motifs were influential on his pupils....
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Ferenc Berke

borndied
1764 ca1841, Feb 10
a Hungarian Slovene Lutheran pastor and writer. After 1790, Berke was pastor in Križevci until October 14, 1805, when he became pastor in Puconci and later senior (superintendent) of the Evangelical congregation. Berke and Mátyás Godina published a second edition of the Prekmurian New Testament.
Links (1)


Eliza Berkeley

borndied
17341800
an English author. At eleven she wrote two sermons, and she and her sister Anne were placed at Mrs. Sheeles's school, Queen Square, London. In January 1793 her son died; in January 1797 her sister died; in January 1805 her husband died; and under the repeated shock of such distress, with impaired health and lessened fortune, she became markedly eccentric. ...
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Links (1)


George Berkeley

aka: Bishop Berkeley
borndied
1685, Mar 121753, Jan 14
an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others). In 1709, Berkeley published his first major work, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, in which he discussed the limitations of human vision and advanced the theory that the proper objects ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Johan Daniel Berlin

borndied
1714, May 121787, Nov 4
a German-born Norwegian rococo composer and organist, remembered as one of the founders of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. He allegedly composed many works, but only a few of the compositions of Berlin have been preserved. His book, Musicaliske Elementer (Musical Elements), printed in Trondheim in 1744, was the first Norwegian textbook o...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Joost Berman

borndied
1793, Jan 91855, Mar 18
a Dutch lawyer, judge, poet, nonfiction writer, and editor. Joost Berman wrote several works of poetry mobilizing public opinion against the Belgian Revolution, supporting a continued Dutch rule over Belgium His dissertation and some other nonfiction works were also published. Berman often wrote for magazines. From 1836 to 1847, he was co-editor of the "Zeel...
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Links (1)


Catherine Bernard

borndied
16621712, Sep 16
a French poet, playwright, and novelist. She composed three historical novels, two verse tragedies, several poems, and was awarded several poetry prizes by the Académie française. Bernard established the fundamental aesthetic principle of the French literary conte de fées popular in the salons of the late seventeenth century with the dictum: "the [adventu...
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John Bernard

borndied
17561828
an English actor and biographer. There is very little information available concerning the details of his life. He was the author of Retrospections of the Stage (1830) and Retrospections of America, 1797-1811. He acted in a number of plays with Mary Ann Duff.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Pierre-Joseph Bernard

aka: Gentil-Bernard
borndied
1708, Aug 261775, Nov 1
a French military man and salon poet with the reputation of a rake, the author of several libretti for Rameau. Mme de Pompadour arranged to have him appointed a royal librarian, at the château de Choisy, where she had a little pavilion built for him. He received a Jesuit education at Lyon and joined the staff of Marshal François de Franquetot de Coigny, ri...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Bernard

borndied
15681641
an English Puritan clergyman and writer. Barnard was a Calvinist Puritan, but a moderate one. Bernard advocated a joyful approach to life, instead of the more serious and pious disposition that was encouraged at the time. Bernard wrote an influential handbook for ministers entitled The Faithfull Shepheard and his practice, which was published in 1607 and 162...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryScientists

Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

aka: Bernardin de St. Pierre
borndied
1737, Jan 191814, Jan 21
a French writer and botanist. He is best known for his 1788 novel Paul et Virginie, now largely forgotten, but in the 19th century a very popular children's book. He was educated as an engineer at the École des Ponts ParisTech. Then he joined the French Army and was involved in the Seven Years' War against Prussia and England. In 1768 he traveled to Mauriti...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Francois Bernier

aka: François
borndied
1620, Sep 251688, Sep 22
a French physician and traveller. He was born at Joué-Etiau in Anjou. He was briefly personal physician to Mughal prince Dara Shikoh, and after the prince's demise, was attached to the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (14 October 1618 – 20 February 1707), for around 12 years during his stay in India. His 1684 publication Nouvelle division de la terre...
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Jean de Bernieres-Louvigny

borndied
16021659, May 3
a French mystic and an important lay spiritual writer. Jean de Bernieres-Louvigny was born in Caen, Normandy and he worked as a Royal finance officer. After a conversion experience, he began to live in a hermitage as an ascetic. He was never a cleric, but devoted himself to the spiritual leadership of many people, and also wrote some sacred works, which were...
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Cross-listed in ArtistsSculptorsArchitects

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

aka: Gianlorenz, Giovanni Lorenzo
bornactivedied
1598, Dec 71609-16781680, Nov 28
an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets.
Links (1)


