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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Jabez Earle

borndied
1676 ca1768
an English Presbyterian minister. He was probably a native of Yorkshire. Earle published almost thirty separate sermons, including Ordination Sermon at Newport Pagnell (William Hunt), 1725, 8vo; and funeral sermons, for John Cumming, D.D., 1729, 8vo., Joseph Hayes, 1729, 8vo. and Alice Hayes, 1733, 8vo. His last publication seems to have been The Popish Doct...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Eastcott

borndied
17441828
an English clergyman and writer on music. Eastcott was author of Sketches of the Origin, Progress, and Effects of Music, with an Account of the Ancient Bards and Minstrels, Bath, 1793. The book, which was well received, was constructed from the histories of Charles Burney and John Hawkins. There is a chapter on the state of English church music, in which the...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Sir Charles Lock Eastlake

borndied
1793, Nov 171865, Dec 24
an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century. He was committed to becoming a painter, and in 1809 he became the first pupil of Benjamin Haydon and a student at the Royal Academy schools in London — where he later exhibited. Despite being based predominantly in mainland Europe, Eastlake regularly sent works back to Lo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

William Eastmead

borndied
unknown1847 ca
an English dissenting minister. Eastmead was pastor of a congregation at Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire, and died about 1847. He wrote: ‘Observations on Human Life,’ London, 1814, 1825; ‘The Perfections of the Works of Christ.’; ‘Historia Rievallensis; containing the History of Kirkby Moorside, and an Account of the most Important Places in its Vicinit...
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Links (1)


Edward Backhouse Eastwick

borndied
18141883, Jul 16
a British orientalist, diplomat and Conservative Member of Parliament. He joined the Bombay infantry in 1836, but, owing to his talent for languages, was soon given a political post. In 1843 he translated the Persian Kessahi Sanjan, or History of the Arrival of the Parsees in India; and he wrote a Life of Zoroaster, a Sindhi vocabulary, and various papers in...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Eccleston

borndied
16591743
an English Jesuit. During the wars in Ireland, after the revolution of 1688, he held a captain's commission in King James's army. Being engaged in a duel which proved fatal to his antagonist, he was seized with remorse and determined to enter the religious state. He wrote a treatise on ‘The Way to Happiness,’ 1726, 8vo; 2nd edit. London, 1772, 8vo. His f...
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Links (1)


Johann Eck

aka: John, von Eck
borndied
1486, Nov 131543, Feb 13
a German Scholastic theologian, Catholic prelate, and early counterreformer who was among Martin Luther's most important interlocutors and theological opponents. At Freiburg in 1506 he published his first work, Ludicra logices exercitamenta and also proved himself a brilliant and subtle orator, although obsessed by an untamable controversial spirit an...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsSculptors

John Eckstein the Elder

borndied
17351817/1818
a German-born sculptor, engraver and painter who worked briefly in London before establishing himself in his homeland and then in America. He is not to be confused with his son, also known as John, a painter who worked in England and the West Indies. In 1805 he published the first part of The American Drawing Magazine, or, A Complete System of Drawing, descr...
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Links (2)


Emily Eden

borndied
1797, Mar 31869, Aug 5
an English poet and novelist who gave witty pictures of English life in the early 19th century. In her youth, she and her sister Fanny travelled to India, where her brother George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland was in residence there as Governor-General from 1835 to 1842. She wrote accounts of her time in India, later collected in the volume Up The Country: Lett...
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Links (1)


Richard Edes

borndied
15551604
an English churchman. He became Dean of Worcester, and was nominated one of the translators for the Authorised King James Version, in the Second Oxford Company, but died in the earliest stages of the project. He was the reputed author of Julius Caesar (Caesar interfectus), a Latin tragedy acted at Christ Church in 1582. A journey north with his friend Toby M...
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Links (1)


John George Edgar

borndied
18341864
an English miscellaneous writer. His earliest publication was the Boyhood of Great Men in 1853, which he followed up in the same year with a companion volume entitled Footprints of Famous Men. In the course of the next ten years he wrote as many as fifteen other volumes intended for the reading of boys. Some of these were biographical, and the remainder took...
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Links (1)


