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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Charles Sackville

aka: 1st Earl of Middlesex, 6th Earl of Dorset
borndied
16381706
an English poet and courtier. The fourth act of Pompey the Great, a tragedy translated out of French by certain persons of honor, is by Dorset. The satires for which Pope classed him with the masters in that kind seem to have been short lampoons, with the exception of A faithful catalogue of our most eminent ninnies (reprinted in Bibliotheca Curiosa, ed. Gol...
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Thomas Sackville

aka: 1st Earl of Dorset
borndied
15361608
an English statesman, poet, and dramatist. He was the son of Richard Sackville, a cousin to Anne Boleyn. He was a Member of Parliament and Lord High Treasurer. Thomas Sackville was the author, with Thomas Norton, of the first English drama to be written in blank verse, Gorboduc (1561), which deals with the consequences of political rivalry. He also contribut...
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Hoca Sadeddin Efendi

aka: Sa'd ad-Din, Sa'd al-Din, Sa’adeddin, Sadeddin, Hoca Efendi, Koca Hoca Efendi
borndied
1536/371599, Oct 2
an Ottoman scholar, official, and historian, a teacher of Ottoman sultan Murad III . When Murad became Sultan, Sadeddin became his advisor. Later he fell out of favor, but was appointed Sheikh ul-islam, a superior authority in the issues of Islam.Sadeddin is the author of Tâc üt-Tevârîh (“Crown of Histories”), a history of the Ottoman Empire in prose...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Charles Germain de Saint Aubin

borndied
17211786
a French draftsman and embroidery designer to King Louis XV. Published a classic reference on embroidery, L'Art du Brodeur ("Art of the Embroiderer") in 1770. In addition to his embroidery designs, he was also known for his drawings and engravings.
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Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant

borndied
1594, Sep 301661, Dec 29
a French poet, born near Rouen. Saint-Amant has left a considerable body of poetry. His Albion and Rome ridicule set the fashion of the burlesque poem. In his later years he devoted himself to serious subjects and produced an epic, Moyse sauvé (1653). His best work consists of Bacchanalian songs, his Débauche being one of the most remarkable convivial poem...
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Charles de Saint-Evremond

aka: Saint-Évremond
borndied
1613, Apr 11703, Sep 29
a French soldier, hedonist, essayist and literary critic. After 1661, he lived in exile, mainly in England, as a consequence of his attack on French policy at the time of the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659). He is buried in Poets' Corner, Westminster. He wrote for his friends and did not intend his work to be published, although a few of his pieces were leaked ...
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Mellin de Saint-Gelais

borndied
1491 ca1558
French poet of the Renaissance and Poet Laureate of Francis I of France. Mellin, who had studied at Bologna and Padua, had the reputation of being doctor, astrologer and musician as well as poet. He returned to France around 1523, and soon gained favour...
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Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire

aka: Étienne Geoffroy
borndied
1772, Apr 151844, Jun 19
a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition". He was a colleague of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and expanded and defended Lamarck's evolutionary theories. Geoffroy's scientific views had a transcendental flavor (unlike Lamarck's materialistic views) and were similar to those of German morphologists like Lorenz Oken. He believed in th...
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Antoine-Jean Saint-Martin

borndied
1791, Jan 171832, Jul 17
a French academic, orientalist, and pioneer in the field of what would be known as Armenian Studies. In 1820 he was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, part of the Institut de France. He later entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1822 he was one of the founders of the Société Asiatique, and directed the publication ...
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Cesar Vichard de Saint-Real

aka: César Vichard de Saint-Réal
borndied
16391692
a French polyglot. After some minor works written in order to win the protection of Louis XIV, he wrote De l'usage de l'histoire in 1671. In this essay, he speaks about the good way of writing history and explains that understanding of facts is more important than facts themselves. In 1672, he published Dom Carlos, subtitled "nouvelle historique". It's a sho...
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Charles de Sainte-Marthe

borndied
15121555
a French Protestant and theologian. We owe to St. Martha Poetry Françoise (1540), composed of epigrams, roundels, ballads, epistles, elegies, and poems, addressed to St. Martha by his friends; Paraphrases of the seventh and thirty-third Psalms (1543); a Latin funeral oration in honor of Marguerite of Navarre (1550), 4to over a hundred pages, and gave in Fre...
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Scevole de Sainte-Marthe [1]

aka: Scévole de Sainte-Marthe
borndied
15361623
a French poet, born in Loudun. Besides being a poet and director, he was captain and mayor of Poitiers (1579-1580 and treasurer of France in the same generality. His verses were highly prized by Pierre de Ronsard and Étienne Pasquier; with his eloquence of Henri IV made ??him famous.
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Scevole de Sainte-Marthe [2]

aka: Scévole de Sainte-Marthe
borndied
1571, Dec 201650, Sep 7
a French historian. He studied at the University of Poitiers, then they studied jurisprudence at Angers. . With his brother, he undertook the Family History of the House of France, which was a great success.
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X. B. Saintine

aka: Xavier Boniface Saintine, Joseph Xavier Boniface
borndied
1798, Jul 101865, Jan 21
a French dramatist and novelist. In 1823, he produced a volume of poetry in the manner of the Romanticists, entitled Poèmes, odes, épîtres. In 1836 appeared Picciola, a novel about the comte de Charney, a political prisoner in Piedmont, whose reason was saved by his cultivation of a tiny flower growing between the paving stones of his prison yard. This st...
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Johannes Salat

borndied
14981561, Oct
a Swiss chronicler,dramatist and mercenary. He received Lucerne citizenship in 1529 (after the First War of Kappel), and from 1531 he worked as secretary to the Lucerne court of justice, a prestigious position earlier held by other notable Swiss chroniclers (Melchior Russ, Petermann Etterlin), and published literary works, often of a polemical and satirical ...
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William Salesbury

borndied
1520 ca1584 ca
the leading Welsh scholar of the Renaissance and the principal translator of the 1567 Welsh New Testament. In 1547, Salesbury produced an English-Welsh dictionary called A dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe, printed by John Waley ‘at London in Foster Lane’ in 1547, that may have been the first book to be printed in Welsh.
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William Sampson

borndied
1590 ca1636 ca
an English dramatist. Sampson is thought to have been born about 1590 at South Leverton, a village near Retford, Nottinghamshire, into a yeoman family. From early life he was in service in local households of the neighbourhood. He found a permanent position as a retainer by 1628 in the family of Sir Henry Willoughby, 1st Baronet, of Risley, Derbyshire, where...
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Cross-listed in Pirates