Francois Beroalde de Verville

aka: François Béroalde de Verville
borndied
1556, Apr 271626, Oct 20 ca
a French Renaissance novelist, poet and intellectual. Béroalde had close ties to the intellectual and creative milieus of the late 16th century and early 17th century. His first works were contributions to a work on mathematics and mechanics (1578) and to a history of blazons (1581). He also produced numerous historical and philosophical works. Béroalde's ...
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Capel Berrow

borndied
17161782
an English divine. He was admitted into Merchant Taylors' School 16 Oct. 1728, and became head scholar in 1733 (Robinson; M. T. School Register). He proceeded to the university of Oxford, matriculated a commoner of St. John's College in 1734, proceeded B.A. in 1738, M.A. of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1758. He became curate of St. Botolph's, Aldersgate, Mar...
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Giovanni Bertati

borndied
1735, Jul 101815, Dec
an Italian librettist. Bertati was born in Martellago, Italy. In 1763, he wrote his first libretto, La morte di Dimone ("The Death of Dimone"), set to music by Antonio Tozzi. Two years later, L'isola della fortuna ("The Island of Fortune"), based on Bertati's libretto and Andrea Luchesi's music, was performed in Vienna. During his career as a librettist, Ber...
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Cross-listed in InventorsScientists

Marcellin Berthelot

borndied
18271907
a French chemist and politician noted for the Thomsen-Berthelot principle of thermochemistry. He synthesized many organic compounds from inorganic substances, providing a large amount of counterevidence to the theory of Jöns Jakob Berzelius that organic compounds required organisms in their synthesis. He is considered as one of the greatest chemists of all ...
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Elie Berthet

aka: Élie
borndied
1815, Jun 81891, Feb 3
a French novelist. Berthet was born in Limoges. A most prolific writer, he wrote more than 100 novels about Paris, criminal affairs, the prehistoric world, and other subjects. His Les Houilleurs de Polignies is reported to have been one of the inspirations for Zola's Germinal. He died, aged 75, in Paris.
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Carlo Bertinazzi

aka: Carlin
borndied
1710, Dec 21783, Sep 6
was an Italian actor and author. He is known to have traveled with Giacomo Casanova's mother, Zanetta Farussi, to St Petersburg to perform for Empress Anna of Russia, only to return to Italy shortly after, as the empress did not approve of the comedy. Carlin was best known for his role as Harlequin in the commedia dell'arte (Italian comedy) that he performed...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Alexandre Jacques Francois Bertrand

aka: Alexandre Jacques François
borndied
1795, Apr 251831, Jan 22
a French physician and mesmerist who was a native of Rennes. Bertrand is remembered for his scientific investigations of animal magnetism and somnambulism. In his public lectures on animal magnetism he spoke confidently about the existence of "magnetic fluid", but through experience and reflection he later changed his mind, becoming a leading critic of its e...
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Aloysius Bertrand

aka: Louis Jacques Napoléon Bertrand
borndied
1807, Apr 201841, Apr 29
a French Romantic poet, playwright and journalist. He is famous for having introduced prose poetry in French literature, and is considered a forerunner of the Symbolist movement. His contributions to a local paper led to recognition by Victor Hugo and Sainte-Beuve. He lived in Paris for a short time. He returned to Dijon and continued writing for local newsp...
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Jerome Besoigne

aka: Jérôme
borndied
16861763
a prominent Jansenist apologist and oppositionist to the Bull "Unigenitus." There is very little information concerning the details of his life. He was born in Paris. He was ordained in 1715 and received a doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1718. He wrote and published several books, mostly on historical and religious topics.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Jacques Besson

borndied
1540 ca1573
a French Protestant inventor, mathematician, and philosopher, chiefly remembered for his popular treatise on machines Theatrum Instrumentorum (1571–72), which saw many reprints in different languages. In 1562 Besson became the pastor of the Protestant Reformed Church in Villeneuve-de-Berg, France, Olivier de Serres having sent a request to the Company of P...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

George Best

borndied
unknown1584
a member of the second and third Martin Frobisher voyages in positions of importance; as Frobisher's lieutenant on the second and as captain of the Anne Francis on the third. He published A True Discourse of the Late Voyages of Discoverie (1578). The True Discourse included the First Frobisher Voyage, in which Best did not participate, as well as the other t...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