Maria Edgeworth

borndied
1768, Jan 11849, May 22
a prolific Anglo-Irish writer of adults' and children's literature. She was one of the first realist writers in children's literature and was a significant figure in the evolution of the novel in Europe. She held advanced views, for a woman of her time, on estate management, politics and education, and corresponded with some of the leading literary and econo...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Educators

Henry Edmondson

borndied
1607 ca1659
an English schoolmaster. He became usher of Tunbridge school, Kent, under Dr. Nicholas Grey, and in 1655, on the death of Thomas Widdowes, was appointed by his college master of the endowed free school of Northleach, Gloucestershire, where he remained till his death. He wrote several works, all on educational topics.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

David Edwardes

bornactivedied
unknown1530sunknown
an English anatomist. Edwardes was educated first at Oxford and afterwards at Cambridge. He took an M.D. at Cambridge in 1529. His only two known works are both on anatomy.
Links (1)


Richard Edwardes

aka: Edwards
borndied
1525, Mar 251566, Oct 31
an English poet, playwright, and composer; he was made a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and was master of the singing boys. He was known for his comedies and interludes. He was also rumoured to be an illegitimate son of Henry VIII.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

George Edwards

borndied
17521823
a Scottish physician and writer. The British Museum contained forty-two of his books. Edwards's writings abound in the unconscious humour of the egotist deeply persuaded of his mission. He gives notice that 'the Almighty has destined that I should discover his true system of human economy.'
Links (1)


John Edwards

borndied
17141785
an English dissenting minister at Leeds, Yorkshire. He was Methodist preacher who broke with the Wesleyans and set up an Independent church in 1755 at the White Chapel in Hunslet Lane, Leeds. In 1758 he published A Vindication of the Protestant Doctrine of Justification and its Prechers and Professors from the unjust Charge of Antinomianism; extracted from a...
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Links (1)


Thomas Edwards [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1587-15951595
writer, poet


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Edwards [2]

bornactivedied
1599 ca1625-16471647
an English Puritan clergyman. He was a very influential preacher in London of the 1640s, and also one of the most ferocious polemical writers of the time, arguing from a conservative Presbyterian point of view against the Independents.
Links (1)


Thomas Edwards [3]

bornactivedied
16521685-17071721
a Welsh divine and orientalist. Edwards was born at Llanllèchid, near Bangor, Carnarvonshire, in 1652. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he took the two degrees in arts, the B.A. in 1673, and the M.A. in 1677. In the early part of his life he lived with Dr. Edmund Castell, and in 1685 he was engaged by Dr. John Fell, dean of Christ Chu...
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Links (1)


Thomas Edwards [4]

bornactivedied
17291751-17791785
an Anglican clergyman and divine. In 1759 Edwards published The Doctrine of Irresistible Grace proved to have no foundation in the Writings of the N. T., a book of some importance in the Calvinist and Arminian controversy, and in 1762 Prolegomena in Libros Veteris Testamenti Poeticos, to which he added an attack upon Robert Lowth's Metricæ Harianæ brevis C...
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Links (1)


Thomas Edwards [5]

bornactivedied
17751805-18351845, Oct 20
a British legal writer. Edwards studied at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he proceeded LL.B. in 1800 and LL.D. in 1805. He was also a fellow of Trinity Hall, and was admitted advocate at Doctors' Commons. Edwards was a magistrate for the county of Surrey, and took considerable interest in questions connected with the improvement of the people. He died at the...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Edwards [6]

bornactivedied
unknown18101842, Jul 4
an English clergyman. Edwards was the son of Thomas Edwards. He graduated LL.B. in 1782 from Clare College, Cambridge. In 1783 he became a fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, taking his LL.D. degree there in 1787. Edwards published various sermons and other works. N. Nisbett, rector of Tunstall, made several attacks upon Edwards's biblical criticisms.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Eedes

borndied
1609 ca1667 ca
an English divine. He took the curacy of Broad Chalk, Wiltshire, which he held 'with much ado' for about two years, and was then made vicar of Hale, Hampshire. After the Restoration he continued at Hale, where he was murdered in his house by thieves in or about 1667, and was buried in the church. He published 'The Orthodox Doctrine concerning Justification b...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Eedes

borndied
unknown1686
an English presbyterian minister and author. About 1647 he became vicar of Beckford, near Bishop's Cleeve, where he remained until 1658. From his published sermons it is evident that he had tired of presbyterianism and longed for the king's return.
Links (1)