Thomas Sanders

borndied
unknownunknown
An Elizabethan mariner who was taken prisoner by the Moors. He wrote a narrative of his life as a slave on a Barbary pirate galley.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Sanderson

borndied
1587, Sep1663, Jan 29
the second son of Robert Sanderson of Gilthwaite Hall, and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Carr of Butterthwaite Hall, both in Yorkshire. He is commonly said to have been born in Rotherham. But a Robert, son of Robert Sanderson, was baptised at Sheffield on 20 Sept. 1587, and a local tradition fixed upon a house in Sheffield, called the Lane Head Stane, as th...
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George Sandys

borndied
1577, Mar 21644, Mar
an English traveller, colonist and poet. His verse was praised by Dryden and Pope; Milton was somewhat indebted to Sandys's Hymn to my Redeemer in his Ode on the Passion. Sandys' travel narrative appeared as The Relation of a Journey begun an. Dom. 1610, in four books (1615). This remained a standard account of the Eastern Mediterranean, twice mentioned, for...
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Charles Sangster

borndied
1822, Jul 161893, Dec 9
a Canadian poet whose 1856 volume, The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay, "was received with unanimous acclaim as the best and most important book of poetry produced in Canada until that time." He was "the first poet who made appreciative use of Canadian subjects in his poetical work." The Dictionary of Canadian Biography calls him "the best of the pre-confedera...
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Jacopo Sannazaro

borndied
14581530
Italian poet, humanist and epigrammist from Naples. He wrote easily in Latin, in Italian and in Neapolitan, but is best remembered for his humanist classic Arcadia, a masterwork that illustrated the possibilities of poetical prose in Italian, and instituted the theme of Arcadia, representing an idyllic land, in European literature. Sannazaro's elegant style ...
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Jean-Baptiste Sanson de Pongerville

borndied
1782, Mar 31870, Jan 22
a French a man of letters and poet. He was elected the tenth occupant of Académie française seat 31 in 1830. Sanson Pongerville became known especially for his translations of Lucretia, of Virgil and Milton. He is himself the author of classical style of poetry, now fallen into oblivion.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Juan de Santa Gertrudis

borndied
17241799, Aug 8
a Franciscan Spanish monk. Juan de Santa Gertrudis was sent as a missionary to South America in 1757 and between 1758 and 1767 during his evangelizing, he founded a mission in Putumayo Department called Agustinillo. He crossed the southern territory of New Granada, especially the province of Popayan, with some travel to Quito and Bogota. Following this exper...
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Francesco Antonio Santori

aka: Françesk Anton Santori, Ndon Santori
borndied
1819, Sep 161894, Sep 7
an Italian writer, poet and playwright of Arbëreshë descent. His play Emira is considered to be the first original Albanian drama ever written. During his life Santori wrote poetry, novels, plays and short stories. He also adapted 112 of Aesop's Fables and wrote an Albanian grammar book. Santori wrote and finished his first poetry, titled Canzoniere Albane...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Gaspar Sanz

aka: Francisco Bartolomé Sanz Celma
bornactivedied
16401660s-16971710
an Aragonese composer, guitarist, organist and priest born to a wealthy family in Calanda in the comarca of Bajo Aragón, Spain. He studied music, theology and philosophy at the University of Salamanca, where he was later appointed Professor of Music. He wrote three volumes of pedagogical works for the baroque guitar that form an important part of today's cl...
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Sima Milutinovic Sarajlija

borndied
1791, Oct 31847, Dec 30
a Bosnian Serb poet, hajduk, translator, historian, philologist, diplomat and adventurer. From his birth his life was a constant adventure. It began with his family's flight from the plague and the Turks. Its zenith came during the Serbian insurrections, and it ended in the unmatched glory of a poet and his grandiose political plans.
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Cross-listed in Governance

Domingo Sarmiento

borndied
1811, Feb 151888, Sep 11
an Argentine activist, intellectual, writer, statesman and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history. He was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the Generation of 1837, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He...
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Gilbert Saulnier du Verdier

borndied
unknown1686
a French author who wrote Le Romant des Romans, which was translated into English in 1640 under the title The Love and Armes of the Greeke Princes, Or, The Romant of the Romants. Otherwise, very little is known of his life.
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Richard Savage

borndied
1697 ca1743
an English poet. He is best known as the subject of Samuel Johnson's Life of Savage, (originally published anonymously in 1744), on which is based one of the most elaborate of Johnson's Lives of the English Poets. Savage's first certain work was a poem satirizing Bishop Hoadly, entitled The Convocation, or The Battle of Pamphlets (1717), which he afterwards ...
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Alexandre Saverien

aka: Savérien
borndied
1720, Jul 161805
a French writer, philosopher and mathematician. Attracted very young in science, he obtained at twenty patent naval engineer. His ambitions pushing him to leave the Provence, Xaverian became a professor at Paris twenty-two years. In 1742 he composed a speech on navigation and experimental physics. He wrote many papers and volumes on mathematics, maritime sci...
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Cross-listed in Governance

George Savile

aka: 1st Marquess of Halifax
borndied
1633, Nov 111695, Apr 5
an English statesman, writer, and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1660, and in the House of Lords after he was raised to the peerage in 1668. Halifax's speeches have not been preserved, and his political writings on this account have all the greater value. The Character of a Trimmer (1684 or 1685) was his most ambitious production, written seem...
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Jean-Baptiste Say

borndied
1767, Jan 51832, Nov 15
a French economist and businessman. He had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade, and lifting restraints on business. He is best known for Say's Law, also known as the law of markets, which he popularized. From 1794 to 1800 Say edited a periodical entitled La Decade philosophique, litteraire, et politique, in which he expou...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Joseph Justus Scaliger

borndied
1540, Aug 51609, Jan 21
a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the end of his life in the Netherlands.
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Cross-listed in Architects

Vincenzo Scamozzi

bornactivedied
1548, Sep 21568-16141616, Aug 7
an Italian architect and a writer on architecture, active mainly in Vicenza and Republic of Venice area in the second half of the 16th century. He was perhaps the most important figure there between Andrea Palladio, whose unfinished projects he inherited at Palladio's death in 1580, and Baldassarre Longhena, Scamozzi's only pupil.
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Paul Scarron

borndied
1610, Jul1660, Oct 46
a French poet, dramatist, and novelist, born in Paris. His precise birthdate is unknown, but he was baptized on 4 July 1610. Scarron was the first husband of Françoise d'Aubigné, who later became Madame de Maintenon and secretly married King Louis XIV of France. Scarron was very prolific as an author. The piece most famous in his own day was his Virgile tr...
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Maurice Sceve

aka: Scève
borndied
1501 ca1564 ca
a French poet active in Lyon during the Renaissance period. He was the centre of the Lyonnese côterie that elaborated the theory of spiritual love, derived partly from Plato and partly from Petrarch. This spiritual love, which animated Antoine Héroet's Parfaicte Amye (1543) as well, owed much to Marsilio Ficino, the Florentine translator and commentator of...
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Luigi Scevola

borndied
17701819
an Italian dramatist. Very little is known about the details of his life. He wrote in the style of Ugo Foscolo, and was the author of the tragedies Socrate (1804), Annibale in Bitinia (1806) and Saffo (1814). One of his plays was the basis of the libretti for Giulietta e Romeo by Nicola Vaccai and I Capuleti e i Montecchi by Vincenzo Bellini.
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

borndied
1742, Dec 91786, May 21
a Swedish Pomeranian and pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen (although Joseph Priestley published his findings first), and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine be...
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Charles Arnold Scheffer

aka: Karel
borndied
1796, May 51853, Dec 11
Writer, brother of painters Ary Scheffer and Hendrik Scheffer