George Washington Bethune

borndied
1805, Mar 181862, Apr 28
a preacher-pastor in the Dutch Reformed Church. He was an outspoken Democrat in politics, opposed to slavery but unsympathetic to abolitionism. Due to his Calvinist ideas about the unsuitability of such a hobby for a clergyman, Bethune, an avid fisherman, worked anonymously on five of the US editions of Izaak Walton's The Compleat Angler under the pseudonym ...
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Elizabeth Beverley

aka: Mrs. R. Beverley
bornactivedied
unknown1815-1830unknown
a travelling English entertainer and pamphleteer. One of Beverley's works, Modern Times (1818) was prompted by the death in childbirth of Princess Charlotte of Wales, the only child of the future King George IV, taking the form of a sermon on the text of Jeremiah 5:29. Others, in verse or prose, comment on a child's death, on the value to women of male appla...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Thomas Bewick

borndied
1753, Aug 111828, Nov 8
an English engraver and natural history author. Early in his career he took on all kinds of work such as engraving cutlery, making the wood blocks for advertisements, and illustrating children's books. Gradually he turned to illustrating, writing and publishing his own books, gaining an adult audience for the fine illustrations in A History of Quadrupeds.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Ali Bey al-Abbasi

aka: Domingo Francisco Jorge Badía y Leblich
borndied
17671818
a Spanish explorer, soldier, and spy in the early 19th century. He supported the French occupation of Spain and worked for the Bonapartist administration, but he is principally known for his travels in North Africa and the Middle East. He witnessed the Saudi conquest of Mecca in 1807. In 1814, he published a French account of his travels in three volumes. An...
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Theodore Beza

aka: Théodore de Bèze, de Besze
borndied
1519, Jun 241605, Oct 13
a French Protestant Christian theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. A member of the monarchomaque movement who opposed absolute monarchy, he was a disciple of John Calvin and lived most of his life in Switzerland. Combining his pastoral and literary gifts, Beza wrote the first drama produced in French, Abrahm Sacrifiant; a p...
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Giuseppe Bianchini

borndied
17041764
an Italian Oratorian, biblical, historical, and liturgical scholar. Clement XII and Benedict XIV, who highly appreciated his learning, entrusted him with several scientific labors. Bianchini had contemplated a large work on the texts of the Bible, Vindiciae Canonicarum Scripturarum Vulgatae latinae editionis, which was to comprise several volumes, but only t...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Michel Bibaud

borndied
1782, Jan 191857, Aug 3
a Canadian writer and educator in Montreal, Quebec. Bibaud was the founder and editor of La Bibliothèque canadienne with the close assistance of Joseph-Marie Bellenger. His body of work was diverse and large. The historical content has importance to the events of the time. Bibaud is credited with the first book written in verse by a Canadian.
Links (1)


Marie Francois Xavier Bichat

aka: Marie François Xavier
borndied
1771, Nov 141802, Jul 22
a French anatomist and physiologist who is best remembered as the father of modern histology and descriptive anatomy. Despite working without a microscope, he was the first to introduce the notion of tissues as distinct entities, and maintained that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs or the entire body, causing a revolution in anatomical path...
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Isaac Bickerstaffe

aka: Bickerstaff
borndied
1733, Sep 261812 ca
an Irish playwright and Librettist. Bickerstaff had first arrived in London in 1755 and worked as a playwright. His years growing up in Dublin, a cultural hub at the time, had greatly influenced his views on writing and the arts. He developed a view that the English language was totally unsuited for singing operas in, however skilled the composer, and that I...
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Cross-listed in Artists

George Bickham the Elder

borndied
16841758
an English writing master and engraver. He is best known for his engraving work in The Universal Penman, a collection of writing exemplars which helped to popularise the English Round Hand script in the 18th century. In 1712, Bickham wrote copy books and business texts as there was a strong link between writing and mathematics (arithmetic and bookkeeping) in...
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Links (1)


Hester Biddle

borndied
1629 ca1697
an English Quaker writer and itinerant preacher who "addressed pugnacious pamphlets to those who persecuted religious dissenters, worshipped in the Anglican church, or refused to help the poor." She became a Quaker in 1654. Her subsequent preaching took her to Ireland and Scotland, Newfoundland, the Netherlands, Barbados, Alexandria and France. Quaker writin...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in AstronomersMilitary

Wilhelm Freiherr von Biela

bornactivedied
1782, Mar 191802-1840s1856, Feb 18
a German-Austrian military officer and amateur astronomer. In the field of astronomy, he specialized in observing and calculating the orbits of comets. He also did some sunspot observations and published a series of articles, mostly in the Astronomische Nachrichten, on subjects such as comets, the theoretical considerations of comets "falling into the Sun," ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

