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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Jozsef Fabchich

aka: József
borndied
1753, Mar 131809, Dec 23
a Hungarian writer and translator, known mainly for his translations of Ancient Greek poetry (namely Sappho, Alcman, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Stesichorus, Pindar and others) into the Hungarian language. Fabchich was born in Koszeg. Most of his translations were published in Gyor in 1804. He also compiled the first Hungarian etymological dictionary in 1789-1794. He...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Frederick William Faber

borndied
18141863
a noted English hymn writer and theologian, who converted from Anglicanism to the Catholic priesthood. His best-known work is Faith of Our Fathers. Though he was a Roman Catholic writing for fellow Catholics at that point, many of his hymns today are sung by Protestant congregations. In addition to many pamphlets and translations, Faber published many works ...
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Salvator Fabris

borndied
15441618
an Italian fencing master from Padua. During his life he taught in various European countries, most notably in Denmark where he was the fencing instructor of King Christian IV. It was during his time in Copenhagen that he published his treatise on rapier fencing, Lo Schermo, overo Scienza d’Arme, in 1606. The treatise became a fencing bestseller around Eur...
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Samuel Fairclough

borndied
15941677
an English nonconformist divine. In 1619, he accepted an offer from the mayor and nine aldermen of Lynn Regis, Norfolk, of a lectureship,. from the congregation. ‘His popularity,’ relates Edmund Calamy, ‘excited the envy of the other ministers, and he was openly opposed by the publicans, whose business declined from the decrease of drunkenness.’Samu...
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Brian Fairfax

borndied
16331711
an English politician. On the death of the archbishop in 1694 Fairfax retired into private life at York, where he devoted himself to literary work, and to acting as the friend and mentor of the younger generations of his family. He carried on a correspondence with most of the literary men of his day. Some communications of his are among the correspondence of...
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Charles Fairfax

borndied
15971673
an English antiquary and genealogist. Fairfax wrote a work in manuscript entitled Analecta Fairfaxiana. It contains pedigrees, carefully written and blazoned on vellum, of all the branches of the Fairfax family, and of many of the families connected with it, interspersed with many genealogical and literary notes, and about fifty anagrams, epigrams, and elegi...
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Edward Fairfax

borndied
1580 ca1635, Jan 27
an English translator .His translation of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, for which he is best known, is considered a masterpiece, one of the comparatively few translations which in themselves are literature. It was highly praised by Dryden and Waller. The first edition appeared in 1600, and was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth I of England. Fairfax also wrote a tr...
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John Fairfax

borndied
16231700
an English ejected minister. Fairfax's preaching got him more than once into prison. In 1672 Fairfax entered on a renewed career, active in preaching and the formation of nonconformist congregations. He wrote and published several sermons.
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Cross-listed in ClergyPhysicians

Nathaniel Fairfax

borndied
16371690
an English divine and physician. In 1670 he removed to England and practised at Woodbridge, Suffolk. There he wrote A Treatise of the Bulk and Selvedge of the World. Wherein the Greatness, Littleness, and Lastingness of Bodies are freely handled. With an Answer to Tentamina de Deo, by S[amuel] P[arker], D.D., which is curious for the affected exclusion of al...
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Justus Falckner

borndied
1672, Nov 221723, Sep 21
an early American Lutheran minister and the first Lutheran pastor to be ordained within the region that became the United States. Falckner's published works include Grondlycke Onderricht which first appeared in the Dutch language during 1708. This was the first Lutheran catechism to be published in North America. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints ...
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John Falconer

borndied
15771656
an English Jesuit. He was ordained priest 20 December 1603, entered the Society of Jesus 18 November 1604, and three years later was sent upon the English mission. His name occurs in a list of twelve Jesuits banished in 1618. He was professed of the four vows 22 July 1619. In 1621 he had returned from exile, and was exercising his spiritual functions in Lond...
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Thomas Falconer [1]

borndied
17381792
an English classical scholar. Falconer published ‘Devotions for the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, by a Layman,’ London, 1786; 2nd ed. 1798. He read in 1791 before the Society of Antiquaries a paper in vindication of the accuracy of Pliny's description of the temple of Diana at Ephesus. A work by him entitled ‘Chronological Tables, beginning with the ...
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William Falconer [1]

borndied
18011885
an English clergymen and academic. Falconer is known as one of the translators of The Geography of Strabo. It was literally translated, with notes. The first six books by Hans Claude Hamilton, and the remainder by Falconer, with a complete index, appeared in Bohn's Classical Library in 1854–7, in three volumes. The text of Strabo had been edited in 1807 by...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

William Falconer [2]

borndied
1744, Feb 231824, Aug 31
an English physician, miscellaneous writer, and Fellow of the Royal Society. After building up a good practice in Chester, Falconer, at the suggestion of Dr. John Fothergill, removed to Bath, Somerset in January 1770, where he was equally successful. On 18 March 1773 he became F.R.S. On 12 May 1784 he was elected physician to the Bath General Hospital, an ap...
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John Faldo

borndied
16331690, Feb 7
an English nonconformist minister and controversialist. In 1673 he published ‘Quakerism no Christianity. Clearly and abundantly proved, out of the writings of their Chief Leaders. With a Key, for the understanding their sense of their many Usurped, and Unintelligible Words and Phrases, to most Readers.’ The book was in three parts. A volume published by ...
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Thomas Fale

bornactivedied
unknown1590s-1600sunknown
an English mathematician. His only known publication is Horologiographia. (1593). It is dedicated in Latin to all lovers of mathematics in the university of Cambridge. There is also a prefatory letter to ‘my louing kinsman,’ Thomas Osborne, who had invented the instrument mentioned in the beginning of the book ‘for the triall of plats,’ dated from Lo...
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William Falkner

borndied
unknown1682
an English divine. Falkner received his education at Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1652, M.A. in 1656, and D.D. in 1680. On 23 July 1679 he was collated by the Bishop of Ely to the rectory of Glemsford, Suffolk. He was also town preacher at the chapel of St. Nicholas, King's Lynn, where he died on 9 April 1682. By his wife Susan, daughter...
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Christian Falster

borndied
16901752
a Danish poet and philologist, born at Branderslev (island of Laaland). He became rector of the school at Ribe. He preferred to live there, refusing to accept better positions, and keeping his rectorship. He published translations of Ovid (1719) and the Satires of Juvenal (1731); 11 original satires on his times, often reprinted (1720–39); and in Latin a n...
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Samuel Fancourt

borndied
16781768
a dissenting minister and projector of circulating libraries. The library contained two or three thousand bound volumes and about the same number of pamphlets; from a third to a half of the books and pamphlets consisted of theology and ecclesiastical history and controversy, and only about a tenth of it was ‘light’ literature.
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Juraj Fandly

aka: Fándly
borndied
1750, Oct 211811, Mar 7
a Slovak writer, Catholic priest and bee-keeper in the Kingdom of Hungary. He was born in Castá into a craftsman-farmer's family. His father died soon after his birth, and mother moved to the neighbouring village of Dol'any, where he also visited elementary school. He later studied at a Piarist gymnasium in Svätý Jur , studied theology in Buda and Trnava....
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Mildmay Fane

aka: 2nd Earl of Westmorland
borndied
1602, Jan 241666, Feb 12
an English nobleman, politician, and writer. One hundred and thirty seven poems by Fane appeared in his self-published collection Otia Sacra in 1648 — the first time a peer of England published his own verse. It was only at the end of the twentieth century that a larger body of Fane's verse was identified: some 500 poems by Fane, composed between 1621 and ...
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Nicolas Faret

borndied
1596 ca1646, Sep 8
a French statesman, writer, scholar and translator. He was secretary of the Earl of Harcourt . It was one of the first meetings of Conrart preparing the French Academy, and became an early member of the French Academy, he was even responsible for drawing up the project. He was the first occupant of the chair number 9 of the French Academy and participated in...
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Anthony Farindon

borndied
15981658
an English royalist divine. In 1647, through the influence of Sir John Robinson, a kinsman of Laud, Farindon was chosen as minister of St Mary Magdalene, Milk Street. Farindon's reputation rests on 130 sermons, of which 31 were published by himself, in a volume dedicated to Robinson, his patron, the remainder by his executors, John Millington and John Powney...
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James Lewis Farley

borndied
1823, Sep 91885, Nov 12
an Irish banker, diplomat and writer on Eastern affairs. He was destined for the legal profession, and studied at Trinity College. His attention, however, was early directed to Turkey and the East. After the conclusion of the Crimean war and the signing of the peace of Paris in 1856, the Ottoman Bank was formed through the efforts of English capitalists. Far...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