Pierce Egan

borndied
17721849
a British journalist, sportswriter, and writer on popular culture. Four volumes of Boxiana; or Sketches of Ancient and Modern Pugilism appeared, lavishly illustrated, between 1813 and 1824. In 1821 Egan announced the publication of a regular journal: Life in London, appearing monthly at a shilling a time.


Pierce Egan the Younger

borndied
18141880
an English journalist and novelist. The son of Pierce Egan, the author of Life in London. he associated with his father in several of his works. He contributed to the early volumes of the Illustrated London News, started in 1842, and from 7 July 1849 to the end of 1851 edited the Home Circle. Other novels were part publishing of weekly numbers, and later in ...
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Links (1)


Betty Ehrenborg

borndied
1818, Jul 221880, Jul 22
a Swedish writer, psalm writer and pedagogue. She is regarded as the founder of the Swedish Sunday school. She worked as a governess in 1846–1848. In 1852–1853, she studied at the British and foreign school in London. She founded and managed a Sunday school on her brother's estate in 1855–1856.
Links (1)


Fredrica Ehrenborg

borndied
1794, Mar 161873, May 20
a Swedish writer. She was regarded as one of the most notable supporters of The New Church in contemporary Sweden. She suffered from her lack of education, but educated herself by reading, and wished, and was able to pass on her knowledge. In 1824, she became a widow and had to support herself and her five children alone. At this point, she became interested...
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Links (1)


Helena Maria Ehrenstrahle

aka: Ehrenstråhle
borndied
17601800
a Swedish noblewoman and poet. She was the daughter of noble colonel Hans Ehrenstråhle and Maria Elisabeth Uggla and married in 1791 to the writer Jonas Carl Linnerhielm. She published a collection of poems, "Vitterhetsförsök" (1793). It consisted of both prose and poetry with "sentimental-moral contents" in the then popular Gessner-style.
Links (1)


Anna Ehrenstrom

aka: Ehrenström
borndied
1786, May 131857
a Swedish poet.In 1812, she married the major Nils Ludvig Ehrenström. She was divorced in 1832 after adultery on her part, and was forced to leave her former spouse all her property in the divorce settlement to be free of the marriage. After the divorce, she lived in Stockholm, where she supported herself and her daughter by selling books. She was a known p...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ArtistsPerformers

Marianne Ehrenstrom

aka: Ehrenström
bornactivedied
1773, Dec 91790-18311867, Jan 4
a Swedish writer, singer, painter, pianist, culture personality, memorialist, principal and lady-in-waiting. She was a member of the Academy of the Free Arts and an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. She is foremost known for her memoirs, which are regarded as a valuable historical documentation, especially about the contemporary cultural...
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Links (1)


Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff

borndied
1788, Mar 101857, Nov 26
a German poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist. Eichendorff was one of the major writers and critics of Romanticism. Ever since their publication and up to the present day, some of his works have been very popular in Germany. Many of Eichendorff's poems were first published as integral parts of his novellas and stories, whe...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Estephan El Douaihy

aka: “The Father of Maronite History”, “Pillar of the Maronite Church”, “The Second Chrysostom”, “Splendor of the Maronite Nation”, “The Glory of Lebanon and the Maronites”
bornactivedied
1630, Aug 21670-17041704, May 3
He was the 57th Patriarch of the Maronite Church from 1670 to 1704. He is considered one of the major Lebanese Historians of the 17th century. Of the many works of Patriarch El Douaihy, the vast bulk are still available only in Arabic. A selection has been translated into French by Youakim Moubarac in Pentalogie antiochenne/domaine Maronite. That selection f...
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Links (1)


John Eliot

borndied
1592, Apr 111632, Nov 27
an English statesman who was serially imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he eventually died, by King Charles I for advocating the rights and privileges of Parliament. Eliot languished in prison for some time, during which he wrote several works, most were politically-themed.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyGovernance

Queen Elizabeth I

bornactivedied
1533, Sep 71558-16031603, Mar 24
Queen of England and Ireland (and Supreme Governor of the Church of England ) from 17 November 1558 until her death. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. In religion she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers ...
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Timeline (17)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Ellerker

borndied
1738, Sep 211795, May 1
an English Jesuit. Ellerker was born at Hart, near Hartlepool, County Durham, entered the Society of Jesus in 1755, and in due course became a professed father. When the order was suppressed in 1773 he accompanied his fellow Jesuits to Liège, and thence emigrated with the community in 1794 to Stonyhurst, Lancashire, where he died. Ellerker, who is describe...
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Links (1)


Adam Elliot

borndied
unknown1700
an English clergyman and traveller. Elliot was born in Jedburgh in Scotland, the son of Henry Elliot, a clerk. He was member of Caius College, Cambridge, from 1664 to 1668, when he took his B.A. degree. Elliot's Apologia pro Vitâ Suâ was published in 1682: it is sarcastically entitled A Modest Vindication of Titus Oates the Salamanca Doctor from Perjury, a...
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Charlotte Elliott

borndied
1789, Mar 181871, Sep 22
an English poet and hymn writer. Charlotte spent the first 32 years of her life in Clapham. As a young woman, she was gifted as a portrait artist and a writer of humorous verse. Then, in her early thirties, she suffered a serious illness that left her weak and depressed. She was an invalid and suffered much during the last 50 years of her life. Miss Elliott ...
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Links (1)


Ebenezer Elliott

borndied
1781, Mar 171849, Dec 1
an English poet, known as the Corn Law rhymer for his leading the fight to repeal the Corn Laws which were causing hardship and starvation among the poor. Though a factory owner himself, his single-minded devotion to the welfare of the labouring classes won him a sympathetic reputation long after his poetry ceased to be read.
Links (1)


Edward Bishop Elliott

borndied
1793, Jul 241875, Jun 30
an English clergyman and premillennarian writer. He was a first-rate scholar who graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1816, and he was given the vicarage of Tuxford, Nottinghamshire in 1824; then later was made prebendary of Heytesbury, Wiltshire. In 1849 he became incumbent of St Mark's Church, Kemptown, Brighton. Elliott was evangelical, premillenn...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Henry Venn Elliott

borndied
17921865
an English divine. He went to Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1810; became a scholar of his college in 1811; and graduated as fourteenth wrangler in 1814, winning also the second chancellor's medal. He was elected to a fellowship of Trinity in October 1816. His works consist of a number of separate sermons and a collection of hymns.
Links (1)


William Elliott

borndied
1788, Apr 271863, Feb
a South Carolina writer of non-fiction. During the nullification crisis in South Carolina in 1832 he was a senator in the state legislature, but resigned upon being instructed by his constituents to vote to nullify the tariff law, not believing in the right of nullification, though unalterably opposed to protection. He afterward devoted himself to the manage...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

James Ellis

borndied
1763 ca1830, Mar 25/26
an English lawyer and antiquary. Ellis was the son of William Ellis, a glover, of Hexham, and was born about January 1763. He practised as a solicitor in Hexham, and then at Newcastle upon Tyne. He was the author of some verses referred to in Moses Aaron Richardson's Table Book. He also had an extensive knowledge of Border history, communicated materials on ...
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Links (1)


John Ellis

borndied
16431738
an English official and Member of Parliament. Ellis left a large collection of letters addressed to him on both public and private matters. Two volumes of his correspondence during 1686, 1687, and 1688 were edited in 1829 by George Agar-Ellis, a descendant of his brother Welbore Ellis. Attention had already been drawn to the value of the manuscript by Sir He...
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Links (1)


Elizabeth Elstob

borndied
16831756
the "Saxon Nymph", was born and brought up in the Quayside area of Newcastle upon Tyne, and, like Mary Astell of Newcastle, is nowadays regarded as one of the first English feminists. She was proficient in eight languages and became a pioneer in Anglo-Saxon studies, an unprecedented achievement for a woman in the period. From 1702, Elstob was part of the cir...
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Links (1)