M.D.T. Bienville

aka: D.T. de Bienville
bornactivedied
unknown1770sunknown
an obscure French doctor, he wrote the first full-length study abount nymphomania, entitled Nymphomania, or a Dissertation Concerning the Furor Uterinus, and translated into English in 1775. Eating rich food, consuming too much chocolate, dwelling on impure thoughts, reading novels, or performing "secret pollutions" (masturbating), according to Bienville, ov...
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Anne Bignan

borndied
1795, Aug 31861, Nov 27
a French poet and translator, famous in his time as for his translations of Homer and for his academic honors. Raised in Paris , Anne Bignan quickly developed a vocation for both the letters and the competition, winning in 1813 and 1814, several awards open competition . After publishing in 1819 his first translations of Homer, he won between 1822 and 1849 n...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Jean-Paul Bignon

borndied
1662, Sep 191743, Mar 14
a French ecclesiastic, statesman, writer and preacher and librarian to Louis XIV of France. He was charged by the minister Colbert to head the Bignon Commission, which investigated the feasibility and then began the compilation of a guide to French artistic and industrial processes, published in the following century as the Descriptions of the Arts and Trade...
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Francis Bigod

borndied
1507, Oct 41537, Jun 2
the leader of Bigod's Rebellion. In his youth he became 'a committed Protestant with scholarly theological interests', hearing several sermons daily and corresponding with reformers, including Thomas Garret. At one point he considered taking orders. Under Thomas Cromwell, Wolsey’s successor, he was engaged in advancing in Yorkshire Henry VIII's ecclesiasti...
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Jacques Bins

aka: comte de Saint-Victor
borndied
17721858
a French poet and man of letters. During the First Empire, Bins de Saint-Victor was arrested as a royalist conspirator and incarcerated at Paris. After the fall of Napoleon, he was one of the editors of the Journal des débats and also worked on the Drapeau blanc. Having tried without success to found a bookstore with Félicité Robert de Lamennais, he spent...
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Samuel Birch

borndied
1813, Nov 31885, Dec 27
a British Egyptologist and antiquary. After brief employment in the Record Office, he obtained, in 1836, an appointment to the antiquities department of the British Museum. The appointment was due to his knowledge of Chinese, which was unusual at that time. He soon broadened his research to Egyptian. When the cumbrous department came to be divided, he was ap...
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Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer

borndied
1800, Jun 231868, Aug 25
a German actress and writer. Dramatization of popular novels was her specialty, for which her intimate knowledge of the technical necessities of the stage fitted her. Her plays, adapted and original, fill 23 volumes. Many continued to retain the public favor. Her novels and tales were collected in three volumes.
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Robert Montgomery Bird

bornactivedied
1806, Feb 51827-18471854, Jan 23
an American novelist, playwright, and physician. In 1828, Bird's play Pelopidas won a $1000 prize offered by the actor Edwin Forrest, but was never produced. Instead, Bird wrote another play for Forrest, The Gladiator, which was produced in 1831. Bird wrote several other plays for Forrest. Forrest had promised to pay Bird more for these plays if they proved ...
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Yusuf Biscaino

aka: Ahmad, Abd Allah al-Hayti al-Maruni
bornactivedied
unknown1610sunknown
a Morisco in the service of the Moroccan Sultan Mulay Zidan. He was sent as an ambassador to the Low Countries in 1610-11. He met with Prince Maurice of Nassau who inquired to him about Islamic opinions on Jesus. He preferred not to answer on the spot, but later sent a letter to Maurice. After returning to Marakesh, Yusuf Biscaino sent the letter in Latin to...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Bishop [1]

borndied
1553 ca1624
the first Roman Catholic bishop after the English Reformation. Officially, he was the titular bishop of Chalcedon, his territory included all of England, Wales and Scotland. English Catholics in the new King James's reign were faced by a novel oath of allegiance. In the subsequent troubles Bishop was committed to the Gatehouse Prison; he and twelve other pri...
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Johann Heinrich Bisterfeld

borndied
16051655, Feb 16
a German philosopher, logician and encyclopedic writer from Siegen. A follower of Ramus and pupil of Johann Heinrich Alsted at the Herborn Academy (Academia Nassauensis), Bisterfeld became head of the academy in Weissenburg (Alba Iulia) in Transylvania, where he died.
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Gustafva Bjorklund

aka: Björklund
borndied
17941862
a Swedish cookery book-author and restaurant owner. In 1847, she published her cookery book Kokbok, which became a success and was reprinted in several editions and was followed by additional works in cookery.
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Sarah Blackborow

bornactivedied
unknown1650s-1660sunknown
the author of tracts that strongly influenced Quaker thinking on social problems and the theological position of women. She was one of several prominent female activists in the early decades of the Society of Friends.
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Richard Blackmore

borndied
1654, Jan 221729, Oct 9
an English poet and physician, is remembered primarily as the object of satire and as an example of a dull poet. He was, however, a respected physician and religious writer. Blackmore had a passion for writing epics. Prince Arthur, an Heroick Poem in X Books appeared in 1695. He supported the Glorious Revolution, and Prince Arthur was a celebration of Willia...
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Sir William Blackstone

borndied
1723, Jul 101780, Feb 14
an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England. Born into a middle-class family in London, Blackstone was educated at Charterhouse School before matriculating at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1738. After switching to and completing a Bachelor of Civil Law degree, he w...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Antoinette Brown Blackwell