John Farmery

borndied
unknown1590
an English physician. He is conjectured (Cooper, Athenæ Cant. ii. 98) to have been the author of ‘A Methode of Measuring and Surveying of Land; published by J. F., practitioner in physick,’ licensed to Thomas Woodcocke 13 Oct. 1589 (Arber, Registers, ii. 249). A book, ‘Perpetuall and kindelie pronosticacons of the change of tymes, taken out of old and...
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Pier Luigi Farnese

borndied
1503, Nov 191547, Sep 10
the first Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro, from 1545 to 1547. Born in Rome, Pier Luigi was the illegitimate son of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (who later became Pope Paul III). He became a soldier and participated in the sack of Rome in 1527.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Ellis Farneworth

borndied
unknown1763, Mar 25
an English translator. He matriculated at Jesus College, Cambridge on 17 December 1730 and graduated B.A. in 1734 and M.A. in 1738. In 1755 he was acting as curate to John Fitzherbert, vicar of Ashbourne, Derbyshire; but on 27 Dec. 1758 he became vicar of Rostherne, Cheshire, by the influence of William Fitzherbert of Tissington, Derbyshire, brother of his f...
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Richard Farnworth

borndied
unknown1666
an English Quaker writer of tracts. In 1651 he attended the Quaker yearly meeting at Balby in Yorkshire, where he resided, when he was convinced by the preaching of George Fox. Joining the Society of Friends, became a minister. For some time he seems to have attached himself to Fox, with whom he visited Swarthmore in 1652. During this year he interrupted a c...
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George Farquhar

borndied
16771707, Apr29
an Irish dramatist. He is noted for his contributions to late Restoration comedy, particularly for his plays The Recruiting Officer (1706) and The Beaux' Stratagem (1707). Farquhar's first comedy, Love and a Bottle, was premiered in 1698; "for its sprightly Dialogue and busy Scenes," it is said to have been "well received by the Audience." After the favourab...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Samuel Farr

borndied
17411795
an English physician. His parents were Protestant Dissenters. He was educated first at Warrington Academy, then at Edinburgh University, and finally at Leyden University, where he took the degree of M.D. (1765). He was a physician to the Bristol Infirmary from 1767 to 1780, and practised for some years in Bristol. Returning to Taunton he acquired an extensiv...
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Arthur Farre

borndied
1811, Mar 61887, Dec 17
an English obstetric physician. His main contribution to medical literature was his article on ‘The Uterus and its Appendages,’ constituting parts 49 and 50 of Robert Bentley Todd's Cyclopædia of Anatomy and Physiology, issued in 1858. He contributed papers on microscopy to the Royal Microscopical Society's Journal and Transactions, and was president of...
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Frederic John Farre

borndied
1804, Dec 161886, Nov 9
an English physician. Farre was the second son of John Richard Farre, M.D. He was born in Charterhouse Square, London, and educated at the Charterhouse School, where he was a gold medallist in 1821, and captain in 1822. Having obtained a foundation scholarship at St. John's College, Cambridge, he graduated BA as thirty-second wrangler in 1827] After studying...
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Margaretta Faugeres

aka: Faugères
bornactivedied
1771, Oct 111790-17981801, Jan 9
She was an American playwright, poet and political activist. She was committed to establishing her mother's reputation as a writer as well as her own. She started publishing her mother's poetry, what was left of it, in The New York Magazine in 1790. Similarly she began publishing her own essays and poems in the same periodical. Her reputation as a poet grew ...
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Arthur Brooke Faulkner

borndied
17791845
an Irish physician to the forces, and author. In 1810 he published a tract, ‘Considerations on the Expediency of Establishing an Hospital for Officers on Foreign Service.’ He communicated his experiences of plague to the ‘Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal,’ April 1814, gave evidence in favour of its contagiousness before the House of Commons' co...
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Arthur Faunt

borndied
15541591, Feb 28
an English Jesuit theologian and missionary to Poland. He was made professor of divinity and attracted the attention of Pope Gregory XIII, who on the establishment of the Jesuit college at Posen in 1581, appointed him rector. He was also professor of Greek there for three years, of moral theology and controversy for nine more. He was highly esteemed by the s...
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Nicholas Faunt

bornactivedied
unknown1572-1608unknown
an English clerk of the signet, agent of the Crown, and politician. Early in 1581 he spent three and a half months in Germany, and was at Pisa, Padua, and Geneva later in the same year. He came from Paris in March 1582 and returned in February 1587–8. On 23 November 1585 he became M.P. for Boroughbridge. His letters, sent home while on the continent, show ...
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Bryan Faussett

borndied
1720, Oct 301776, Feb 20
an English antiquary. From about 1750 he had devoted special attention to antiquities, chiefly through barrow-digging, and was also a good heraldist and genealogist, visiting about 160 parish churches in east Kent to copy monumental and armorial inscriptions. His papers were used by Edward Hasted for his History of Kent, who described him as living entirely ...
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Jean-Louis Favier

borndied
17111784
a French diplomat and publicist. His memoirs are an important source for Russian history under csarina Elisabeth of Russia. Up to the age of thirty he spent traveling. In 1749, he arrived in Turin with the Marquis de La Chetardie, French ambassador to Charles Emmanuel III, the King of Sardinia. He undertook secret missions for Louis XV in Spain and Russia. T...
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Benjamin Fawcett

borndied
17151780
an English dissenting minister. In 1745 Fawcett moved to Kidderminster. Here Doddridge visited him in 1747, and found his ministry prospering: he had 316 catechumens. He seems to have retained his popularity to the close of his life. He was very zealous in founding country congregations. Some of his notions were unconventional. For the use of his congregatio...
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Joshua Fawcett

borndied
1809, May 91864, Dec 21
an English clergyman and miscellaneous writer. He was educated at a grammar school at Clapham, London, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and took the degrees in arts, B.A. in 1829, M.A. in 1836. He was ordained in 1830, and after serving curacies at Pannall, near Harrogate, Yorkshire, and at Everton, near Liverpool, Lancashire, he was presented in 1833 by h...
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Theodore Sedgwick Fay

borndied
1807, Feb 101898, Nov 17
a writer from the United States who spent much of his life in Germany. Fay initially worked as a clerk for his father, an attorney. His father died in 1825, and he continued long enough in law to be admitted to the bar in 1828, but he quickly left the legal profession for periodical journalism, where he made a name for himself for some years. To this period ...
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Enderunlu Fazil

aka: EnderûnluFâzil
borndied
17571810
an Ottoman poet who depicted the beauty of men from various lands of the Ottoman Empire.An openly homosexual writer, his books stands as a rare example of LGBT literature in the Empire. He achieved fame through his erotic works, which were published posthumously. Among his most famous works is The Book of Women, which was banned in the Ottoman Empire. The bo...
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John Fearn [2]

borndied
1768, May1837, Dec 3
a British philosopher. Little is known about Fearn's early life. He was probably born in May 1768 (baptised 11 May) in Chatham, Kent He spent some years as an officer in the Royal Navy, and after retirement devoted himself to philosophical writings. He was particularly interested in ocular phenomena and visual perception. He was a friend of Samuel Parr and ...
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Peter Feilberg

borndied
1800, Apr 71863, Aug 5
a Norwegian newspaper editor and politician. In 1830 Feilberg started the first newspaper in Skien, Skiens Ugeblad. He was notably convicted of libel in 1837 and sentenced to pay 60 speciedaler; the complaint had been filed by County Governor Frederik Wilhelm Wedel Jarlsberg. Curiously, Feilberg's defender Pavels Hielm was convicted of inappropriate prodecur...
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Charles-Marie de Feletz

aka: Féletz
borndied
1767, Jan 31850, Feb 11
a French churchman, journalist and literary critic. A selection of his articles, meeting in six volumes under the title Mixtures of philosophy, history and literature, was published between 1828 and 1830 , followed in 1840 by a seventh volume entitled historical and literary judgments about some writers and some writings time. A keen sense of irony and stric...
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Fortunato Felice

aka: 2nd Comte de Panzutti
borndied
1723, Aug 241789, Feb 13
an Italian nobleman, a famed author, scientist, and said to have been one of the most important publishers of the 18th century. Through his studies at the monastery of San Francesco in Ripa, he discovered a love of Physics, becoming friends with Celestino Galiani. Later Galiani appointed De Felice chair of Ancient and Modern Geography as well as the chair of...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Stephanie Felicite

aka: Stéphanie Félicité, Comtesse de Genlis
borndied
1746, Jan 251830, Dec 31
a French writer, harpist and educator. The better to carry out her ingenious theories of education, she wrote several works for their use, the best known of which are the Théâtre d'éducation (4 vols., 1779–1780), a collection of short comedies for young people, Les Annales de la vertu (2 vols., 1781) and Adèle et Théodore (3 vols., 1782). Charles Augu...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles Fell

borndied
16871763
an English Roman Catholic priest. After coming on the English mission he resided principally in London, where he devoted his leisure time to the compilation of ‘The Lives of Saints; collected from Authentick Records of Church History. With a full Account of the other Festivals throughout the year. To which is prefixed a Treatise on the Moveable Feasts and ...
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Henry Fell

bornactivedied
unknown1650s-1670sunknown
a Quaker missionary and writer. The first mention of him is in 1656 as suffering much from the magistrates in Essex, and in the same year he went as a missionary to the West Indies, where he remained about a year. After his return to England he was engaged as a travelling preacher, and is referred to by his contemporaries as having been eloquent and successf...
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John Fell

borndied
1735, Aug 221797, Sep 6
an English congregationalist minister and classical tutor. In May 1770 he succeeded David Parry as minister of the congregational church at Thaxted, Essex, where he was ordained on 24 October. This was his happiest settlement; his congregation grew, he lived on intimate terms with successive rectors of the parish, and with Rayner Hickford, the Saxon scholar;...
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Leonard Fell

borndied
unknown1700
an English Quaker. He suffered a long imprisonment in 1668 for having attended a meeting at Swarthmore and then refusing the oaths, and in 1672 he was again imprisoned for refusing to pay tithes to Theo. Aimes, vicar of Baycliff, but was a second time released by the death of his suitor. For preaching at a meeting on the shore of Windermere he was fined, and...
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William Fell

borndied
1761/621848, Mar 27
an English writer. William Fell was probably born near Brampton, Cumberland. He was a schoolmaster successively at Manchester, Wilmslow, and Lancaster, and was an industrious writer for the press. After his retirement he lived at Clifton, near Lowther, Westmorland. He died at Shap, aged 86, predeceased by his wife Dorothy and son Edward. He left his substant...
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Robert Fellowes

borndied
17711847, Feb 6
an English clergyman, journalist and philanthropist. Fellowes was educated for the church at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on 30 June 1796, and M.A. on 28 January 1801. He took orders, but seems to have held no preferment. For over six years (1804–11) he edited The Critical Review. He was a close friend of Samuel Parr, who introduced him t...
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Owen Feltham

borndied
16021668, Feb 23
an English writer, author of a book entitled Resolves, Divine, Moral, and Political (c. 1620), containing 146 short essays. It had great popularity in its day. Feltham was for a time in the household of the Earl of Thomond as chaplain or sec., and published (1652), Brief Character of the Low Countries. His most cited essay is "How the Distemper...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