Henry Elsynge

borndied
15981654
an English administrator, who acted as clerk of the House of Commons, and wrote on parliamentary procedure. After he spent seven years in foreign travel, Archbishop William Laud procured him the appointment of clerk of the House of Commons. His work was significant during the Long Parliament. Elsynge was a scholarly man who numbered Bulstrode Whitelocke and ...
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Links (1)


Richard Elton

bornactivedied
unknown1650 caunknown
an English military writer. Elton was the author of The compleat Body of the Art Military. . .. The volume is dedicated to Thomas Fairfax, and contains a number of laudatory pieces of verse addressed to Elton by his brother officers. Prefixed is a portrait of the author, engraved by John Droeshout. A second edition, with some small additions, was publ...
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Links (1)


Anna Maria Elvia

borndied
1713, Feb 201784, May 8
a Swedish feminist writer. She belonged to the academical world in Uppsala and was given an unusually high education for a contemporary female, such as mathematics, astronomy and several languages including Latin. She was renowned and respected for her academic abilities. Jonas Lindeblad said of her in 1770, that she was known for her intellectual resources,...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Thomas Elyot

borndied
1490 ca1546, Mar 26
an English diplomat and scholar. In 1531 he received instructions to proceed to the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, to try to persuade him to take a more favourable view of Henry's proposed divorce from Catherine of Aragon, the emperor's aunt. He was one of the commissioners in the inquiry instituted by Cromwell prior to the suppression of the monast...
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Links (1)


Ralph Waldo Emerson

bornactivedied
18031836-18791882
an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Robert Emery

borndied
17941871
a Tyneside songwriter, born in Edinburgh in Scotland. Possibly his best known work is "Hydrophobie" (sometimes called "The skipper and the Quaker"), an example of Geordie dialect. His early professional writing was of children's nursery rhymes for penny and halfpenny books. In 1814 he wrote the first two verses of a song about the great frost of 1813 with co...
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Links (1)


Thomas Emes

borndied
unknown1707, Dec 22
known as "the prophet", was a quack doctor and millenarian who practiced as a surgeon among the poorer classes of England. In the hope of obtaining notoriety he allied himself with the Camisards. "Under the operation of the Spirit" his brethren were enabled to prophesy that he would rise from his grave between twelve at noon and six in the evening of 25 May...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Architects

Henry Emlyn

bornactivedied
17291781-17951815, Dec 10
an English architect. Emlyn published A Proposition for a new Order in Architecture, with rules for drawing the several parts, London, 1781 (2nd and 3rd editions, 1784). George III assigned to Emlyn some alterations in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, which were executed (1787–90) entirely after his designs, and preserved a due harmony with the origina...
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Links (4)


Sollom Emlyn

borndied
1697, Dec 271754, Jun 28
an Irish legal writer. Emlyn was anxious for reforms of the law, and very forcibly pointed out the defects in the system as then practised. He remarked in 1730 on the ‘tediousness and delays’ of civil suits, ‘the exorbitant fees to counsel, whereto the costs recovered bear no proportion,’ the overgreat ‘nicety of special pleadings,’ the scandal o...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Juan del Encina

aka: Juan del Enzina, Juan de Fermoselle
borndied
1468, Jul 121529/30
a composer, poet and playwright, often called the founder, along with Gil Vicente, of Spanish drama. His name at birth was Juan de Fermoselle. His Cancionero is preceded by a prose treatise (Arte de trobar) on the condition of the poetic art in Spain. His fourteen dramatic pieces mark the transition from the purely ecclesiastical to the secular stage.
Links (6)


Friedrich Engels

borndied
1820, Nov 281895, Aug 5
a German philosopher, social scientist and journalist, who founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx. In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in Manchester. In 1848 he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) m...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


George England

bornactivedied
unknown1730sunknown
an English divine and author. England was a member of the England family which flourished at Yarmouth, Norfolk, in the 16th and 17th centuries, and may have been a grandson of Sir George England. He was chaplain to Lord Hobart, by whom he was presented in 1733 to the living of Hanworth, Norfolk. In 1737 he resigned Hanworth to become rector of Wolterton and ...
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Links (1)