Cross-listed in Composers

Johann Adolph Scheibe

borndied
17081776
a German-Danish composer and significant critic and theorist of music. Scheibe rapidly became the most significant musical figure in Copenhagen. He led the royal orchestra, composed vocal and instrumental music, and was a driving force in the foundation of the first musical society, "Det Musikalske Societet", which held public concerts between 1744 and 1749....
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Cross-listed in Military

Jean de Schelandre

aka: Seigneur de Saumazènes
borndied
1585 ca1635, Oct 18
a French poet. studied at the university of Paris. He then joined Turenne's army in the Netherlands, where he gained rapid advancement. He was the author of a tragedy, Tyr et Sidon, ou les funestes amours de Belcar et Méliane, published in 1608 under the anagram-name Daniel d'Anchéres, and reprinted with numerous changes in 1628 under the author's o...
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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

borndied
1775, Jan 271854, Aug 20
a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Friedrich Schiller

aka: von Schiller
borndied
1759, Nov 101805, May 9
a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with the already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he l...
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August Wilhelm Schlegel

aka: von Schlegel
borndied
1767, Sep 81845, May 12
a German poet, translator, critic, and a foremost leader of German Romanticism. His translations of Shakespeare made the English dramatist's works into German classics. Schlegel was also the first professor in Sanskrit on the continent and produced a translation of the Bhagavad Gita.
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Dorothea von Schlegel

borndied
1764, Oct 241839, Aug 3
a German novelist and translator. In 1783 she married the merchant and banker Simon Veit. She met the poet and critic Friedrich von Schlegel in the salon of her friend Henriette Herz, after which she left her husband. They were divorced in 1799. She obtained custody of her younger son, Philipp, and lived with him at the Ziegelstraße, which became a salon fr...
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Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

borndied
1772, Mar 101829, Jan 12
a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and indologist. With his older brother, August Wilhelm Schlegel, he was one of the main figures of the Jena romantics. He was a zealous promoter of the Romantic movement and was a pioneer in Indo-European studies, comparative linguistics, in what became known as Grimm's law, and morphological typology....
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Friedrich Schleiermacher

borndied
1768, Nov 211834, Feb 12
a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity. He also became influential in the evolution of Higher Criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound effect on subsequent Chr...
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Cornelia Schlosser

borndied
1750, Dec 71777, Jun 8
the sister and only sibling of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe who survived to adulthood. he took great interest in her brother's literary accomplishments and was often the first to know about his plans, drafts, and revisions. Letters from this time that she wrote to her friend Katharina Fabricius in French have been preserved. In her leisure time, she pursued li...
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Cross-listed in ScientistsCartographers

Adolf Schmidl

borndied
1802, May 181863, Nov 20
an Austrian topographer , geographer , speleologist and writer , and a professor at the Joseph Polytechnic in oven . He developed the speleology as an independent scientific discipline. The extensive geographic written work Schmidl dealt especially with Vienna and Vienna region, for 40 years of center of his life, although he described numerous other, even r...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansLegal

Franz Schmidt

aka: Meister Franz
bornactivedied
15551573-16171634
an executioner in Hof from 1573 to April 1578, and from 1 May 1578 till the end of 1617 executioner of Nuremberg. He left a diary in which he detailed the 361 executions he performed during his 45 year career. Throughout his career as an executioner, Franz Schmidt also had a side job as a healer. According to Joel Harrington who authored an account of his li...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Menachem Mendel Schneersohn

aka: Tzemach Tzedek
bornactivedied
1789, Sep 91831-18661866, Mar 17
an Orthodox rabbi, leading 19th century posek, and the third Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement. After a three-year interregnum during which he tried to persuade the hasidim to accept his brother-in-law Menachem-Nachum Schneuri or his uncle Chaim-Avraham as their leader, he assumed the leadership of Lubavitch on the eve of Sh...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersScientists

Henry R. Schoolcraft

borndied
1793, Mar 281864, Dec 10
an American geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi River. He is also noted for his major six-volume study of Native Americans in the 1850s. He served as a United States Indian agent for a period beginning in 1822 in Michigan, where he...
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Adele Schopenhauer

aka: Henriette Sommer, Adrian van der Venne
borndied
1797, Jul 121849, Aug 25
a German author. She was the sister of the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer and daughter of author Johanna Schopenhauer. Henriette Sommer and Adrian van der Venne were pseudonyms used by her. She grew up in Weimar under the influence of a circle of artists and scholars who gathered in the literary salon run by her mother. She was highly gifted and engaged in ...
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Arthur Schopenhauer

borndied
1788, Feb 221860, Sep 21
a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, in which he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind, insatiable, and malignant metaphysical will. Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that has been de...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Samuel Schotten

aka: The Mharsheishoch
bornactivedied
16441685-17191719, Jul 5
He became Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1685. Shmuel Schotten HaCohen was born in Schotten and moved to Frankfurt am Main in 1682. He was appointed Rosh Yeshiva of the yeshiva in Frankfurt am Main and Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1685. He died in Frankfurt am Main. He is the author of "Kos ha-Yeshu'os" (Frankfurt am Main, ...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Willem Schouten

bornactivedied
1567 ca1615-16251625
a Dutch navigator for the Dutch East India Company. He was the first to sail the Cape Horn route to the Pacific Ocean. Explored the South Pacific (Cape Horn, Tonga Islands, Wallis and Futuna). Schouten described his travels in the Journal, published in a Dutch edition at Amsterdam in 1618 and soon translated into several other languages.
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Theodorus Schrevelius

borndied
1572, Jul 251649, Dec 2
a Dutch Golden Age writer and poet. He was born in Haarlem, and in 1591 went to study Greek and Latin at the University of Leiden. He became the assistant director of the Latin school in Haarlem in 1597, where he also started work on translating Ovid. In 1609 he succeeded Cornelis Schonaeus as director of the Haarlem Latin School, but in 1620 he was dismisse...
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Katharina Sibylla Schucking

aka: Schücking
borndied
1791, Jan 261831, Nov 2
a German poet from Westphalia. She first published her poetry in 1810, in Friedrich Raßmann's Mimigardia. She had asked for the poems to be published anonymously, but the publisher did not respect her wishes and her name and residence were appended to them. This led to her being scorned and ridiculed but did not do permanent damage to her reputation as a po...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Robert Schumann

bornactivedied
18101830-18541856
a German composer and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. Schumann's published compositions were written exclusively for the piano until 1840; he later composed works for piano and orchestra; many Lieder (song...
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Matthaus Schwarz

aka: Matthäus
borndied
1497, Feb 191574, ca
a German accountant, best known for compiling his Klaidungsbüchlein or Trachtenbuch (usually translated as "Book of Clothes"), a book cataloguing the clothing that he wore between 1520 to 1560. The book has been described as "the world's first fashion book". Schwarz was fascinated by clothing, spent a large part of his income on clothes, and documented his ...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Anton Martin Schweigaard