William Felton [2]

bornactivedied
unknown1790s-1800sunknown
a London coachmaker from 36 Leather Lane in Holborn, and 254 Oxford Street near Grosvenor Square, and noted for his 1796 illustrated two-volume "A Treatise on Carriages; comprehending Coaches, Chariots, Phaetons, Curricles, Gigs, Whiskies, &c Together with their Proper Harness in which the Fair Prices of Every Article are Accurately Stated." William Felton w...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Charles Fenerty

borndied
1821, Jan1892, Jun 10
a Canadian inventor who invented the wood pulp process for papermaking, which was first adapted into the production of newsprint. Fenerty was also a poet (writing over 32 known poems). He also did extensive travelling throughout Australia between the years 1858 to 1865 (living in the heart of the Australian gold rushes).
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Dudley Fenner

borndied
1558 ca1587
an English puritan divine. He helped popularise Ramist logic in the English language. Fenner was also one of the first theologians to use the term "covenant of works" to describe God's relationship with Adam in the Book of Genesis. A list of his authentic works is given in Cooper's Athenae Cantabrigienses (Cambridge, 1858-1861). They rank among the best expo...
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William Fenner

borndied
16001640
an English Puritan divine. In 1627 he proceeded B.D., and two years later was presented to the living of Rochford, Essex, where he was until his death in 1640. Fenner was appreciated as a preacher, one of his sermons being quoted by Edward Williams, and his writings enjoyed popularity for some time, as plain in manner while zealous in tone.
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Elijah Fenton

borndied
1683, May 201730, Jul 16
an English poet, biographer and translator. In 1707, Fenton published a book of poems. He later became tutor to Sir William Trumbull's son at Easthampstead Park in Berkshire and is now best known as the assistant of his neighbour, Alexander Pope, in his translation of the Odyssey, of which he 'Englished' the first, fourth, nineteenth, and twentieth books, ca...
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Sir Geoffrey Fenton

borndied
1539 ca1608, Oct 19
an English writer, Privy Councillor, and Principal Secretary of State in Ireland. Geoffrey is said to have visited Spain and Italy in his youth; possibly he went to Paris in Sir Thomas Hoby's train in 1566, for he was living there in 1567, when he wrote Certaine tragicall discourses written oute of Frenche and Latin. This book is a free translation of Franç...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Roger Fenton [1]

borndied
15651615
an English clergyman, one of the translators of the Authorised King James Version. He was born in Lancashire and was educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where he matriculated as a sizar in 1585. He graduated B.A. in 1589, becoming a fellow in 1590. He graduated M.A. in 1592; he later proceeded B.D. in 1602 and D.D. in 1613. From 1598 he was preacher to the...
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Eliza Fenwick

borndied
1766, Feb 11840, Dec 8
an English author whose works include, Secresy; or The Ruin on the Rock (1795), as well as several children's books. Fenwick's letters (1798–1828) to her friend Mary Hays were edited and published in 1927 by A.F. Wedd in a book titled The Fate of the Fenwicks. She was a good friend of Charles and Mary Lamb, as well as Thomas Holcroft, Crabb Robinson and ot...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

George Fenwicke

borndied
16901760, Apr 10
an English clergyman and religious writer. Fenwicke was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1708/9 and M.A. in 1712. He was elected a Fellow of St John's on 29 March 1710. He resigned his fellowship in March 1722, and was presented to the rectory of Hallaton, Leicestershire, which he held until his death. Here, as a condition of hol...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Dr. John Fergus

borndied
1700 ca1761 ca
an Irish physician and man of letters. A descendant of the Ó Fearghuis medical family of Connacht, Doctor Fergus a native of County Mayo but moved to Dublin city early in his adult life. He was a scribe, and book collector, as well as a member of the Ó Neachtáin literary circle in early 18th century Dublin. He amassed a huge library of Irish manuscripts, ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

James Ferguson [1]

borndied
16211667
a Scottish minister. Ferguson belonged to the Fergusons of Kilkerran. He graduated at Glasgow University in 1638, and was ordained minister of Kilwinning, Ayrshire, in 1643. He was a member of the assembly of 1648, and declined calls to both Edinburgh and Glasgow. Ferguson is remembered and esteemed at this day as the author of a series of excellent commenta...
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Cross-listed in ArtistsAstronomersInventors

James Ferguson [3]

bornactivedied
1710, Apr 251720-17731776, Nov 17
a Scottish astronomer, instrument and globe maker. It is, as the inventor and improver of astronomical and other scientific apparatus, that he claims a place among the most remarkable men of science of his country. In 1734 he went to Edinburgh, where he began to make portraits in miniature, by which means, while engaged in his scientific studies, he support...
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Elizabeth Graeme Fergusson

borndied
1737, Feb 31801, Feb 23
an American poet and writer; her main literary project was the translation of Telemachus from the original French. In 1764, Elizabeth traveled to London at the urging of her mother, whose health was failing. While in London, Elizabeth met Laurence Sterne and ...
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Robert Fergusson

borndied
1750, Sep 51774, Oct 16
a Scottish poet. After formal education at the University of St Andrews, Fergusson followed an essentially bohemian life course in Edinburgh, the city of his birth, then at the height of intellectual and cultural ferment as part of the Scottish enlightenment. Many of his extant poems were printed from 1771 onwards in Walter Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine,...
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Henrietta Louisa Fermor

aka: Countess of Pomfret
borndied
unknown1761, Dec 15
an English letter writer. Horace Walpole mocked Lady Pomfret, speaking of her "paltry air of significant learning and absurdity", and claiming she was utterly devoid of humour. She considered ‘that Swift would have written better if he had never written ludi...
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Sir John Ferne

borndied
1560 ca1609
a knight writer on heraldry, a genealogist, an eminent common lawyer and MP. His 1586 book entitled Blazon of Gentrie is written in the form of a dialogue, with six interlocutors, representing a herald, a knight, a divine, a lawyer, an antiquary, and a ploughman. Collumell, the ploughman, who speaks freely the language and opinions of the yeomanry at that ti...
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Henry Ferrers

borndied
1549, Jan 261633, Oct 10
an English antiquary and MP. He was the earliest collector of materials for the history of his county, with the exception of John Rous, and he intended to publish a Perambulation of Warwickshire on the model of William Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent, but did not carry out the plan. William Camden says that he was "a man both for parentage and for knowledge...
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Joseph Ferrers

borndied
17251797
an English Carmelite friar. Ferrers was probably descended from a younger branch of the family of that name seated at Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire. He was professed in one of the foreign convents in 1745, and ordained priest in 1749, after which he came on the English mission. He became provincial of the English Carmelites, and died in London 29 August ...
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Jacopo Ferretti

aka: Giacomo Ferretti
borndied
1784, Jul 161852, Mar 7
an Italian writer, poet and opera librettist. His first big success was La Cenerentola, written at great speed for Gioachino Rossini over Christmas in 1816. Ferretti wrote afterwards how he had agreed to write a libretto on a subject which the censor vetoed, ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Auger Ferrier

borndied
15131588
a French physician, known also as an astrologer, poet, and interpreter of dreams. He was born near Toulouse, and educated by his father, a surgeon. He studied medicine with the law and mathematics. He took a medical degree at the University of Montpellier in 1540, under Jean Schyron. He was particularly interested in judicial astrology. He went to Paris, whe...
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Ludwig Feuerbach

borndied
1804, Jul 281872, Sep 13
a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. An associate of Left Hegelian circles, Feuerbach advocated liberalism, atheism, and materialism. Many of his philosophica...
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Links (1)


Paul Feval

aka: Féval
borndied
1816, Sep 291887, Mar 8
a French novelist and dramatist. He was the author of popular swashbuckler novels such as Le Loup Blanc (1843) and the perennial best-seller Le Bossu (1857). He also penned the seminal vampire fiction novels Le Chevalier Ténèbre (1860), La Vampire (1865) and La Ville Vampire (1874) and wrote several celebrated novels about his native Brittany and Mont Sain...
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Ernest-Aime Feydeau

aka: Ernest-Aimé
borndied
1821, Mar 161873, Oct 27
a French writer and the father of the notorious comic playwright Georges Feydeau. Feydeau was born in Paris, and he began his literary career in 1844, by the publication of a volume of poetry, Les Nationales. Either the partial failure of this literary effort, or his marriage soon afterwards to a daughter of the economist, Blanqui, caused him to devote himse...
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William Joshua Ffennell

borndied
17991867, Mar 12
an Irish fishery reformer. An act passed in 1826 had forbidden the constabulary to interfere for the protection of salmon. In 1834 he was appointed to the commission of the peace, and by firmness and tact obtained the full confidence of the people in spite of his tory politics. He thus managed to improve the state of the Suir and to obtain the support of pub...
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Links (1)


Thomas Fich

aka: Fych, Fyche
borndied
unknown1517
an Irish ecclesiastic and compiler. He studied at Oxford, became a canon regular, and was appointed sub-prior of the convent of the Holy Trinity at Dublin, now the cathedral of Christ Church. Of that establishment Fich compiled a meagre necrology in Latin, styled ‘Mortilogium’ or ‘Obitarium.’ He was also the compiler or transcriber of a collection of...
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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

borndied
1762, May 191814, Jan 27
a German philosopher, became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Recently, philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness o...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Frederick Field

borndied
1826, Aug 21885, Apr 3
an English chemist. In 1848 he accepted the post of chemist to some copper smelting works at Coquimbo in Chile. Some account of his work there is contained in his papers in the ‘Journal of the Chemical Society’ for 1850, ‘On the Examination of some Slags from Copper-smelting Furnaces,’ and ‘On the Ashes of the Cactus-plant,’ from which large quan...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