Thomas Richard England

borndied
17901847, Mar 18
an Irish biographer. England was the younger brother of John England, bishop of Charleston. He was born at Cork in 1790, and after taking holy orders in the Roman Catholic Church was appointed curate of the church of St. Peter and St. Paul in his native city. He became parish priest of Glanmire, and afterwards of Passage West, county Cork, where he died.
Links (1)


Francisco de Enzinas

aka: Francis Dryander
borndied
1518, Nov 1 ca1552, Dec 30
a classical scholar, translator, author, and Protestant apologist of Spanish origin. Following an interview with the Emperor Charles V, he was arrested by order of the Emperor's confessor, Pedro de Soto. Enzinas escaped from the Vrunte prison in Brussels in February 1545. He made his way back to Wittenberg and wrote an account of his adventures, titled De st...
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Links (1)


Olaudah Equiano

aka: Gustavus Vassa
borndied
1745 ca1797, Mar 31
a writer and abolitionist from the Igbo region of what is today southeastern Nigeria according to his memoir, or from South Carolina according to other sources. Enslaved as a old man, Equiano purchased his own freedom in 1766. He was a prominent abolitionist in the British movement to end the Atlantic slave trade. His autobiography, published in 1789, helped...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Physicians

Thomas Erastus

borndied
1524, Sep 71583, Dec 31
a Swiss physician and theologian best known for a posthumously published work in which he argued that the sins of Christians should be punished by the state, and not by the church withholding the sacraments. A generalization of this idea, that the state is supreme in church matters, is known somewhat misleadingly as Erastianism.
Links (3)


Cross-listed in Military

Alonso de Ercilla

borndied
1533, Aug 71594, Nov 29
a Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid. While in Chile (1556–63) he fought against the Araucanians (Mapuche), and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems. This heroic work in 37 cantos is divided into three parts, published in 1569, 1578, and 1589. It tells of the courageous insur...
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Links (1)


Anthony Errington

borndied
unknown1719 ca
an English Catholic divine. Very little is known about his life. Errington was a member of a Northumbrian family. His name appears on a list of writers at the English College, Douai, but he was more probably educated at Lisbon and Paris. He is said to have died about 1719.
Links (1)


David Erskine

aka: Lord Dun
borndied
16701758
a Scottish advocate, judge and commissioner to parliament. He is author of a little volume entitled ‘Lord Dun's Friendly and Familiar Advices adapted to the various Stations and Conditions of Life,’ 12mo, Edinburgh, 1754. His arguments on the doctrine of passive obedience were assailed the same year by Dr. Robert Wallace, minister at Moffat, who characte...
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Links (1)


Leon Escudier

aka: Léon Halévy
borndied
1821, Sep 171881, Jun 22
a French journalist, music critic and music publisher. In 1837, together with Marie Escudier, his brother, and Jules Maurel he founded the weekly La France musicale as well as a music publishing company. From 1850 to 1858, he worked for Le Pays and Journal de l'Empire. Escudier was the French publisher of Giuseppe Verdi's works.
Links (1)


Jean-Baptiste Esmenard

aka: Esménard
borndied
17721842
a French journalist and brother to the poet Joseph-Alphonse Esménard. Fighting under the First French Empire as an army officer, he was imprisoned in the Force from 1810 to 1814 for a Legitimist plot. He contributed to Gazette de France, La Quotidienne, Journal des Débats and Mercure, and translated a large part of the memoirs of Manuel Godoy, the Prince d...
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Links (1)


Joseph-Alphonse Esmenard

aka: Esménard
borndied
17701811, Jun 25
a French poet and the brother of the journalist Jean-Baptiste Esménard. Esménard is best known for the didactic and descriptive poem entitled La Navigation, first published in 8 verses in 1805, then re-edited to 6 verses in 1806. It is a precise work, drawn from observations made by the author in the course of his travels. Its versification, however, is mo...
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Links (1)


Jacques Esprit

aka: abbé Esprit
borndied
1611, Oct 221677, Jun 11
a French moralist and writer. He is sometimes called abbé Esprit despite never having been ordained a priest. His talents were noticed by Pierre Séguier, who rewarded him with a pension and made him a conseiller d'État in 1636. He was elected a member of the Académie française in 1639. Falling into disgrace with Séguier in 1644, he took refuge in the O...
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Links (1)