borndied
1825, May 201921, Nov 5
the first woman to be ordained as a mainstream Protestant minister in the United States. She was a well-versed public speaker on the paramount issues of her time, and distinguished herself from her contemporaries with her use of religious faith in her efforts to expand women's rights.
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Adam Blackwood

borndied
15391613
a Scottish author and apologist for Mary, Queen of Scots. He was born in Dunfermline, Scotland and died in Poitiers, France. Adam was orphaned at a young age and his education was sponsored by his great uncle, Robert Reid, Bishop of Orkney. Blackwood went to the University of Paris and then on to Toulouse to study civil law, with the direct patronage of Mary...
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Isa Blagden

borndied
1816/17, Jun 301873, Jan 20
an English-language novelist and poet born in the East Indies or India, who spent much of her life among the English community in Florence. Blagden's earliest pieces were two poems inspired by work by Edward Bulwer Lytton, which appeared in The Metropolitan Magazine in July 1842 and April 1843. Another, entitled "To George Sand on her Interview with Elizabet...
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Thomas Blague

aka: Blage
borndied
1545 ca1611
an English churchman and author, dean of Rochester from 1592. He was the author in early life of A Schoole of wise Conceytes. It is a collection of fables in the style of Aesop, and is thought to have drawn on material related to the Dialogus creaturarum. He actually used 19 authors, both classical and Renaissance humanists including Erasmus. In 1603 he prin...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Jan Blahoslav

borndied
1523, Feb 201571, Nov 24
a Czech humanistic writer, poet, translator, etymologist, hymnographer, grammarian, music theorist and composer. He was a Unity of the Brethren bishop, and translated the New Testament into Czech in 1564. This was incorporated into the Bible of Kralice.
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Cross-listed in Artists

William Blake

borndied
1757, Nov 281827, Aug 12
an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. His prophetic poetry has been said to form "what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language". His visual artistry led one conte...
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William Rufus Blake

borndied
1805, Dec1863, Apr 22
a Canadian stage actor. When only seventeen years old he went on the stage at Halifax, N. S., taking the part of the Prince of Wales, in Richard III with a company of strolling players. His first appearance in New York was in 1824, at the old Chatham Theatre, as Frederick, in The Poor Gentleman, and in The Three Singles. He was the author of several plays
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Richard Paul Blakeney

borndied
18201884, Dec 21
an Irish-born religious writer and cleric. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1842, taking high honours in theology. In 1852 he proceeded LL.B. and LL.D. He became curate of St. Paul's, Nottingham, in 1843, vicar of Hyson Green, Nottinghamshire, in 1844, vicar of Christ Church, Claughton, Birkenhead, in January 1852, vicar...
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August Blanche

borndied
1811, Sep 171868, Nov 30
a Swedish journalist, novelist, and a socialist politician. A brilliant student, in 1838 he obtained a law degree and for a time, worked as a civil servant until taking up journalism. In the early 1840s, he began writing plays for the theater as well as translating plays from foreign languages into Swedish. By the middle of the decade, he was writing novels ...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Frederic Blasius

aka: Frédéric, Matthäus, Matthieu, Mathieu
borndied
1758, Apr 241829
a French violinist, clarinetist, conductor, and composer. Born Matthäus (French: Matthieu, Mathieu) Blasius, he used Frédéric as his pen name on his publications in Paris. Blasius wrote a number of works for the stage as well as instrumental pieces for Harmoniemusik (music for wind band), concertos with orchestra, and chamber music with a particular emph...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Philip of the Blessed Trinity

borndied
16031671, Feb 28
a French Discalced Carmelite theologian and missionary. Choosing the missionary life, he studied in Paris and two years at the seminary in Rome, proceeded in February 1629 to the Holy Land and Persia, and then to Goa where he became prior of the Order convent and teacher of philosophy and theology (1631-1639). After the martyrdom of his pupil Dionysius, Phil...
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Walter Blith

borndied
16051654
an English writer on husbandry and an official under the Commonwealth. Blith's books on husbandry show notable good sense, based on the author's and others' farming experience. He presents his judgements and opinions carefully, and made textual changes in subsequent editions to describe new farming practices. His The English Improver, or, A New Survey of Hus...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Hugo von Blomberg

borndied
18201871
a poet and painter, was born at Berlin in 1820. He studied under Wach in the Academy at Berlin, and under Léon Cogniet at Paris, and copied Rubens's works in the Louvre. He died at Weimar in 1871.
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Robert Bloomfield