George Field

borndied
1777 ca1854
an English chemist. He was born in or about 1777 at Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, of a family long settled in that town, and was educated at St. Peter's school there. Field then commenced the cultivation in his own garden, and from roots of his own growth produced beautiful specimens of colouring matter. A contrivance, both mechanical and chemical, was still...
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Nathan Field

aka: Feild
borndied
1587, Oct 171620
an English dramatist. He was also an actor. As a member of the Children of the Queen's Revels, Field acted in the innovative drama staged at Blackfriars in the first years of the 17th century. Cast lists associate him with Ben Jonson's Cynthia's Revels (1600) and T...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Field

borndied
1768, Jan 61851, Aug 16
an English Unitarian minister. Field published a multitude of pamphlets and sermons. Field kept a boarding-school for many years at Leam, near Warwick. This led to his publishing some educational manuals, of which the most valuable was his ‘Questions on the Gospel History,’ recommended in the '‘Critical Review'’ (June 1794) to theological students in...
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Links (1)


Henry Fielding

borndied
1707, Apr 221754, Oct 8
an English novelist and dramatist best known for his rich, earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. Additionally, he holds a significant place in the history of law enforcement, having used his authority as a magistrate to found (with his half-brother John) what some have called London's first police force, the Bow Stree...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Newton Smith Fielding

borndied
17991856, Jan 12
an English painter and lithographer. He exhibited at the Society of Painters in Water-colours, showing some landscapes in 1815, and cattle pieces in 1818. He is best known for his paintings and engravings of animals. In 1836 he published in London a set of Subjects after Nature, and in Paris he published sets of lithographs of animals, and illustrations to v...
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Sarah Fielding

borndied
1710, Nov 81768, Apr 9
an English author and sister of the novelist Henry Fielding. She wrote The Governess, or The Little Female Academy (1749), the first novel in English aimed specifically at children. In 1744, Fielding published a novel, The Adventures of David Simplemore
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Theodore Henry Adolphus Fielding

borndied
17811851, Jul 11
an English painter, engraver, and author. Like his brothers Copley and Thales he painted in watercolours, and in 1799 sent to the Royal Academy A View of the North Tyne, near Billingham, Northumberland. In 1814 he sent to the British Institution A Sleeping Bacchus. He continued to exhibit at both exhibitions, but it is sometimes difficult to distinguish his...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Wolfgang Figulus

borndied
1525 ca1589
a German composer , cantor and music theorist. Besides theoretical writings he published several polyphonic church music, and in 1571 the collection of carols Vetera nova carmina sacra et selecta de natali Domini nostri Jesus Christ (Frankfurt an der Oder 1575), which also contained ten of his own compositions, and about 20 Odensätze in Hymni sacri et schol...
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Robert Fills

bornactivedied
unknown1560sunknown
an English-French translator who translated works from French into English. In 1562, Fills published "The Lawes and Statutes of Geneva, as well concerning Ecclesiastical Discipline as Civill Regiment, with certeine Proclamations duly executed, whereby God's religion is most purely mainteined, and their commonwealth quietli governed". In 1563, according to He...
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Links (1)


Edward Filmer

borndied
1654 ca1703
an English dramatist. Filmer wrote a lengthy blank verse tragedy, The Unnatural Brother (published London, 1697), adapted from an episode in Cassandre, a romance by Gauthier de Costes, seigneur de la Calprenède. In terms of plot, it is considered derivative of Othello, and The Villain by Thomas Porter in the same tradition. It was acted at the theatre in L...
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Links (1)


Robert Filmer

borndied
1588 ca1653, May 26
an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings. His best known work, Patriarcha, published posthumously in 1680, was the target of numerous Whig attempts at rebuttal, including Algernon Sidney's Discourses Concerning Government, James Tyrrell's Patriarcha Non Monarcha and more
Links (1)


John Filson

borndied
1747 ca1788, Oct
an American author, historian of Kentucky, pioneer, surveyor and one of the founders of Cincinnati, Ohio. He settled in Lexington, taught school, surveyed land claims, and travelled the region interviewing the settlers and leading citizens. He wrote The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke during this period, and travelled to Wilmington, Delaw...
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Jobus Fincelius

aka: Hiob Fincel, Finzel
borndied
unknown1582
a 16th-century humanist and physician. Born Hiob Fincel (or Finzel), he studied at Erfurt, Jena, and Wittenberg before becoming a master of philosophy at Wittenberg (1549). In 1562, he was professor and assistant of medicine at Weimar. In 1568, he was a physician at Zwickau. His De miraculis sui temporis (1556) (Latin "Concerning the Wonders of his Times"; i...
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Links (1)


Anne Finch

aka: Countess of Winchilsea
borndied
1661, Apr 1720, Aug 5
an English poet, the third child of Sir William Kingsmill of Sydmonton Court and his wife, Anne Haslewood. She was well-educated as her family believed in good education for girls as well as for boys. In 1682, Anne Kingsmill went to St James's Palace to become a maid of honour to Mary of Modena (wife of James, Duke of York, who later became King James II). T...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Edward Finch

bornactivedied
unknown1630-1641unknown
an English Royalist divine. On 9 December 1630 Edward was admitted to the vicarage of Christ Church, Newgate, London. Walker celebrates him as the first of the parochial clergy actually dispossessed by the committee for scandalous ministers. Finch published An Answer to the Articles, London, 1641. This was in reply to The Petition and Articles . . . exhibit...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Henry Finch

borndied
unknown1625
an English lawyer and politician, created serjeant-at-law and knighted, and remembered as a legal writer. In 1621 he published a work entitled The World's Great Restauration, or Calling of the Jews, and with them of all Nations and Kingdoms of the Earth to the Faith of Christ. In it he seems to have predicted, in the near future, the restoration of temporal ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Finch

borndied
17241803
an English divine. He was a preacher of some eminence. He published numerous sermons, and, in 1788, a treatise entitled Considerations upon the Use and Abuse of Oaths judicially taken, which passed through many editions and became a standard work among the publications of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. In it he insisted that oaths should be a...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Patrick Finglas

borndied
unknown1537
a leading Irish judge of the sixteenth century, who was regarded as a mainstay of the English Crown in Ireland. He was also the author of an influential "Breviat " or tract, "Of the Getting of Ireland, and of the Decay of the same", on the decline of English power in Ireland. Little is known of his parentage, but Francis Elrington Ball states that he came fr...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Gottfried Wilhelm Fink

borndied
17831846
a German composer, music theorist, poet, and a Protestant clergyman. His compositions consist mainly of songs, song collections, and ballads. He wrote the lyrics for most of his song compositions himself. He also made a name for himself as the author of important works on music theory and music history.
Links (1)


Francis Dalzell Finlay

borndied
17931857
an Irish journalist. In 1824 he founded the 'Northern Whig.' Liberalism being then a very unpopular creed in Ulster, Finlay was frequently prosecuted for press offences. On 21 July 1826 he was indicted for publishing in the 'Northern Whig' a libel tending to bring into disrepute the character of a certain 'improving' landlord. The libel consisted in a letter...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Johann Dominicus Fiorillo

borndied
1748, Oct 131821, Sep 10
a German painter and historian of art. In 1781 he removed to Göttingen, occupied himself as a drawingmaster, and was named in 1784 keeper of the collection of prints at the university library. He was appointed professor extraordinary in the philosophical faculty in 1799, and ordinary professor at Göttingen University in 1813. During this period he had made...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach

bornactivedied
1656, Jul 201671-17231723, Apr 5
an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire. His influential book A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture (1721) was one of the first and most popular comparative studies of world architecture. His major works include Schönbrunn Palace, Karlski...
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Links (1)


Simon Fish

borndied
unknown1531
a 16th-century Protestant reformer and English propagandist. Fish is best known for helping to spread William Tyndale's New Testament and for authoring the vehemently anti-clerical pamphlet Supplication for the Beggars (also spelled A Supplycacion for the Beggars) which was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church on 24 May 1530. His pamphlet can ...
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Links (1)


Ann Fisher

borndied
1719, Dec1778, May 2
an author and grammarian. Her A New Grammar published in 1745 makes her the earliest published female author on English grammar, with deference to Elizabeth Elstob who published a grammar for English-Saxon in 1715, though not English in the same sense. As indicated in the title, A New Grammar with Exercises of Bad English, Ann's book used examples of poor En...
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Links (1)


Edward Fisher

bornactivedied
unknown1627-1655unknown
an English theological writer. He is generally considered the author of The Marrow of Modern Divinity (1645) by E. F., a work which influentially stated the doctrine of unconditional grace, and was at the centre of the later Marrow Controversy. This is a view held since Thomas Tanner's attribution of 1721, but it is contested by Alexander Gordon in the Dicti...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Jasper Fisher

bornactivedied
15911630s-1640sunknown
an English divine and dramatist. About 1631 (according to Anthony Wood) he became rector of Wilsden, Bedfordshire, and in 1633 published his one considerable work, a play, entitled 'Fuimus Troes, the True Trojans, being a story of the Britaines valour at the Romanes first invasion. Publickly presented by the gentlemen students of Magdalen College in Oxford,'...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Fisher

borndied
1469, Oct 191535, Jun 22
venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop and theologian. He was a man of learning, associated with the intellectuals and political leaders of his day, and eventually became Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. Fisher was executed by order of more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Samuel Fisher [1]

borndied
16051665
an English Quaker controversialist. In 1632 he was presented to the lectureship of Lydd, Kent. He was known as a powerful preacher, and became a leader among the Puritans of the district. In his 'Baby-Baptism', Fisher states that was later given a presbyterian ordination. While at Lydd Fisher associated with some Anabaptists, attending their meetings and off...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Samuel Fisher [2]

borndied
1605 ca1681
an English Puritan clergyman and writer, who was committed to a Presbyterian polity. After serving as a rural rector in Shropshire during the period of Charles I's absolute monarchy, he worked in London and Shrewsbury during the English Civil War and under the Commonwealth and in Cheshire during the Protectorate. After the Great Ejection of 1662 he settled i...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Ralph Fitch

borndied
1550 ca1611
a gentleman merchant of London and one of the earliest English travellers and traders to visit Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia. At first he was no chronicler but he did eventually write descriptions of the south-east Asia he saw in 1583–1591, and upon his return to England, in 1591, became a valuable consultant for ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Tobias Fitch

bornactivedied
unknown1720s-1730sunknown
wrote a journal of his mission from Charleston to the Creeks. Succeeded Colonel Chicken as Indian Commissioner and held that post in 1733-1734. In the latter year he was appointed a justice of the peace in Berkeley County.