Charles Estienne

borndied
15041564
an early exponent of the science of anatomy in France. After the usual humanistic training he studied medicine, and took his doctor's degree at Paris. He was for a time tutor to Jean-Antoine de Baïf, the future poet. It is uncertain whether he taught publicly. His career was interrupted by the oppressive persecutions in which their religious opinions involv...
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Links (1)


John Bishop Estlin

borndied
1785, Dec 261855, Jun 10
an English ophthalmic surgeon. In 1812 he established a dispensary for the treatment of eye diseases at No.9 Pipe Lane, on the corner of Frogmore Street, Bristol. He maintained this charity for more than a year at his own cost, and afterwards managed its affairs for thirty-six years, treating fifty-two thousand poor patients himself. He kept careful notes of...
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Links (1)


George Etherege [1]

borndied
1636 ca1692, May 10
an English dramatist. He wrote the plays The Comical Revenge or, Love in a Tub in 1664, She Would if She Could in 1668, and The Man of Mode or, Sir Fopling Flutter in 1676. After his brilliant success Etheredge retired from literature, and a few years later had lost much of his fortune to gambling. He was knighted at some time before 1679, and married the we...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

George Etherege [2]

aka: Ethrygg
bornactivedied
unknown1580sunknown
an English classical scholar and physician. He lived with his family in ‘an ancient decayed palace of literature called George-hall,’ nearly opposite the south end of Cat Street in St. Mary's parish, and took in the sons of Catholic gentlemen as boarders. Among his pupils was William Giffard, afterwards archbishop of Rheims. On account of his firm adhere...
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Bernard Etxepare

bornactivedied
1475 ca1512-1540sunknown
a Basque writer of the 16th century, most famous for a collection of poems titled Linguæ Vasconum Primitiæ ("Beginnings of the Basque Language") he published in 1545, the first book to be published in the Basque language. Etxepare's lived through a period of war and upheaval from 1512 onward with the Castilian conquest of Upper Navarre. In one of his poems...
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Countess Palatine Maria Eufrosyne of Zweibrucken

aka: Eufrosyne of Zweibrücken
borndied
1625, Feb 141687, Oct 24
a cousin and foster-sibling of Queen Christina of Sweden, and a sister of King Charles X of Sweden. She was also, after the accession of her brother Charles X on the throne (1654), a titular Royal Princess of Sweden. She was described as religious.Maria Eufrosyne was very active as a mediator and a spokesperson for supplicants who wished to speak to her spou...
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Laurence Eusden

borndied
1688, Sep1730, Sep 27
an English poet who became Poet Laureate in 1718. Eusden, who was thirty years-old at the time of his appointment was also the youngest Poet Laureate. Eusden secured this post due to the death of the previous Poet Laureate, Nicholas Rowe, and the recommendation of Joseph Addison. Upon his appointment, Eusden produced Birthday and New Year Odes for twelve yea...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Evans [1]

borndied
1680 ca1730
a Welsh divine. In addition to his sermons he published his side of a correspondence with Dr John Cumming, "concerning the regard which ought to be had to Scripture consequences" (1719 and 1722); and illustrated with notes the Epistle to the Romans for the New Testament Commentary left unfinished by Henry. He also wrote a number of introductions for works by...
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Cross-listed in Legal

William David Evans

borndied
17671821, Dec 5
an English lawyer. In 1817 he was unsuccessful in an application for a vacant judgeship, but two years later the recordership of Bombay, worth 7,000l. a year, was conferred on him, and at the same time he received the honour of knighthood. On the voyage out, Evans occupied himself on the composition of A Treatise upon the Civil Law, and he originated a weekl...
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John Evelyn

bornactivedied
1620, Oct 311640-16941706, Feb 27
an English writer, gardener and diarist. Evelyn's diaries, or memoirs, are largely contemporaneous with those of his rival diarist, Samuel Pepys, and cast considerable light on the art, culture and politics of the time (the deaths of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell, the last Great Plague of London, and the Great Fire of London in 1666). Over the years, Evelyn'...
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John Evelyn the Younger