borndied
1808, Apr 111870, Feb 1
a Norwegian jurist and economic reformer. He was a professor of jurisprudence and economics in the 1830s and 1840s and was an extremely influential publicist for economic liberalism. He is widely credited in helping bring about Norway's change to a capitalist economy. Schweigaard's writings include: "Reflections on the Present State of Jurisprudence in Germa...
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John Scot

aka: Scott, Lord Scotstarvit, Scotstarvet, Scotstarver
borndied
15851670
a Scottish laird, advocate, judge, politician and author. He was Director of Chancery and a Lord of Session. He was educated at St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, which he appears to have entered in 1600: he describes himself in the register of 1603 as in his third year. After leaving St. Andrews he went abroad to study, and on his return was called to the ...
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Patrick Scot

bornactivedied
unknown1620sunknown
a Scottish official, tutor and author. He followed James VI of Scotland to England on his accession in 1603. In June 1618 he was engaged in the work of raising voluntary gifts for the supply of the king's exchequer by threatening persons with prosecutions for usury. Six years later (August 1624) King James I wrote a letter of recommendation on his behalf. Sc...
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Reginald Scot

aka: Scott
borndied
1538 ca1599, Oct 9
an English country gentleman and Member of Parliament, now remembered as the author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which was published in 1584. It was written against the belief in witches, to show that witchcraft did not exist. Part of its content exposes how (apparently miraculous) feats of magic were done, and the book is often deemed the first textbook...
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Alexander Scott

borndied
1520 ca 1582/83
a Scottish poet. He is believed to have spent most of his time in or near Edinburgh. Thirty-six short poems are attributed to him, including Ane New Yeir Gift to Quene Mary, The Rondel of Love, and a satire, Justing at the Drum. According to an older view, "he has great variety of metre, and is graceful and musical, but his satirical pieces are often extreme...
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Caroline Lucy Scott

borndied
1784, Feb 161857
an English novelist. Her first novel, A Marriage in High Life (1828, 2 vols.), was edited by the author of Flirtation, i.e. her relative, Lady Charlotte Susan Maria Bury. The plot is based on fact. The style is diffuse, but the interest is well sustained. Two other novels followed, likewise anonymously. Lady Scott's succeeding works have her name in the titl...
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Sarah Scott

borndied
1723, Sep 211795, Nov 3
an English novelist, translator, social reformer, and member of the Bluestockings. Her most famous work was her utopian novel A Description of Millenium Hall and the Country Adjacent, followed closely by the sequel The History of Sir George Ellison. Sarah wrote her first novel before her marriage, The History of Cornelia (1750), a portrait of an ideal and pi...
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Sir Walter Scott

aka: 1st Baronet
bornactivedied
1771, Aug 151796-18311832, Sep 21
a Scottish historical novelist, playwright and poet with many contemporary readers in Europe, Australia, and North America. Scott's novels and poetry are still read, and many of his works remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature. Although primarily remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement...
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Eugene Scribe

aka: Eugène
borndied
1791, Dec 241861, Feb 20
a French dramatist and librettist. He is known for the perfection of the so-called "well-made play" (pièce bien faite), a mainstay of popular theatre for over 100 years, and as the librettist of many of the most successful grand operas.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Christian Scriver

borndied
1629, Jan 21693, Apr 5
a German Lutheran minister and devotional writer. His most important work was Seelen-Schatz ("The Soul's Treasure", 5 parts, 1675-1692; new ed., 3 vols., Berlin, 1852–53), describing the progress of the soul from misery to eternal life and combining allegory, dogmatics, and ethics. It has been translated into numerous languages, including Norwegian, Danish...
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Petrus Scriverius

aka: Peter Schrijver, Schryver
borndied
1576, Jan 121660, Apr 30
a Dutch writer and scholar on the history of Holland and Belgium. Most of his life was passed in Leiden, but in 1650 he became blind, and the last years of his life were spent in his son's house at Oudewater, where he died in 1660. He is best known as a scholar by his notes on Martial, Ausonius, the Pervigilium Veneris; editions of the poems of Joseph Justus...
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Georges de Scudery

aka: Scudéry
borndied
1601, Aug 221667, May 14
the elder brother of Madeleine de Scudéry, was a French novelist, dramatist and poet. He conceived a fancy for literature before he was thirty, and during the whole of the middle of the century he was one of the most characteristic figures of Paris. He gained the favour of Richelieu by his opposition to Corneille. He wrote a letter to the Académie françai...
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Madeleine de Scudery

aka: Scudéry
borndied
1607, Nov 151701, Jun 2
a French writer. She was the younger sister of author Georges de Scudéry. Her lengthy novels were the delight of Europe, commended by other literary figures. Artamène, which contains about 2.1 million words, ranks as the longest novel ever published. Her novels derive their length from endless conversations and, as far as incidents go, successive ab...
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Cross-listed in Military

James Scurry

borndied
17661822
a British soldier and memoirist. He was held captive by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan for 10 years (1780–1790) at Seringapatam. He had been kept as a prisoner, first at Bangalore and then moved to the Seringapatnam ( modern day name is Srirangapatnam) fort. After his escape from Tipu's army, in Chitradurg (called Chitterdroog) he reached an English camp. He pr...
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Thomas Sebillet

aka: Sébillet
borndied
15121589
a French jurist, an essayist and a neo-Platonist grammarian. He is now remembered for his Art Poétique (Poetic Art) from 1548, on French verse. He was strongly contradicted later by Joachim du Bellay, whose art poétique became normative. This "decapitation of richesse" lead to a centralisation of language, too (additionally to the concentration of politica...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Thomas Secker

bornactivedied
16931758-17681768, Aug 3
the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England from 1758 until his death in 1768. In 1737 he became the Bishop of Oxford and then the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, London, in 1750. On 21 April 1758, a month after the death of his predecessor, he became Archbishop of Canterbury. His advocacy of an American episcopate, in connection with which he wrote t...
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Johannes Secundus

aka: Janus
borndied
1511, Nov 151536, Sep 25
a New Latin poet of Dutch nationality. Secundus was a prolific writer, and in his short life he produced several books of elegies, epigrams, odes, verse epistles and epithalamia, as well as some prose writings (epistles and itineraria). His most famous work, though, was the Liber Basiorum (Book of Kisses, first complete edition 1541), a short collection cons...
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Sir Charles Sedley

aka: 5th Baronet
borndied
1639, Mar1701, Aug 20
an English wit, dramatist and politician. His most famous song, Phyllis is my only joy, is much more widely known now than the author's name. While Sedley chiefly produced light amatory verse and pastoral dialogues in the 1670s, he turned to satirical epigrams in the 1680s and 1690s. His Epigrams: or, Court Characters are modelled on the works of Martial.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Joseph Seguy

aka: Séguy
borndied
16891761, Mar 25
a French clergyman. Very little is known about the details of his life. A royal preacher, he wrote Panégyriques de saints, Sermons pour les principaux jours du carême, and a Nouvel essai de poésies sacrées, in which he made a French verse translation of Psalms and the songs of the Bible. He was elected to the Académie française in 1736.
Links (1)