borndied
1766, Dec 31823, Aug 19
an English labouring class poet whose work is appreciated in the context of other self-educated writers such as Stephen Duck, Mary Collier and John Clare. Bloomfield's poetry invites comparison with that of George Crabbe, who was also a native of Suffolk. Both wrote much in iambic pentameter couplets, both provide descriptions of rural life in its hardest an...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

borndied
1752, May 111840, Jan 22
a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He was one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history. His teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to the classification of what he called human races, of which he determined there to be five. He was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine and insp...
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Louise Sophie Blusse

aka: Bless, D.N. Anagrapheus
borndied
1801, Jan 121896, Apr 1
a Dutch writer. Blussé married the historian and archaeologist Caspar Reuvens in Leiden on 19 July 1822. After the death of Reuvens in 1835, Blussé lived with her parents' family in Leiden, and they collaborated on the creation of a pocket dictionary in two volumes, English-Dutch and Dutch-English, which were published in the years 1843 and 1845 respective...
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Pierre Boaistuau

aka: Pierre Launay, Sieur de Launay
borndied
1517 ca1566
a French humanist writer. His most successful titles in terms of publications were Le Théâtre du monde (which became one of early modern Europe's best-sellers), Histoires prodigieuses, and Histoires tragiques. As the contents of his works indicate, his varied interests included, among other, political theory, history, philosophy, literary fiction, theology...
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Giovanni Battista Boccabadati

borndied
1635, Feb1696, Oct 17
As well as practising and teaching law, he was a mathematician, an engineer and a writer, especially of plays. We know nothing of the studies that were to give him a wide literary, legal and scientific knowledge, nor where he gained his degree in civil and canon law. He was also to gain a reputation as a writer, beginning with poetry on political subjects in...
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Nicolaes Boddingius

aka: Bodding van Laer
borndied
1605, Aug1669
a schoolmaster, writer and minister in the Netherlands. For most of his life he lived in Haarlem, where after the death of his parents, sometime before 1628, he took over the school "inde Laurier Boom" which was founded by his grandfather Peeter Heyns around 1593. He also wrote several books about learning how to write, amongst them one called "Stightigh A.B...
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John Bodenham

borndied
1559 ca1610
an English anthologist, the patron of some of the Elizabethan poetry anthologies. He was the son of William Bodnam and Katherine Wanton. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School. Mr. Bullen says that Bodenham did not himself edit any of the Elizabethan miscellanies attributed to him by bibliographers: but that he projected their publication, and he befri...
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Jean Bodin

borndied
15301596
a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse. He is best known for his theory of sovereignty; he was also an influential writer on demonology. Bodin lived during the aftermath of the Protestant Reformation and wrote against the background of religious conflict in France. He remained a nominal Ca...
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Thomas Bodley

borndied
1545, Mar 21613, Jan 28
an English diplomat and scholar, founder of the modern Bodleian Library, Oxford. Bodley wrote his autobiography up to the year 1609, which, with the first draft of the statutes drawn up for the library, and his letters to the librarian, Thomas James, was published by Thomas Hearne, under the title of Reliquiae Bodleianae, or Authentic Remains of Sir Thomas B...
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Hector Boece

aka: Boecius, Boethius
borndied
14651536
a Scottish philosopher and historian, and the first Principal of King's College in Aberdeen, a predecessor of the University of Aberdeen. Boece wrote and published two books, one of biography and one of history. In 1522 he published the Vitae Episcoporum Murthlacensium et Aberdonensium (Lives of the Bishops of Murthlack and Aberdeen) and in 1527 the Historia...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Friedrich Boerner

aka: Börner
borndied
1723, Jun 171761, Jun 30
a German physician. Boerner was born in Leipzig. His father, Christian Friedrich Boerner, wanted him to study theology and he started to study theology at the University of Wittenberg, but eventually he finish medicine. He was a professor of this university until he had to come back to Leipzig the raising of Seven Years' War (1756–63). He died in Leipzig.
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Henry Boernstein

borndied
1805, Nov 41892, Sep 10
the publisher of the Anzeiger des Westens in St. Louis, Missouri, the oldest German newspaper west of the Mississippi River. He was also a political activist, author, soldier, actor and stage manager. He played a major role in keeping Missouri in the Union at the start of the Civil War. To promote circulation, he published many prominent European novelists a...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Andrea Bogdani

aka: Ndre Bogdani
borndied
1600 ca1683
an Ottoman scholar of Albanian origin and prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. After he completed his education in Loreto he went to Ottoman Serbia and became a parish in Priština. From 1656 to 1677, when he resigned he served as Archbishop of Skopje, while from 1675 to 1677 he also served as apostolic administrator of Achrida. In his reports to Congregati...
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Jakob Bohme