borndied
16551699
an English translator. In December 1687 Evelyn was employed in Devon by the treasury, as a commissioner respecting ‘concealment of land.’ Just a year later he was presented to William, Prince of Orange at Abingdon by Colonel Sidney and Colonel Berkeley. As a volunteer in John Lovelace, 3rd Baron Lovelace's troop he helped to secure Oxford for William. He...
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Thomas Everard

borndied
15601633
an English Jesuit. He studied philosophy and divinity at Rheims and Courtray, and was ordained priest 18 September 1592. For several years he was minister at the college of St. Omer and at Watten, and socius and master of novices at Louvain. He was in England for a time in 1603–4, and had a marvellous escape from arrest. About 1617 he revisited this countr...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Edward Everett

borndied
1794, Apr 111865, Jan 15
an American politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as its president. In 1820 Everett became editor of the North Ameri...
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James Everett

borndied
17841872, May 10
an English Methodist and miscellaneous writer. The most important event in Everett's life was his expulsion from the Wesleyan conference in August 1849. For many years he had been opposed to the policy and working of that body, and had published anonymously several volumes of free criticism, such as The Disputants in 1835, in which he argued against the sche...
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Catherine Exley

borndied
17791857
the wife of a soldier who accompanied her husband when he served in Portugal, Spain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. She is best known as the author of a diary that gives an account of military life in that era from the viewpoint of the wife of a common soldier. Catherine Whitaker was born at Leeds in 1779 and married Joshua Exley there in 1806. Betwe...
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Cross-listed in Pirates

Alexandre-Olivier Exquemelin

aka: Esquemeling, Exquemeling, Oexmelin, Oexemeling
bornactivedied
16451669-16971707
a French, Dutch or Flemish writer best known as the author of one of the most important sourcebooks of 17th-century piracy, first published in Dutch as De Americaensche Zee-Roovers, in Amsterdam, by Jan ten Hoorn, in 1678. The bibliographic legacy of Exquemelin's "History of the Bouccaneers of America" is complex. It has rightly been said that perhaps no boo...
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Charles Eyre

borndied
17841864, Sep 28
an English miscellaneous writer. Eyre took Anglican orders, but later became a Unitarian. He took an interest in the movement that led to the Reform Bill of 1832, and was for some time proprietor of three liberal newspapers printed at Colchester. Afterwards he managed a large farm, but resolved to part with it at the solicitation of some members of his famil...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Eyre [1]

borndied
1670, Dec 231715, Nov 9
an English Jesuit. He studied at the College of St. Omer, was admitted into the Society of Jesus in 1687, and was professed of the four vows on 8 March 1705–06. He was chaplain to the court of the exiled James II at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye; became professor of theology at Liège (1701–04); and in 1712 was socius (a sort of secretary and chi...
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Thomas Eyre [2]

borndied
17481810, May 8
a Catholic theologian. He published: 1. ‘The Instruction of Youth in Christian Piety,’ Newcastle, 1783, 2 vols. 8vo, a translation from the French of Charles Gobinet. 2. An edition of John Goter's ‘Spiritual Works,’ Newcastle, 1790, 16 vols. 12mo. His manuscript collections, in 2 vols. 4to, for a continuation of Dodd's ‘Church History’ are preser...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Jean-Baptiste Benoit Eyries

aka: Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès
borndied
1767, Jun 241846, Jun 13
a French geographer, author and translator, best remembered in the English speaking world for his translation of German ghost stories Fantasmagoriana, published anonymously in 1812, which inspired Mary Shelley and John William Polidori to write Frankenstein and The Vampyre respectively. He was one of the founding members of the Société de Géographie, a me...
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Solomon Ezekiel

borndied
17811867
an English Jewish writer. He wrote : 1. A translation from the Hebrew of a pamphlet by the Rev. Hart Symons, containing censures of the authorised version of the holy scriptures. A reply to this, by John Rogers, canon of Exeter, was published in 1822. 2. 'The Life of Abraham' and 'The Life of Isaac,' Penzance, 1844-5, 12mo, being a series of lectures on the ...
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