Victor Sejour

aka: Séjour
borndied
1817, Jun 21874, Sep 20
an American expatriate writer who worked in France. Though mostly unknown to later American writers, his short story "Le Mulâtre" ("The Mulatto") is the earliest known work of fiction by a Creole author. Bisette published "Le Mulâtre", Séjour's first work, in 1837. Séjour then turned away from written fiction, and composed an ode to Napoleon in 1841 and...
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Mustafa Selaniki

borndied
unknown1600
an Ottoman scholar and chronicler, whose Tarih-i Selâniki (Tarih-i Selanik, "Chronicle of Salonica") described the Ottoman Empire of 1563–1599. He was born in Thessaloniki, and died in Istanbul. Mustafa Efendi wrote about all the details of the events of his time, particularly the events between the years 1563-1600, detailing palace ceremonies in his work...
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Charles Selby

borndied
1802 ca1863, Mar 21
a 19th-century English actor and playwright, and translator of many French plays (often without attribution, not uncommon at the time). Among his works was The Marble Heart (1854), a translation of Théodore Barrière's Les Filles de marbre. The play is best known today for a 9 November 1863 performance in Washington, D.C., where President Abraham Lincoln wa...
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John Selden

bornactivedied
1584, Dec 161612-16521654, Nov 30
an English jurist and a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law. He was known as a polymath showing true intellectual depth and breadth; John Milton hailed Selden in 1644 as "the chief of learned men reputed in this land." It w...
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Francis Sempill

borndied
1616 ca1682, Mar
a son of Robert Sempill the younger. No details of his education are known. His fidelity to the Stuarts involved him in money difficulties, to meet which he alienated portions of his estates to his son. Before 1677 he was appointed sheriff-depute of Renfrewshire. Sempill wrote many occasional pieces, and his fame as a wit was widespread. Among his most impor...
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Sir James Sempill

borndied
15661625/1626, Feb
the son of John Sempill of Beltrees, and Mary Livingston, one of the "Four Marys", companions of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Sempill was Ambassador to England in the years 1591-1600 and was knighted on Christmas Day 1600. Another Scot employed by the King in Lon...
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Robert Sempill the Elder

borndied
1530 ca1595
a Scottish ballad-writer, was in all probability a cadet of illegitimate birth of the noble house of Sempill or Semple. Very little is known of Sempill's life. He appears to have spent some time in Paris. He was probably a soldier, and must have held some office at the Scottish court, as his name appears in the Lord Treasurer's books in February 1567 – 156...
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Robert Sempill the Younger

borndied
1595 ca1663 ca
a Scottish poet, son of James Sempill, was educated at the University of Glasgow, having matriculated in March 1613. During the Civil War he fought for the Stuarts, and seems to have suffered heavy pecuniary losses under the Commonwealth. He died between 1660 and 1669. He married Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Lyon of Auldbar. His son, Francis Sempill, was al...
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Etienne Pivert de Senancour

aka: Étienne
borndied
1770, Nov 161846, Jan 10
a French essayist and philosopher, remembered primarily for his epistolary novel Obermann. Senancour might have spent his life writing in complete obscurity were it not for a charge leveled against him by a public prosecutor for slandering religion in the second edition of his Résumé de l’histoire des traditions morales et religieuses (1827) wherein he d...
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Osip Senkovsky

aka: Sekowski, Baron Brambeus
borndied
1800 Mar 311858, Mar 16
a Polish-Russian orientalist, journalist, and entertainer. In the 1820s, Senkovsky started publishing in the popular periodicals of Kondraty Ryleyev and Faddei Bulgarin. He is best remembered for having edited the first Russian "thick journal," Library for Reading (1833-1856), whose lively and humorous style (as Nikolai Gogol put it) attracted to literary jo...
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Lorenzo de Sepulveda

aka: Sepúlveda
borndied
1505 ca1580 ca
a Spanish writer best known as the author of romances in verse. Little is known of Lorenzo de Sepúlveda's life. He descended from a notable family and lived most or all of his life in Seville. In 1551 a volume of narrative poems that he had written, Romances nueuamente sacados de historias antiguas de la crónica de España (Romances newly drawn from antiq...
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Jacques de Serisay

borndied
15941653, Nov
a French poet, intendant of the duc de La Rochefoucauld, and the founding director of the Académie française from 1634 to 11 January 1638 where he was the first occupant of seat three. Very little is known for certain about the details of his life. Only a few of his poems are extant.
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Joseph Michel Antoine Servan

borndied
1737, Nov 31807
a French publicist. Among his writings may be mentioned Reflexions sur les Confessions de J.-J. Rousseau (1783) and Essai sur La formation des assemblées nationales, provinciales, et municipales (1789). He was born at Romans (Dauphiné). After studying law he was appointed avocat-general at the parlement of Grenoble at the age of twenty-seven. In his Discou...
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Willem Sewel

aka: William
borndied
1653, Apr1720, Mar
a Dutch Quaker historian, of English background. He was son of Jacob Williamson Sewel, a free citizen and surgeon of Amsterdam where he was born. His paternal grandfather, William Sewel, a Brownist of Kidderminster, emigrated from England to escape religious persecution, and married a native of Utrecht. His mother, Judith Zinspenning, daughter of a German Ca...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

George Sewell

bornactivedied
unknown1713-17261726
an English physician and poet, known as a controversialist and hack-writer. In early life Sewell inclined to Toryism, and was a bitter critic of Gilbert Burnet, whom he attacked in five pamphlets (1713–1715). Sewell's best-known literary work was his Tragedy of Sir more
Links (1)


Thomas Shadwell

borndied
1642 ca1692, Nov 19
an English poet and playwright who was appointed poet laureate in 1689. In 1668 he produced a prose comedy, The Sullen Lovers, or the Impertinents, based on Les Fâcheux by Molière, and written in open imitation of Ben Jonson's comedy of humours. For fourteen years from the production of his first comedy to his memorable encounter with John Dryden, Shadwell...
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William Shakespeare

bornactivedied
1564 ca1585-16131616
an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of ...
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Granville Sharp

borndied
1735, Nov 101813, Jul 6
one of the first English campaigners for the abolition of the slave trade. He also involved himself in trying to correct other social injustices. Sharp formulated the plan to settle black people in Sierra Leone, and founded the St. George's Bay Company, a forerunner of the Sierra Leone Company. His efforts led to both the founding of the Province of Freedom,...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Samuel Sharp

borndied
17091778
an English surgeon and author. As a surgeon at Guy's Hospital, from 1733 to 1757, was internationally famous. His A Treatise on the Operations of Surgery (1st ed., 1739), was the first British study focuses exclusively on operative technique. He had been in the habit of delivering the lectures in Covent Garden on winter afternoons to a society of navy surgeo...
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John Shebbeare

borndied
17091788
a British Tory political satirist. Settling in London, he began his career as a political writer in 1754, with The Marriage Act, a novel, dedicated to John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, one of the chief opponents of Lord Hardwicke's reform. The author was imprisoned for his reflections on the legislature, but his book was reissued in 1755 as Matrimony, and r...
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Richard Sheldon

borndied
unknown1642 ca
a Church of England clergyman, a convert from Catholicism, known as a polemical writer. From a Catholic family, and destined for the priesthood, he was sent during the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII to the English College, Rome. He returned to England, via Spain, and about 1610 he was imprisoned as a Jesuit. He then professed himself a Protestant, and was...
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Mary Shelley

bornactivedied
1797, Aug 301810-18501851, Feb 1
an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus (1818). She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her father was the political philosopher William Godwin, and her mother...
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Timeline (2)Links (18)