William Stevenson Fitch

borndied
17931859, Jul 17
an English antiquarian. Fitch was for more than 21 years postmaster of Ipswich, but devoted his leisure to studying the antiquities of Suffolk. He made full collections for a history of that county. Most of them appear to have been dispersed by auction after his death, though the West Suffolk Archaeological Association, of which he was a founder, purchased t...
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Links (1)


Edward FitzGerald

borndied
1809, Mar 311883, Jun 14
an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.In 1853, FitzGerald issued Six Dramas of Calderon, freely translated. He now turned to Oriental studies, and in 1856 he anonymously published a version of the Sálamán and Absál of Jami in Miltonic verse. In March 1857, Cowell...
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Links (1)


Anthony Fitzherbert

borndied
14701538, May 27
an English judge, scholar and legal author, particularly known for his treatise on English law, New Natura Brevium (1534). Fitzherbert in 1514 published La Graunde Abridgement, a collection of cases compiled out of the Year Books. This was the first systematic attempt to provide a summary of English law. It was known as La Graunde Abridgement and has often b...
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Links (1)


Henry Fitzsimon

borndied
1566/691643/1645, Nov 29
an Irish Jesuit controversialist. He was educated a Protestant at Oxford (Hart Hall, and perhaps Christ Church), 1583-1587. Going to the University of Paris, he became a zealous protagonist of Protestantism. Banished in 1604, he visited Spain, Rome, and Flanders, 1611-1620. At the outbreak of the Thirty Years War in 1620, he served as chaplain to the Irish s...
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Links (1)


Gustave Flaubert

borndied
1821, Dec 121880, May 8
a French novelist. Highly influential, he has been considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country. He is known especially for his debut novel Madame Bovary (1857), his Correspondence, and his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. The celebrated short story writer Guy de Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert.
Timeline (3)Links (1)


Richard Flecknoe

borndied
1600 ca1678
an English dramatist, poet and musician. He is remembered for being made the butt of satires by Andrew Marvell in 1681 and by John Dryden in Mac Flecknoe in 1682. Shortly after Flecknoe's return to England in 1636 his first play, now lost, was performed in London, possibly by Queen Henrietta's Men. Audiences derided as it "lascivious" and "scandalous", an as...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Abraham Fleming

borndied
1552 ca1607
an English clergyman, and a prolific writer, translator, contributor to others' texts, editor and poet. Throughout his life Fleming was a godly Protestant and follower of John Calvin. Fleming took holy orders in August 1588 and was ordained deacon and priest by Dr...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Scientists

Abraham Fletcher

borndied
17141793, Jan 1
an English mathematician. He married early. His wife, like his parents, discouraged the pursuit of learning as an unprofitable thing. Turning his attention to botany, Fletcher studied the properties rather than the classification of plants; increased his income by the sale of herbal decoctions, and was known to his neighbours as ‘Doctor Fletcher.’ He als...
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Links (1)


Giles Fletcher the Elder

borndied
1548 ca1611
an English poet and diplomat, member of the English Parliament. Studying Greek and poetry, Fletcher contributed to the translation of several of Demosthenes' orations. On 22 March 1572, Fletcher became a lecturer in King's and held this position until March the following year, until he became a lecturer in Greek, a position which he held until Michaelmas ter...
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Links (1)


Giles Fletcher the Younger

borndied
1586 ca1623
an English poet chiefly known for his long allegorical poem Christ's Victory and Triumph (1610). He was the younger son of Giles Fletcher the Elder (minister to Elizabeth I), and the brother of the poet Phineas Fletcher, and cousin of the dramatist John Fletcher. Educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he remained in Cambridge after hi...
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Links (1)


John Fletcher [1]

borndied
15791625
a Jacobean playwright. Following William Shakespeare as house playwright for the King's Men, he was among the most prolific and influential dramatists of his day; both during his lifetime and in the early Restoration, his fame rivaled Shakespeare's. Though...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Phineas Fletcher

borndied
1582, Apr 81650, Dec 13
an English poet, elder son of Dr Giles Fletcher, and brother of Giles the Younger. Phineas Fletcher wrote throughout his life. At his death he left behind a body of literature larger than that of his Renaissance contemporaries: in fact, his work rivals in size the canons of Spenser and Milton. The collected works of Phineas Fletcher include three volumes of ...
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Links (1)


Enrique Florez

aka: Flórez
borndied
1701, Feb 141773, Aug 20
a Spanish historian. At 15 years old, he entered the order of St Augustine. He subsequently became professor of theology at the University of Alcala, where he published a Cursus theologiae in five volumes (1732–1738). He then devoted himself to historical studies. Of these the first-fruit was his Clavis Historiae, a work of the same class as the French Art...
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Links (1)


John Florio

aka: Giovanni Florio
borndied
15531625
a linguist and lexicographer, a royal language tutor at the Court of James I, and a possible friend and influence on William Shakespeare.[1] He was also the first translator of Montaigne into English. He was born in London, and in 1580 he married the sister of poet Samuel Daniel. The couple had three children, Joane Florio, baptised in Oxford in 1585; Edward...
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Links (1)


John Floyd

borndied
15721649, Sep 15
an English Jesuit, known as a controversialist. He is known under the pseudonyms Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, and George White (also Annosus Fidelis Verimentanus, Flud, and the initials J. R.) under which he published. He was known both as a preacher and teacher, and was frequently arrested in England.
Links (1)


Robert Fludd

aka: Robertus de Fluctibus
borndied
1574, Jan 171637, Sep 8
a prominent English Paracelsian physician with both scientific and occult interests. He is remembered as an astrologer, mathematician, cosmologist, Qabalist and Rosicrucian apologist. Fludd is best known for his compilations in occult philosophy. He had a celebrated exchange of views with more
Links (4)


Emilie Flygare-Carlen

aka: Flygare-Carlén
borndied
1807, Aug 81892, Feb 5
a Swedish novelist. She moved to Stockholm some years later, and in 1841 she married a lawyer, publicist and poet of that city, Johan Gabriel Carlén (1814–1875). Her house became a meeting place for Stockholm men of letters, and for the next twelve years she produced one or two novels annually. The premature death of her son Edvard Flygare (1829–1853), ...
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Links (1)


Janos Fogarasi

aka: János
borndied
18011878
a Hungarian jurist and philologist, born at Kázsmárk, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary. In 1829 he was admitted to the bar, in 1848 became Councilor in the Hungarian Finance Ministry, and subsequently President of the Council of Commerce and a judge of the Supreme Court. He wrote on Hungarian jurisprudence and finance (The Hungarian La...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Laurence Fogg

aka: Fogge
borndied
16231718, Feb 27
dean of Chester. He was appointed rector of Hawarden, Flintshire, in 1655 or 1656, and was among the first who restored the public use of the liturgy. In 1662 he resigned his living, owing to an apparent ambiguity in an act of parliament relating to subscription, but he afterwards conformed. A candid, sober-minded churchman, he was well-regarded by more mod...
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Links (1)


Gabriel de Foigny

borndied
16301692
the author of an important utopia, La Terre Australe connue, 1676. All we know about Foigny, including his identity (the book was printed without his name), is based exclusively on the second edition of Pierre Bayle's Dictionnaire historique et critique (1701, under "Sadeur"). He was born in Lorraine and became a Franciscan, but left the order. He moved near...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Charles Follen

aka: Karl
bornactivedied
1796, Sep 61818-18391840, Jan 13
a German poet and patriot, who later moved to the United States and became the first professor of German at Harvard University, a Unitarian minister, and a radical abolitionist.
Links (9)


Thomas George Fonnereau

borndied
1789, Aug 251850, Nov 13
an English author and artist. After practising as an attorney in partnership with John Gregson at 8 Angel Court, Throgmorton Street, from 1816 to 1834, he succeeded, by the death of a relation, into property and devoted himself for the rest of his life to his books and his friends. His political opinions leaned to conservatism, and he published in 1831 a 'Pr...
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Links (1)


Theodor Fontane

borndied
1819, Dec 301898, Sep 20
a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to an apothecary, his father's profession. He became an apothecary himself, and in 1839, at the age of 20, wrote his first work (Heinrichs IV. erste Liebe, now lost). His further education was in Leipzig whe...
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Links (1)


Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda

borndied
1536 ca1575+
a Spanish shipwreck survivor who lived among the Indians of Florida for 17 years. His memoir, written in 1575, is one of the most valuable contemporary accounts of American Indian life from that period. Fontaneda provides the city of Tampa's earliest written mention. He names 22 important villages of the Calusa, the first being "Tanpa". He gives no details c...
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Links (1)


Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle

aka: Bernard Le Bouyer
borndied
1657, Feb 111757, Jan 9
a French author and an influential member of three of the academies of the Institut de France, noted especially for his accessible treatment of scientific topics during the unfolding of the Age of Enlightenment. He began as a poet, writing a poem in Latin at the age of 13 and more than once competed for prizes of the Académie française, but he never won an...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Alexander Forbes

borndied
17781862
a 19th-century Scottish merchant, explorer, and author. His book California: A History of Upper and Lower California, published in 1839, is perhaps the first full account in English of California. He is the brother of distinguished Scottish physician Sir John Forbes.
Links (1)


James Forbes

borndied
1629 ca1712
a Scottish nonconformist divine. He was educated at Aberdeen University, where he proceeded M.A., being subsequently admitted ad eundem at Oxford. In 1654 he was sent to Gloucester Cathedral, where he preached ‘ with great success, but to the apparent danger of shortening his life.’ At the Restoration he was speedily ejected from the cathedral, but he st...
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Links (1)


Emanuel Ford

bornactivedied
unknown1600sunknown
an Elizabethan romancer. There is very little information available about the details of his life. He was the author of Parismus, in two parts (1598–99), long exceedingly popular, and of the similar romances, Ornatus and Artesia (1607) and Montelion (1633, but probably published earlier).
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John Ford

borndied
15861639 ca
an English playwright and poet of the Jacobean and Caroline eras born in Ilsington in Devon, England. Prior to the start of his career as a playwright, Ford wrote other non-dramatic literary works—the long religious poem Christ's Bloody Sweat (1613), and two prose essays published as pamphlets, The Golden Mean (1613) and A Line of Life (1620). After 1620 h...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Johann Nikolaus Forkel

borndied
17491818
a German musician, musicologist and music theorist. To his musical compositions, which are numerous, little interest is to be attached today. However it is worth noting that he wrote variations on "God Save the King" for the clavichord, and that Georg Joseph Vogler wrote a sharp criticism on them, which appeared at Frankfurt in 1793 together with a set of va...
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Simon Forman

borndied
1552, Dec 311611, Sep 5/12
an Elizabethan astrologer, occultist and herbalist active in London during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and James I of England. His reputation, however, was severely...
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Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey

borndied
1711, May 311797, Mar 7
a German author who wrote in French. Besides his activities as a journalist or editor, he contributed to the French Encyclopédie. He was born and died in Berlin. Formey's principal works are La belle Wolfienne (1741–1753); Le Philosophe chrétien (1740); L'Emile chrétien (1764), intended as an answer to the Emile of more
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Xavier Forneret

borndied
1809, Sep 161884, Aug 7
a French writer; poet, playwright and journalist. In 1835 he wrote two plays which were staged in Dijon. He paid for the staging; both were total commercial failures. During his years in Paris, he published books (with the text usually printed on one side of the paper only, in an enormously large font) which included poems, aphorisms, paradoxes, short prosai...
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Edward Forsett

aka: Forset
borndied
15531630
an English official, politician and writer, known for political works and as a playwright. Educated at Christ's College, Cambridge and Trinity College, Cambridge, he graduated B.A. in 1572, and was a Fellow of Trinity from 1574 to 1581. In the service of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, and a justice of the peace, Forset was involved on the prosecution s...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Peter Forsskal

aka: Forsskål, Pehr Forsskål, Peter Forskaol, Petrus Forskål, Pehr Forsskåhl
borndied
1732, Jan 111763, Jul 11
a Swedish explorer, orientalist, naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. He was appointed by king Frederick V of Denmark to join, amongst others, the orientalist and mathematician Carsten Niebuhr on an expedition to Arabia. Explored the Arabian Peninsula
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Benjamin Meggot Forster

borndied
1764, Jan 161829, Mar 8
an English botanist and mycologist who wrote An Introduction to the Knowledge of Fungusses in 1820. He was attached to the study of science, especially botany and electricity. He executed many drawings of fungi, communicated various species to James Sowerby, and in 1820 published, with initials only, An Introduction to the Knowledge of Fungusses, pp. 20, wit...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Edward Forster

borndied
17691828
an English cleric and miscellaneous writer. In 1803, Forster was presented to the rectory of Aston Somerville, Gloucestershire, by an old friend, Lord Somerville, who had procured for him the appointment of chaplain to the Duke of Newcastle in 1796. Forster entered into an engagement with a bookseller, William Miller of Old Bond Street, subsequently of Albem...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Ernst Joachim Forster

aka: Förster
borndied
1800, Apr 81885, Apr 29
a German painter and an art critic, author of a number of elaborate and important works bearing on the history of art in Germany and Italy. He was born in Saaleplatte, and initially studied theology and philosophy, but soon devoted himself to art, entering the studio of Peter von Cornelius at Munich. He was employed in painting the frescoes in the Aula at t...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Nathaniel Forster [1]

borndied
1718, Feb 31757
an English cleric, and a classical and biblical scholar. In 1749 Forster was presented by Lord-chancellor Hardwicke, on the recommendation of Thomas Secker, to the small rectory of Hethe, Oxfordshire. In 1750 he became domestic chaplain to Joseph Butler; bishop Butler died in his arms at Bath, Somerset. Forster was a scholar, and conversant with Greek, Latin...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Nathaniel Forster [2]

borndied
1726/271790, Apr 12
an English cleric and writer on political economy. He matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, on 12 February 1742, but migrated to Magdalen College, where he was elected a demy in 1744, and graduated B.A. in 1745, and M.A. in 1748. Forster became rector of All Saints Church, Colchester, and chaplain to the Countess Dowager of Northington. Besides sermons, F...
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George Fortescue [2]

borndied
1578 ca1659
an English essayist and poet. George probably received part of his education in the English College of Douay, was in October 1609 admitted as a boarder in the English College at Rome, and was recalled by his parents to Flanders 30 April 1614. He was in London secretary to his cousin Anthony Fortescue, the resident for the Duke of Lorraine at the time of his ...
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Samuel Fortrey

borndied
16221681
an English landowner and fen drainer, author of England's Interest and Improvement, consisting in the increase of the Store and Trade of this Kingdom (Cambridge, 1663). England's Interest and Improvement is described on the title-page as "one of the gentlemen of his majesties most honourable privy chamber". It was reprinted in 1673, 1713, and 1744; in Sir Ch...
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Paolo Antonio Foscarini

borndied
1565 ca1616, Jun 10
a Carmelite father and scientist, whose book on the mobility of the earth was condemned by the Roman Inquisition in 1616 along with the writings of Nicolaus Copernicus. Paolo Foscarini was born in Montalto in Calabria, with the family name Scarini. He publ...
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Ugo Foscolo

borndied
1778, Feb 61827, Sep 10
an Italian writer, revolutionary and poet. He is remembered especially for his 1807 poetry book, Dei Sepolcri. Foscolo, who, for causes not clearly explained, had changed his Christian name Niccolò to that of Ugo, now began to take an active part in the stormy political discussions which the fall of the republic of Venice had provoked. He was a prominent me...
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Hannah Webster Foster

borndied
1758, Sep 101840, Apr 17
an American novelist. Her epistolary novel, The Coquette; or, The History of Eliza Wharton, was published anonymously in 1797. Although it sold well in the 1790s, it was not until 1866 that her name appeared on the title page. In 1798 she published The Boarding School; or, Lessons of a Preceptress to Her Pupils, a commentary on female education in the United...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Martin Fotherby

borndied
1560 ca1620, Mar 11
an English clergyman, who became Bishop of Salisbury. He was rector of St Mary-le-Bow, and then in 1596 a prebendary of Canterbury Cathedral. He became Bishop of Salisbury in 1618. His Atheomastix; clearing foure truthes, against atheists and infidels was published posthumously in 1622, a work written against atheism. According to the Cambridge History of En...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Anthony Fothergill

borndied
1732 ca1813
an English physician. His will set aside £1,000 to publishing his works: the editing and selection he desired to be undertaken by his friend Dr. Lettsom. Lettsom died two years later, and no selection from the manuscripts, in twelve folio volumes, was made for publication. Fothergill had chemical knowledge, which he made use of in analysing mineral waters. ...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