aka: Böhme, Jacob Boehme, Behmen
borndied
1575, Mar 81624, Nov 17
a German Christian mystic and theologian. He was considered an original thinker by many of his contemporaries within the Lutheran tradition, and his first book, commonly known as Aurora, caused a great scandal. The chief concern of Böhme's writing was the nature of sin, evil and redemption. Consistent with Lutheran theology, Böhme preached that humanity ha...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Adam Bohoric

borndied
1520 ca1598, Nov 20+
a Slovene Protestant preacher, teacher and author of the first grammar of Slovene. Bohoric was born in the market town of Reichenburg in the Duchy of Styria (now Brestanica in Slovenia). In 1584, he wrote his most notable work, Articae horulae succisivae (English: Free Winter Hours). The book, written in Latin, was the first grammar of Slovene and the first ...
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Otto von Bohtlingk

aka: Böhtlingk
borndied
1815, May 301904, Apr 1
a German Indologist and Sanskrit scholar. His magnum opus was a Sanskrit dictionary. His first great work was an edition of the Sanskrit grammar of Panini, with a German commentary, under the title Acht Bücher grammatischer Regeln (Bonn, 1839–1840). This was in reality a criticism of Franz Bopp's philological methods. He also published several smaller tr...
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Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux

aka: Boileau-Despréaux
borndied
1636, Nov 11711, Mar 13
a French poet and critic. Boileau did much to reform the prevailing form of French poetry, as Blaise Pascal did to reform the prose. He was greatly influenced by Horace. Such of Boileau's early poems as have been preserved hardly contain the promise of what he ultimately became. The first piece in which his peculiar powers were displayed was the first satire...
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James Robinson Boise

borndied
1815, Jan 271895, Feb 9
an American classicist. He was the author of several Greek text books. He graduated from Brown University in 1840, and served there as tutor of Latin and Greek and as a professor of Greek until 1850. In 1852, he became professor of Greek language and literature in the University of Michigan. He published several classical text books, including editions with ...
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Francois le Metel de Boisrobert

aka: François le Métel de Boisrobert
borndied
1592, Aug 11662, Mar 30
a French poet, playwright, and courtier. He was introduced to Cardinal Richelieu in 1623, and became one of five poets to inspire Richelieu's works. It was Boisrobert who suggested to Richelieu the plan of the Académie française, and he was one of its earliest and most active members. These efforts resulted in him becoming quite wealthy. He wrote a number ...
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Pierre de Boissat

borndied
16031662, Mar 28
a soldier, writer, poet and translator. Knight and Count Palatine, Boissat began his career in the military. He was one of the first members of the Académie française, and first to occupy the Academy's seat 31 in 1634. Boissat translated Les fables d'Esope Phrygien, illustrées de Discours moraux, philosophiques et politiques, published in 1633 by his frie...
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Louis Boivin

borndied
16491724
a French writer and the elder brother of Jean Boivin the Younger. There is very little information available concerning the details of his life. A member of the Académie des inscriptions, he wrote Mémoires sur la Chronologie in which, according to the Dictionnaire Bouillet he jumped too easily to his derivations.
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Jean Boivin the Younger

aka: Jean Boivin de Villeneuve
borndied
1663, Sep 11726, Oct 29
a French writer, scholar and translator. He acquired a scholarly reputation by publishing in Latin texts by the major mathematicians of antiquity and he was made a professor at the Collège royal, where he held the ancient Greek chair from 1706 to 1726. He translated Nicephorus Gregoras and Pierre Pithou, as well as Aristophanes, Homer and Sophocles, and wro...
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Vicente Boix

borndied
18131880
a Spanish playwright, poet, and historian. Boix wrote El encubierto de Valencia in 1852 and earlier he wrote Historia de la ciudad y reino de Valencia in three volumes in 1845. His Obras poéticas appeared in two volumes in 1850 and 1851, Poesías históricas y caballerescas and Poesías líricas y dramáticas.
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Sophie Bolander

borndied
18071869
a Swedish author. She is most famed for her participation in the contemporary debate in gender issues. Her novel Qvinnan med förmyndare (Woman with Guardian) was a conservative response to the novel Qvinnan utan förmyndare (Woman without Guardian) by Amelie von Strussenfelt, which was a part of the contemporary debate about the minority of adult unmarried ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Jerome-Hermes Bolsec

aka: Jérôme-Hermès
borndied
unknown1584 ca
a French Carmelite theologian and physician, who became a Protestant and controversialist. A sermon which he preached at Paris aroused misgivings in Catholic circles regarding the soundness of his ideas, and Bolsec left Paris. Having separated from the Catholic Church about 1545, he took refuge at the Court of Renée, duchess of Ferrara, who was favourably d...
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Edmund Bolton