Percy Bysshe Shelley

bornactivedied
1792, Aug 41810-18221822, Jul 8
one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric, as well as epic, poets in the English language. A radical in his poetry as well as in his political and social views, Shelley did not see fame during his lifetime, but recognition for his poetry grew steadily following his death. Shelley was a key member of a close ci...
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William Shenstone

borndied
1714, Nov 181763, Feb 11
an English poet and one of the earliest practitioners of landscape gardening through the development of his estate, The Leasowes. He went up to Pembroke College, Oxford in 1732 and while he took no degree, he published Poems on various occasions. In 1741 he published The Judgment of Hercules. He inherited the Leasowes estate, and retired there in 1745...
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Richard Brinsley Sheridan

borndied
1751, Oct 301816, Jul 7
an Irish playwright and poet and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He is known for his plays such as The Rivals, The School for Scandal, The Duenna and A Trip to Scarborough. For thirty-two years he was also a Whig Member of the British House of Commons for Stafford (1780–1806), Westminster (1806–1807) and Ilchester (1807–1812). ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Sherry

borndied
1506 ca1555
the Anglican Archdeacon of Lewes in East Sussex, England, between 1542 and 1551. Sherry was born around 1506 in London. He later took up a literary and academic career. In 1522, he became a demy,[a] or a foundation scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford, and graduated as a B.A. on 21 June 1527. He went on to receive an M.A. on 10 March 1531. In 1534, he was app...
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Richard Sherry

bornactivedied
1506 ca1522-15501555+
an English schoolteacher and author. He was born about 1506 in the neighbourhood of London. In 1522 he became a demy of Magdalen College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. on 21 June 1527 and M.A. on 10 March 1531. In 1534 he was appointed headmaster of Magdalen College School. He held this post until 1540, when he was succeeded by Goodall. Subsequently he establis...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Artists

Taras Shevchenko

bornactivedied
1814, Mar 91822-18611861, Mar 10
a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer. His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of modern Ukrainian literature and, to a large extent, the modern Ukrainian language. Shevchenko is also known for many masterpieces as a painter and an illustrator. He was a member of the Sts Cyril and...
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Cross-listed in Composers

John Shield

aka: Jack
borndied
17681848, Aug 6
an English songwriter. One of his best known and liked songs at the time was "Bob Cranky's Adieu". Shield was a contemporary of the earliest Geordie dialect songwriters Thomas Thompson and John Selkirk. His first poetic/musical offering appeared in 1802 in the Newcastle Chronicle and he later went on to write well-known Tyneside songs about William Scott (al...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PhysiciansInventorsScientistsLegal

Fathullah Shirazi

borndied
unknown1582
a Persian-Indian polymath—a scholar, Islamic jurist, finance minister, mechanical engineer, inventor, mathematician, astronomer, physician, philosopher and artist—who worked for Akbar, ruler of the Mughal Empire. Among the inventions credited to him was an early anti-infantry volley gun with multiple gun barrels similar to a hand cannon's. Another cannon...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PiratesExplorers

Anthony Shirley

aka: Anthony Sherley
bornactivedied
15651590s-1600s1637
an English traveller, whose imprisonment in 1603 by King James I caused the English House of Commons to assert one of its privileges—freedom of its members from arrest—in a document known as The Form of Apology and Satisfaction. In 1596, he conducted a predatory expedition along the western coast of Africa and then across to Central America, but owing to...
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Links (3)Notes (1)


James Shirley

aka: Sherley
bornactivedied
1596, Sep1625-16421666, Oct
an English dramatist. He belonged to the great period of English dramatic literature, but, in Lamb's words, he "claims a place among the worthies of this period, not so much for any transcendent genius in himself, as that he was the last of a great race, all of whom spoke nearly the same language and had a set of moral feelings and notions in common." His ca...
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Richard Sibbes

aka: Sibbs
borndied
15771635
an Anglican theologian. He is known as a Biblical exegete, and as a representative, with William Perkins and John Preston, of what has been called "main-line" Puritanism because he ever remained in the Church of England and worshiped according to the Book of Common Prayer. He was the author of several devotional works expressing intense religious feeling –...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

John Sibthorp

borndied
1758, Oct 281796, Feb 8
an English botanist. In 1784 he succeeded his father to the Sherardian chair. Leaving his professional duties to a deputy, he left England for Göttingen and Vienna, in preparation for a botanical tour of Greece (1786) and Cyprus (1787). Returning to England at the end of the following year, he took part in the foundation of the Linnean Society in 1788, and ...
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Mary Sidney

aka: Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke
borndied
1561, Oct 271621, Sep 25
one of the first English women to achieve a major reputation for her poetry and literary patronage. By the age of 39, she was listed with her brother Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, and William Shakespeare, as one of the notable authors of her time in the v...
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Cross-listed in Military

Sir Philip Sidney

borndied
1554, Nov 301586, Oct 17
an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age. His works include Astrophel and Stella, The Defence of Poesy (also known as The Defence of Poetry or An Apology for Poetry), and The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia. Born at Penshurst Place, Kent, he was t...
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Robert Sidney

aka: 1st Earl of Leicester
borndied
1563, Nov 191626, Jul 13
the second son of Sir Henry Sidney, was a statesman of Elizabethan and Jacobean England. He was also a patron of the arts and an interesting poet. His mother, Mary Sidney née Dudley, was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I and a sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, an advisor and favourite of the Queen. Leicester was a man of taste and a patro...
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August Silberstein

borndied
1827, Jul 11900,Mar 7
an Austrian writer, born in Ofen, Budapest (Hungary). Silberstein was educated at the University of Vienna and supported the 1848 revolts in Austria-Hungary with his articles in the German satire periodical Leuchtkugeln, which was banned in the middle of 1851. As a result, Silbertein was forced to leave his home. Impassioned by the country life, he wrote sto...
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George Silver

bornactivedied
unknown1550s-1620sunknown
a gentleman of England during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, who is known for his writings on swordplay. Although not a professional fencing teacher, Silver was familiar with the fencing schools of the time, and the systems of defence that they taught, and claimed to have achieved a perfect understanding of the use of all weapons. His major objectio...
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Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy

borndied
1758,Sep 211838, Feb 21
a French linguist and orientalist. His son, Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy, became a journalist. Silvestre de Sacy was the first Frenchman to attempt to read the Rosetta stone. He made some progress in identifying proper names in the demotic inscription. Among his other works are his edition of Hariri (1822), with a selected Arabic commentary, and of the Alfiya ...
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William Gilmore Simms

borndied
1806, Apr 171870, Jun 11
a poet, novelist and historian from the American South. His writings achieved great prominence during the 19th century, with Edgar Allan Poe pronouncing him the best novelist America had ever produced. He is still known among literary scholars as a major force...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Christopher Simpson

borndied
1604 ca1669
an English musician and composer, particularly associated with music for the viola da gamba. Simpson wrote a short guide to musical composition in 1665: The Principles of Practical Musick (dedicated to Sir John St. Barbe, another of his pupils) and expanded this into his 1667 publication A Compendium of Practical Musick. Very few of Simpson's musical composi...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