John Fothergill

borndied
1712, Mar 81780, Dec 26
an English physician, plant collector, philanthropist and Quaker. His medical writings were influential, and he built up a sizeable botanic garden in what is now West Ham Park in London. He is credited with first identifying and naming trigeminal neuralgia in his work Of a Painful Affection of the Face in 1765.
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Paul Foucher

borndied
1810, Apr 211875, Jan 24
a French playwright, theatre and music critic, political journalist, and novelist. Foucher soon obtained employment as a journalist and proceeded to write a new play, Yseul Raimbaud, which was first presented at the Théâtre de l'Odéon on 17 November 1830. It was attacked by the classiques (as the opponents of romanticism were then called), "but all agreed...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Carl Andreas Fougstad

borndied
1806, Mar 21871, Jul 3
a Norwegian politician. He graduated from the University of Oslo as cand.jur. in 1831. In 1828 he had been chairman in the Det Norske Studentersamfund for half a year. He was a member of the social circle Intelligenspartiet, whose most famous members were Anton Martin Schweigaard, Frederik Stang and Johan Sebastian Welhaven. Fougstad was a co-editor of their...
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Henry Foulis

borndied
16381669, Dec 24
an English academic theologian and controversial author. He became a commoner of Queen's College, Oxford, 6 June 1654, proceeded B.A. 3 February 1656, and M.A. on 25 June 1659; he was incorporated B.A. of Cambridge in 1658, and on 31 January 1660 was elected fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. He studied divinity, took the degree of B.D. on 7 November 1667, a...
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Charles Fourier

borndied
1772, Apr 71837, Oct 10
a French philosopher and an influential early socialist thinker later associated with "utopian socialism". Some of Fourier's social and moral views, held to be radical in his lifetime, have become mainstream thinking in modern society. Fourier is, for instance, credited with having originated the word feminism in 1837. Fourier's social views and proposals i...
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Narcisse Fournier

borndied
1809, Nov 241880, Apr 24
a French journalist, novelist and playwright. He began his literary career aged 22 with two pieces, les Secrets de Cœur and la Poupée. From then on he produced a large number of comedies, vaudevilles and dramas (most often in collaboration), a few novels and articles in several reviews, notably the Revue britannique. He also translated English and German w...
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John Fowler [1]

borndied
15371578/9, Feb 13
a Catholic scholar and printer. On leaving Oxford he withdrew to Leuven (French: Louvain), where like other scholars of his time he turned his attention to the craft of printing. His intellectual attainments were such as to enable him to take high rank among the scholar-printers of that age. There are many original works or translations for which he was pers...
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William Fowler

bornactivedied
1560 ca1581-16121612
a Scottish poet, writer, courtier, and translator. Fowler was part of a literary circle around King James which has become known as the "Castalian Band", which included Alexander Montgomerie, John Stewart of Baldynneis, Alexander Hume, Thomas and Robert Hudson, and James VI himself. In 1591 Fowler contributed a prefatory sonnet To the Only Royal Poet to Jame...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Fowns

borndied
1560 ca1625
an English divine. He took the degrees of B.D. and D.D. by accumulation, 16 May 1605. He became chaplain to Prince Henry, and in 1602 was rector of Severn Stoke, Worcestershire, in the church of which he was buried 25 November 1625. His monument was ‘miserably defaced’ during the English Civil War. He was the author of: 1. ‘Concio [on 2 Thess. ii. 3, 4...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Francis Fox

borndied
16751738
an English divine. He was for most of his life, a strong Whig, and in 1727 he preached at what was called the Reading lecture a sermon which gave great offence to a number of the clergy who formed the audience. After being repeated as an assize sermon at Abingdon, it was published under the title of ‘Judgment, Mercy, and Fidelity, the Weightier Matters or ...
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John Fox

borndied
1693, May 101763, Oct 25
an English biographer. It was some time after 1744 that Fox penned his own Memoirs, and the Characters of some of his contemporaries. They throw light on dissenting history. Fox writes with freedom, though his estimates of men were coloured by his dislikes. In 1814 some use was made of the ‘Characters’ by Joshua Toulmin, to whom the manuscript had been l...
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John Foxe

borndied
1516/15171587, Apr 18
an English historian and martyrologist, the author of Actes and Monuments (popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs), an account of Christian martyrs throughout Western history but emphasizing the sufferings of English Protestants and proto-Protestants from the fourteenth century through the reign of Mary I. Widely owned and read by English Puritans, the bo...
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Samuel Foxe

borndied
1560, Dec 311630, Jan
an English diarist and politician. He was a Member of the Parliament of England for Midhurst in 1589 and for Knaresborough in 1593. In 1576 he left for France without permission of his tutors or knowledge of his father. He was, however, readmitted to the college, although he is said to have acquired a fondness for dress, which displeased his father. In 1579 ...
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Mathilda Foy

aka: Mathilde Foj
borndied
1813, Nov 101869, Nov 1
a Swedish philanthropist and writer, known for her charitable work. She is known as a pioneer of the Sunday school, and as the co-founder of the charity organisation "Fruntimmerssällskapet för fångars förbättring" (English: The Women Society for the Improvement of Prisoners) in 1854. Foy wrote several times about the Emilie Petersen, known as "Mormor p...
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Nicolas-Etienne Framery

aka: Nicolas-Étienne
borndied
1745, Mar 251810, Nov 26
a French music theorist, critic and lyric writer associated with opera, especially opéra comique. He wrote and adapted librettos. His work became more adademic and abstract and he eventually became surintendant de la musique for the Comte d'Artois, (who would become Charles X of France). In addition to works relating to music, Framery still gave in his yout...
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Mary Frampton

borndied
17731846
the sister of James Frampton (an English lawyer), who wrote The Journal of Mary Frampton, From The Year 1779 to Until The Year 1846. She was believed to be a Tory. Her journal is regarded as a good source of Victorian Thought and details important events in British politics during her lifetime. It is a reference on 17th century fashion, politics, and economi...
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William Framyngham

borndied
1512, Feb1537, Sep 25
an English author. John Caius tells us that along with Framyngham he wrote Scholia and notes upon them, but could never recover them from those in whose care he left them when he went to Italy. Long afterwards, in 1570, Edmund Gheast, bishop of Rochester, professed to know of them, but Caius apparently did not follow up the clue. He proceeded B.A. 1530, M.A...
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Cross-listed in Military

Richard Franck

borndied
1624 ca1708
a captain in the parliamentary army and author. Franck was born and educated at Cambridge. When the First English Civil War he went to London. His political sympathies were parliamentarian, and he had the rank of captain. Franck left England for a tour in Scotland around 1656 or 1657. He returned to Nottingham, where he seems to have lived many years. About ...
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Veronica Franco

borndied
15461591
an Italian poet and courtesan in 16th-century Venice. In 1575, Franco's first volume of poetry was published, her Terze rime, containing 18 capitoli (verse epistles) by her and 7 by men writing in her praise. That same year saw an outbreak of plague in Venice, one that lasted two years and caused Franco to leave the city and to lose many of her possessions. ...
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Adolphe Franconi

borndied
18011855, Nov 2
a French playwright and circus performer. A grandson of Antonio Franconi and son of Henri Franconi, he succeeded him in 1827 as managing director of the Cirque-Olympique. He specialized in training horses. In 1835, he forged an association with Louis Dejean in order to establish a circus tent on the Champs-Élysées, at the Carré Marigny. He died of a heart...
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Henri Franconi

aka: Jean Gérard Henri Franconi
borndied
1779, Nov 41849, Jul 22
a French playwright and circus performer of the early XIXth century. A son of Antonio Franconi, in 1807 he became with his brother Laurent director of the Cirque-Olympique (1807-1837). An actor, a mime, an esquire, nicknamed Minette, he authored pantomimes, dramas and vaudeville.
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Ludwig August von Frankl

borndied
1810, Feb 31894, Mar 12
a Jewish Bohemian-Austrian writer and poet. He was a friend of Nikolaus Lenau. Also, he corresponded with Petar II Petrovic Njegos of Montenegro before he died in 1851. Frankl's Gusle, Serbische Nationallieder was dedicated to Vuk Karadži?'s daughter in 1852. His object was to present some of the songs in Vuk which had not yet been translated, and he took t...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Ann Smith Franklin

borndied
1696, Oct 21763, Apr 16
an American colonial newspaper printer and publisher. She inherited the business from her husband, James Franklin, brother of Benjamin Franklin. She published the Newport, Rhode Island Mercury, printed an almanac series, and printed Rhode Island paper curren...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceInventorsScientistsCommerce

Benjamin Franklin

bornactivedied
1705, Jan 61718-17891790, Apr 17
one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories rega...
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Timeline (26)Links (7)Notes (4)


Cross-listed in Commerce

James Franklin [1]

aka: Poor Robin
borndied
1697, Feb 41735, Feb 4
an American colonial author, printer, newspaper publisher, and almanac publisher. James published the New England Courant, one of the oldest and the first truly independent American newspapers. ames was an older brother of Benjamin Franklin and the son of Josiah Franklin, a chandler and businessman from Ecton, Northamptonshire, England, and Abiah Folger Fran...
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Frans Michael Franzen

aka: Franzén
borndied
1772, Feb 91847, Aug 14
a Swedish and Finnish poet. From the autumn of 1793, when his Till en ung Flicka and Menniskans anlete were inserted by Kellgren in the Stockholmspost, Franzén grew in popular favour by means of many minor poems of singular simplicity and truth, such as Till Selma, Den gamle knekten, Riddar St Göran, De Små blommorna, Modren vid vaggan, Nyårsmorgonen and...
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Roland Freart de Chambray

aka: Fréart, sieur de Chambray
borndied
1606, Jul 131676, Dec 11
a French writer, collector, and a theorist of architecture and the arts. Though not a practitioner himself, his two major publications, Parallèle de l'architecture antique avec la moderne (1650) and Idée de la perfection de la peinture (1662), appeared at a time when French architects were struggling to apply a new sense of discipline and order to the pra...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Gilbert James French

borndied
18041866
a textile manufacturer and the biographer of Samuel Crompton. Beginning on 26 April 1856, he contributed a series of letters to consecutive numbers of the Bolton Chronicle, which he collected and again "printed for presentation" in the same year as An Enquiry into the Origin and Authorship of some of the Waverley Novels. Here French developed, with new facts...
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William French

borndied
17861849, Nov 12
the master of Jesus College, Cambridge. He was presented by the lord chancellor to the living of Moor Monkton, Yorkshire, in 1827, and became a canon of Ely in 1832. He discharged his various functions with urbanity and integrity. His mathematical attainments were of the highest order, and to classical scholarship he added a considerable acquaintance with or...
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Jean Frederic Frenet

aka: Jean Frédéric
borndied
1816, Feb 71900, Jun 12
a French mathematician, astronomer, and meteorologist. He was born and died in Périgueux, France. He is best known for being an (independent) co-discoverer of the Frenet–Serret formulas. He also was director of an astronomical observatory at Lyon. He wrote six out of the nine formulas, which at that time were not expressed in vector notation, nor using li...
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James Hatley Frere