borndied
1575 ca1633 ca
an English historian and poet. Throughout his life, Bolton was oppressed by scarcity, about which he freely informed his numerous prospective patrons. He was caught up in Charles's campaign against recusancy in 1628; he was imprisoned first in the Fleet and then in Marshalsea, where he languished for want of a person of power to intercede for him. The most i...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Bolton

borndied
15721631, Dec 13
an English clergyman and academic, noted as a preacher. Under the influence of Thomas Peacock of Brasenose he then proceeded B.D. in 1609, having decided to become a clergyman in the church of England. He was also appointed lecturer in logic and moral and natural philosophy. In his well known book, General directions for a Comfortable Walking with God, Bolto...
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Sarah T. Bolton

borndied
1814, Dec 81893, Aug 5
an American poet and activist. She has been called Indiana's "pioneer poet" and is best known for her poem "Paddle Your Own Canoe" (1850). An activist for women's rights, she worked with Robert Dale Owen during Indiana's 1850–1851 constitutional convention to include the recognition of women's property rights. As a young woman she contributed poems to the ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Nicholas Bond

borndied
15401608
an English churchman and academic, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, from 1590. He became rector of Britwell, Oxfordshire, on 3 May 1586, and of Alresford, Hampshire, in 1590; he also held the offices of chaplain of the Savoy Hospital and chaplain-in-ordinary to the queen. He contributed Latin verses to the collection published at Oxford on the death of...
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Jacques Bongars

borndied
15541612, Jul 29
a French scholar and diplomat. Bongars wrote an abridgment of Justin's abridgment of the history of Trogus Pompeius under the title Justinus, Trogi Pompeii Historiarum Philippicarum epitoma de manuscriptis codicibus emendatior et prologis auctior (Paris, 1581). He collected the works of several French writers who as contemporaries described the crusades, and...
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Eugene Bonnemere

aka: Eugène Bonnemère
borndied
1813, Feb 211893, Nov 1
a French historian and writer. The grandson of Joseph Toussaint Bonnemère (1746–1794), the mayor of Saumur, Bonnemère began his literary career, in 1841, through theater plays, but he earned a reputation chiefly owing to a series of historical publications. Bonnemère collaborated to the Revue de Paris and La Démocratie Pacifique. From 1858 onward, he s...
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Cross-listed in Naval

Carl Siegfried Bonnevie

borndied
1804, Dec 191856, Oct 13
a Norwegian naval officer. He took his naval education at Frederiksvern, and became an officer in 1821. In the Royal Norwegian Navy he was promoted to Premier Lieutenant in 1832, Lieutenant Captain in 1945 and Captain in 1856, though he spent the years 1841 to 1849 in Bengal. He was a notable debater within the circle of higher officers, founding and editing...
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Nicholas Bonneville

borndied
1760, Mar 131828, Nov 9
a French bookseller, printer, journalist, and writer. He was also a political figure of some relevance at the time of the French Revolution and into the early years of the next century. In his book "The Spirit of Religions", published in 1791, he sought to resolve the issue of social happiness by describing a universal religion which would have philosophers ...
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Cross-listed in Educators

George Boole

borndied
1815, Nov 21864, Dec 8
an English mathematician, educator, philosopher and logician. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is best known as the author of The Laws of Thought (1854) which contains Boolean algebra. Boolean logic is credited with laying the foundations for the information age
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Andrew Boorde

borndied
1490 ca1549, Apr
an English traveller, physician and writer. Boorde left works on domestic hygiene and medicine, and The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. In it he Englishman describes himself and his foibles, his fickleness, his fondness for new fashions, and his obstinacy, in verse. Then follows a geographical description of the country, followed by a model dial...
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Sir Brooke Boothby

aka: 6th Baronet
borndied
1744, Jun 31824, Jan 23
a linguist, translator, poet and landowner, based in Derbyshire, England. He was part of the intellectual and literary circle of Lichfield, which included Anna Seward and Erasmus Darwin. In 1766 he welcomed the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau to Ashbourne circles, after Rousseau's short stay in London with Hume. Ten years later, in 1776, Boothby visited Ro...
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Pieter Bor

borndied
15591635
a Dutch Golden Age writer and historian. His portrait was painted by Frans Hals in 1634, and it was engraved for his book in 1637. Although he is not registered as a member of a Chamber of Rhetoric, he wrote a few plays that were published in 1617. This stapelspel is based on the same story as Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre. This work, which occupied...
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Gian Paolo Borghetti

borndied
1816, Jun 231897, Nov 4
a Corsican writer, poet and politician. Having contributed to the journal Progressive de la Corse (Bastia) in 1848, in the following year he founded his own newspaper La Corsica, written in Italian to be better understood by the population. While his professional and political activities often took precedence over his literary work during his lifetime, Gian ...
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