borndied
17791866
an English writer on prophecy. About 1838 Frere introduced a tactile alphabet, a phonetic system for teaching the blind to read. He had the advantage of having his plan carried out by a blind man, who suggested several changes. He also invented the ‘return’ lines—that is to say, the lines in his book are read from left to right and from right to left a...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Anthony Freston

borndied
17571819, Dec 25
an English Anglican clergyman. Freston was the son of Robert Brettingham of Norwich, and nephew of Matthew Brettingham, the architect of Holkham Hall, the Earl of Leicester's seat in Norfolk. While a child Anthony took the name of Freston, in pursuance of the will of his maternal uncle, William Freston of Mendham, who died in 1761, and devised to him his est...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Frewen

borndied
15581628
an English Puritan divine. His first publication was ‘Certaine Fruitfull Instructions and necessary doctrines meete to edify in the feare of God: faithfully gathered together by Iohn Frewen,’ London, 1587. It was dedicated to Thomas Coventry, father of the lord keeper. Two years later Frewen published another manual with the title ‘Certaine Fruitfull I...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Louis de Freycinet

borndied
1779, Aug 71841, Aug 18
a French navigator. He was born at Montélimar, Drôme. He circumnavigated the earth, and in 1811 published the first map to show a full outline of the coastline of Australia. Explored western Australia and Oceania. In 1805, he returned to Paris, and was entrusted by the government with the work of preparing the maps and plans of the expedition. He also comp...
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Links (1)


Gustav Freytag

borndied
1816, Jul 131895, Apr 30
a German novelist and playwright. In 1844 Freytag's first play appeared, "The Brautfahrt or Kunz von der Rosen," a comedy about Emperor Maximilian, for which he received the prize of the Berlin court theater won. In 1847, he published the plays "The Valentine" and "Count Waldemar"; in 1854, he published comedy "The journalists' successfully. Freytag's litera...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in AstronomersClergy

David Friesenhausen

borndied
17561828, Mar 23
a German-Hungarian astronomer, maskil, mathematician, and rabbi. Friesenhausen was one of the first proponents of Torah im Derech Eretz, a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism that formalizes a relationship between traditionally observant Judaism and the modern world. He proposed a dual curriculum of Jewish and secular studies for all rabbinic candidates, a radica...
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Links (1)


John Frith

borndied
15031533, Jul 4
an English Protestant priest, writer, and martyr. Frith was an important contributor to the Christian debate on persecution and toleration in favour of the principle of religious toleration. He was 'perhaps the first to echo in England' of that 'more liberal tradition' of 'Zwingli, Melanchthon and Bucer'. In 1528 he went to Marburg, where he translated Place...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

William Powell Frith

borndied
1819, Jan 191909, Nov 9
an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1853, presenting The Sleeping Model as his Diploma work. He has been described as the "greatest British painter of the social scene since Hogarth". Born in Aldfield, North Yorkshire, Frith was encouraged to tak...
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Links (1)


Charlotta Frolich

aka: Frölich
borndied
1698, Nov 281770, Jul 21
a Swedish writer, historian, agronomist and poet. She sometimes used the pseudonym Lotta Triven. She published poems, stories, and work about political and scientific subjects. In 1741-42, she became the first of her gender to be published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences with three books in agricultural science depicting her own experiences and sugg...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Eugene Fromentin

aka: Eugène
borndied
1820, Oct 241876, Aug 27
a French painter and writer, now better remembered for his writings. He was born in La Rochelle. After leaving school he studied for some years under Louis Cabat, the landscape painter. Fromentin was one of the earliest pictorial interpreters of Algeria, having been able, while quite young, to visit the land and people that suggested the subjects of most of ...
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Links (5)


James Anthony Froude

borndied
1818, Apr 231894, Oct 20
an English historian, novelist, biographer, and editor of Fraser's Magazine. From his upbringing amidst the Anglo-Catholic Oxford Movement, Froude intended to become a clergyman, but doubts about the doctrines of the Anglican church, published in his scandalous 1849 novel The Nemesis of Faith, drove him to abandon his religious career. Froude turned to writi...
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Links (1)


Elizabeth Fry

borndied
1780, May 211845, Oct 12
an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the "angel of prisons". Fry was a major driving force behind new legislation to make the treatment of prisoners more humane, and she was supported in her efforts by the reigning monarch. Elizabeth Fry wrote in her book Prisons in Sc...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

John Fryer

bornactivedied
1650 ca1671-16981733, Mar 31
an English doctor and Fellow of the Royal Society, now best remembered for his descriptions of travel in Persia and East India.
Links (1)


Fukuda Chiyo-ni

borndied
17031775, Oct 2
a Japanese poet of the Edo period, widely regarded as one of the greatest female haiku poets. Chiyo-ni began writing haiku poetry at age 7. By the age of 17, she had become very popular all over Japan for her poetry. Her poems, although mostly dealing with nature, work for a unity of nature with humanity. Her own life was that of the haikai poets who made th...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Adam von Fulda

aka: Adam of Fulda
borndied
14451505
a German musical author of the second half of the 15th century. He was born in Fulda and died in Wittenberg. Most of his musical works are liturgical settings or secular songs. He wrote one mass, and several liturgical works. Niemöller lists 3 secular songs. Three writings of his are known, dealing with musical theory, Christianity and history.
Links (1)


William Fulke

borndied
15381589
an English Puritan divine. His numerous polemical writings include A Defense of the Sincere and True Translations of the Holy Scriptures into the English tongue, against the Manifold Cavils, Frivolous Quarrels, and Impudent Slanders of Gregory Martin, one of the Readers of Popish Divinity, in the Traitorous Seminary of Rheims (London, 1583), and confutations...
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Links (1)


Margaret Fuller

borndied
1810, May 231850, Jul 19
an American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Nicholas Fuller

borndied
15431620, Feb 23
an English barrister, legal writer, and Member of Parliament. After studying at Christ's College, Cambridge, Fuller became a barrister of Gray's Inn. His legal career there began prosperously—he was employed by the Privy Council to examine witnesses—but was hampered later by his representation of The Puritans, a religious group which did not conform with...
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Links (1)


Thomas Fuller

bornactivedied
16081630-16611661, Aug 16
an English churchman and historian. He is now remembered for his writings, particularly his Worthies of England, published in 1662 after his death. He was a prolific author, and one of the first English writers able to live by his pen (and his many patrons).
Links (1)


Georgiana Fullerton

borndied
1812, Sep 231885, Jan 19
an English novelist. She converted to Roman Catholicism in 1846 and wrote The Life of St. Frances of Rome, and Others. She wrote several novels, some of which were very successful. They include Ellen Middleton (1844), Grantley Manor (1847), Lady Bird (1852), Life of St.Francis of Rome (1855), The Countess of Bonneval (1858), Rose Leblanc (1861), Laurentia, a...
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Ulpian Fulwell

borndied
1545/461585 ca
an English Renaissance theatre playwright, satirist and poet. He became a rector of Naunton in 1570 and a member of St. Mary Hall, Oxford in 1578. One of his works, Like Will to Like has been analyzed in a study exploring the themes of morality and vices in relation to the devil. The play has been further credited as being influential in a later play, Grim t...
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Antoine Furetiere

aka: Furetière
borndied
1619, Dec 281688, May 14
a French scholar and writer, born in Paris. he was admitted as a member of the Académie française in 1662. The academy had long promised a complete dictionary of the French language; and when the members heard that Furetière was on the point of issuing a work of a similar nature, they interfered, alleging that he had purloined from their stores and that t...
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John Fursdon

borndied
unknown1638
an English Benedictine monk. His works are: 1. ‘The Life of the … Lady Magdalen, Viscountesse Montague, written in Latin … by Richard Smith [bishop of Chalcedon], and now translated into English by C. F.,’ 1627, 4to, dedicated to Antony Maria, viscount Montague. 2. ‘The Life and Miracles of St. Benedict,’ 1638, 12mo, with plates. 3. ‘The Rule o...
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Cross-listed in Military

Hermann Furst von Puckler-Muskau

aka: Fürst von Pückler-Muskau
borndied
1785, Oct 301871, Feb 4
a German nobleman, who was an excellent artist in landscape gardening and wrote widely appreciated books, mostly about his travels in Europe and Northern Africa, published under the pen name of "Semilasso". As a writer of books of travel he holds a high position, his powers of observation being keen and his style lucid, animated and witty. Among his later bo...
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Fuzuli

aka: Fuzûlî
borndied
14894 ca1556
the pen name of the Azeri or the Bayat branch of Oghuz Turkic and Ottoman poet, writer and thinker Muhammad bin Suleyman. Often considered one of the greatest contributors to the Dîvân tradition of Azerbaijani literature, Fuzûlî in fact wrote his collected poems (dîvân) in three different languages: in his native Azeri, Persian, and Arabic. Although h...
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Simwnt Fychan

borndied
1530 ca1606
a Welsh language poet and genealogist, probably born in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd in north-east Wales. He was a colleague of the poet and scholar Gruffudd Hiraethog. In 1568 Queen Elizabeth I of England appointed a commission to control the activities of "minstrels, rhymers and bards", in Wales. They were summoned to meet at Caerwys and Simwnt Fychan was appoi...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Martin Fynch

aka: Finch
borndied
1628 ca1697/1698, Feb 13
an English ejected minister. He entered the ministry about 1648, and was ejected from the vicarage of Tetney, Lincolnshire, by the uniformity act of 1662. In 1668 he was in Norwich, where he acted as one of three "heads and teachers" of a congregation of three hundred independents, who met for worship in the house of John Tofts, a grocer, in St. Clement's pa...
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