George Sinclair

borndied
unknown1696
a Scottish mathematician, engineer and demonologist. The first Professor of Mathematics, Glasgow, he is known for Satan's Invisible Works Discovered, (c. 1685), a work on witchcraft. He wrote in all three areas of his interests, including an account of the “Glenluce Devil”, a poltergeist case from c. 1654, in a 1680 book mainly on hydrostatics and dealin...
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Llywelyn Sion

aka: Siôn
borndied
15401615 ca
a Welsh language poet. Although remembered as a poet, he was also a professional manuscript copyist. Iolo Morganwg claimed he was the author of Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain, used by the Welsh Gorsedd, but it is now known that Iolo himself was the author of that work. Additionally, the work known as Barddas was attributed to him when it was published, but wa...
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Hedvig Sirenia

borndied
17341795
a Swedish poet and translator, known simply as Sirenia. She was a member of the Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhetssamhället i Göteborg (The Royal Society of Science and Literature in Gothenburg). She was regularly published in the press in Gothenburg from 1760 onward and well known locally, where she was compared to Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht and calle...
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Jean Charles Leonard de Sismondi

aka: Jean Charles Léonard
borndied
1773, May 191842, Jun 25
a historian and political economist, who is best known for his works on French and Italian history, and his economic ideas. As an economist, Sismondi represented a humanitarian protest against the dominant orthodoxy of his time. In his 1803 book, he followed Adam Smit...
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Links (1)


Johann Sithmann

borndied
16021666
a German jurist, Professor of Pedagogy at the University of Greifswald and author, known from the 1657 publication "Idea Arboris Consanguinitatis & Affinitatis Theoreticae & Practicae" (The idea of the tree of the theoretical affinity of consanguinity & Practice), and other works. Otherwise, very little is know for certainty about the details of his life.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Nils Lorens Sjoberg

aka: Sjöberg
borndied
1754, Dec 41822, Mar 13
a Swedish officer and poet. He was the first holder of seat 18 at the Swedish Academy, from 1787 to 1822. His poetical works include Skaldekonsten, Atheisten, Jordbrukaren, and Odödligheten. He died childless and unmarried.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Piotr Skarga

aka: Piotr Poweski
borndied
1536, Feb 21612, Sep 27
a Polish Jesuit, preacher, hagiographer, polemicist, and leading figure of the Counter-Reformation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to his oratorical gifts, he has been called "the Polish Bossuet". In addition to being a popular and well-known preacher, Skarga was the author of numerous theological texts and polemics, and it is as a writer that his...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Skelton

aka: Shelton
borndied
1463 ca1529, Jun 21
an English poet. He had been a tutor to King Henry VIII of England and died at Westminster. Skelton is said to have been educated at Oxford. He certainly studied at Cambridge. In 1498 he was successively ordained sub-deacon, deacon and priest. He seems to have be...
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Links (6)


Staka Skenderova

borndied
1830 ca1891, Oct 19
a Bosnian teacher, social worker, writer and folklorist. She is credited with establishing Sarajevo's first school for girls on 19 October 1858. The following year, she became the first published woman author in Bosnia. Her life ended tragically and violently in May 1891. Upon enjoying some entertainment in Ilidža, a horse-drawn carriage rushed into the cro...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Composers

Gregory Skovoroda

borndied
1722, Dec 31794, Nov 9
a Ukrainian and Russian philosopher, poet, teacher and composer. Skovoroda was of a Cossack background in current day Ukraine, who lived in the Russian Empire and made important contributions to Russian philosophy and culture. He lived and worked in Sloboda Ukraine, which is today partly in modern Ukraine and partly in Russia. Skovoroda was so important for ...
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Vendela Skytte

aka: Wendela
borndied
1608, Dec 81629, Aug 18
a Swedish noblewoman, salonist and writer, poet and Lady of Letters. During her lifetime, she became an ideal and role model for a learned female scholar. She studied theology, ethics, history, philology and geology, and mastered Latin, French, German and Greek. This was unusual, as the educational level was not normally this high for females of the nobility...
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Petko Slaveykov

borndied
1827, Nov 171895, Jul 1
a noted nineteenth-century Bulgarian poet, publicist, public figure and folklorist. Both in his original and imitative works Slaveykov further developed the Bulgarian language. Since 1852, Slaveykov began to print his first books: Smesena kitka, Pesnopoyka, Basnenik. He wrote the poem Boyka voyvoda in 1853 influenced by the revolutionary events surrounding ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Anton Martin Slomsek

aka: Slomšek
borndied
1800, Nov 61862, Sep 24
a Slovene bishop, author, poet, and advocate of Slovene culture. He strove for religious education and education in Slovene, writing numerous books on the matter. Slomšek was considered an excellent preacher and a tireless and modest priest. He also wrote songs, some of which have achieved widespread popularity and are still sung today. Together with Andrej...
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Juliusz Slowacki

borndied
1809, Sep 41849, Apr 3
a Polish Romantic poet. He is considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His works often feature elements of Slavic pagan traditions, Polish history, mysticism and orientalism. His style includes the employment of neologisms and irony. His primary genre was...
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Christopher Smart

aka: Kit Smart, Kitty Smart, Jack Smart
borndied
1722, Apr 111771, May 21
an English poet. He was a major contributor to two popular magazines and a friend to influential cultural icons like Samuel Johnson and Henry Fielding. Smart, a high church Anglican, was widely known throughout London. Smart, throughout his career, published many known works. Smart was infamous as the pseudonymous midwife "Mrs. Mary Midnight" and widespread ...
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Henry Smeathman

borndied
17421786
an English naturalist. In 1771 John Fothergill along with two other members of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks and Marmaduke Tunstall, sponsored Smeathman to spend four years in and around the Sierra Leone penininsula studying its natural history. According to John C. Lettsome, Smeathman married first the daughter of King Tom and later the daughter of Ki...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Adam Smith

bornactivedied
1723, Jun 51748-17891790, Jul 17
a Scottish economist, philosopher, and author. He was a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy, and was a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era. He is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbre...
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Cross-listed in Cartographers

Charles Smith

borndied
17151762
an Irish topographer and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He qualified as a doctor and practised as an apothecary in Dungarvan, County Waterford. In the 1730s, along with Walter Harris he discussed a scheme to compile and publish histories of all the Irish counties. The first of these, a history of County Down, jointly edited by Walter Har...
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Charlotte Turner Smith

borndied
1749, May 41806, Oct 28
an English Romantic poet and novelist. She initiated a revival of the English sonnet, helped establish the conventions of Gothic fiction, and wrote political novels of sensibility. Smith was born into a wealthy family and received a typical education for a woman during the late 18th century. However, her father's reckless spending forced her to marry early. ...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersInventorsScientists

Hamilton Lanphere Smith

borndied
1819, Nov 51903
an American scientist, photographer, and astronomer. He was born in New London, Connecticut and graduated from Yale in 1839, where he constructed the largest telescope in the country at the time in 1838. In 1848 Smith wrote "The World", one of the first science textbooks written in America. Smith is best known for patenting the tintype photographic process, ...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Sir James Edward Smith

borndied
1759, Dec 21828, Mar 17
an English botanist and founder of the Linnean Society. Between 1786 and 1788 Smith made the grand tour through the Netherlands, France, Italy and Switzerland visiting botanists, picture galleries and herbaria. He founded the Linnean Society of London in 1788, becoming its first President, a post he held until his death. Smith spent the remaining thirty year...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersCartographers

Jedediah Smith

aka: Diah, Old Jed, Jed
borndied
1799, Jan 61831, May 27
a clerk, frontiersman, hunter, trapper, author, cartographer, and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the North American West, and the Southwest during the early 19th century. After 75 years of obscurity following his death, Smith was rediscovered as the American whose explorations led to the use of the 20-mile (32 km)-wide South Pass as the dominant point of c...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersMilitaryNaval

John Smith [2]

borndied
1580, Jan ca1631, Jun 21
an Admiral of New England, was an English soldier, explorer, and author. He was knighted for his services to Sigismund Bathory, Prince of Transylvania, and his friend Mózes Székely. He was considered to have played an important part in the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was a leader of the Virginia C...
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Cross-listed in Educators

John Smith [3]

borndied
16181652, Aug 7
an English philosopher, theologian, and educator. Smith entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1636, took his B.A. in 1640 and his M.A. in 1644, at which time he was chosen fellow of Queens' College. His health seems to have been precarious from the first. His labours were principally confined to his office as teacher, for which he had remarkable qualificat...
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Cross-listed in Military

John Spencer Smith

borndied
1769, Sep 11845, Jun 5
a British diplomat, politician and writer. Smith joined the British Army in 1790 as an ensign, later promoted to lieutenant. When France declared war on Britain in February 1793 he was in Turkey with his elder brother, Sidney Smith, who obtained a position for him in the British embassy in Constantinople. Smith left Constantinople in 1801 and arrived in Engl...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Joseph Smith

bornactivedied
1805, Dec 231827-18441844, Jun 27
an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was twenty-four, Smith published the Book of Mormon; by the time of his death fourteen years later, he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religious culture that continues to the present. Smith moved away from written revelations opening wi...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Smith

borndied
1568, Nov1655, Mar 18
officially the Bishop of Chalcedon, he was the second Catholic bishop for England, Wales and Scotland after Catholicism was banned in England in 1559. He followed William Bishop, who died in 1624. Smith was appointed Apostolic Vicar for the whole of England, Wales and Scotland in 1625. He followed William Bishop, who had held the post for less than a year. A...
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Richard Penn Smith

borndied
1799, Mar 131854, Aug 12
a minor American playwright who is best known for writing a largely fictitious account of events at and leading up to the Battle of the Alamo, which was presented as the work of Davy Crockett. Reasonably popular at the time, modern criticism has judged Smith to ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Samuel Stanhope Smith

borndied
1751, Mar 151819, Aug 21
a Presbyterian minister, founding president of Hampden–Sydney College and the seventh president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) from 1795 to 1812. His stormy career ended in his enforced resignation. Smith was the first systematic expositor of Scottish Common Sense Realism in America. An empiricist in his anthropology and a Lamarcki...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Sydney Smith

borndied
1771, Jun 31845, Feb 22
an English wit, writer and Anglican cleric. In 1800, Smith published his first book, Six Sermons, preached in Charlotte Street Chapel, Edinburgh, and in the same year, married, against the wishes of her friends, Catharine Amelia Pybus. He wrote for the Edinburgh Review for the next quarter of a century, and his brilliant articles were a main element in its s...
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Cross-listed in Military

Thomas Smith [1]

bornactivedied
unknown1600-1627unknown
an English soldier. Smith as he styles himself on the title-page of the first edition (4to, 1600) of ‘The Art of Gunnery: both pretie, pleasant and profitable for all such as are professors of the same facultie.’ In the dedication to Peregrine Bertie, he describes himself as ‘but one of the meanest soldiers in this garrison,’ though he claims to have...
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Tobias Smollett

bornactivedied
1721, Mar 191748-17711771, Sep 17
a Scottish poet and author. He was best known for his picaresque novels, such as The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748) and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751), which influenced later novelists such as Charles Dickens. His first published work was a poem about the Battle of Culloden entitled "The Tears of Scotland", but it was The Adventures of Roder...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersNaval

William Henry Smyth

borndied
1788, Jan 211865, Sep 8
an English naval officer, hydrographer, astronomer and numismatist. He is noted for his involvement in the early history of a number of learned societies, for his hydrographic charts, for his astronomical work, and for a wide range of publications and translations.
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Eliza R. Snow

borndied
1804, Jan 211887, Dec 5
one of the most celebrated Mormon women of the nineteenth century. A renowned poet, she chronicled history, celebrated nature and relationships, and expounded scripture and doctrine. Snow was married to Joseph Smith as a plural wife and was openly a plural wife of Brigham Young after Smith's death. Snow wrote poetry from a young age, one time even writing sc...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

John Snow

bornactivedied
1813, Mar 151837-18571858, Jun 16
an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. He is considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology, in part because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, in 1854. His findings inspired fundamental changes in the water and waste systems of London, which led to similar changes in ...
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Antonio Augusto Soares de Passos

aka: António Augusto
borndied
1826, Nov 271860, Feb 8
a Portuguese poet, creator of the "Ultra-Romanticism" in Portugal. He entered at the University of Coimbra to graduate in Law. There, he met Alexandre Braga, Silva Ferraz and Aires de Gouveia, founding with them, in 1851, the magazine O Novo Trovador (The New Trobadour). Having already graduated, in 1854, he returned to Porto, collaborating in the poetry jou...
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Sogi

borndied
14211502
a Japanese poet. He came from a humble family from the province of Kii or ?mi, and died in Hakone on September 1, 1502. S?gi was a Zen monk from the Shokokuji temple in Kyoto and he studied poetry, both waka and renga. In his 30's he became a professional renga poet. He is best-remembered for his renga, wherein two or more poets collaborate to create a poem,...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Antonio Soler

aka: Antoni Soler i Ramos
borndied
17291783
a Spanish composer whose works span the late Baroque and early Classical music eras. He is best known for his keyboard sonatas, an important contribution to the harpsichord, fortepiano and organ repertoire. Padre Soler's most celebrated works are his keyboard sonatas. also composed concertos, quintets for organ and strings, motets, masses and pieces for solo...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Temistocle Solera

borndied
1815, Dec 251878, Apr 21
an Italian opera composer and librettist. He was born in Ferrara. He received his education at the Imperial College in Vienna and at the University of Pavia. Throughout his life he actively participated in anti-Austrian resistance. At one point, he was incarcerated for his activities. He completed several literary works, including the novel Michelino, his st...
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Dionysios Solomos

borndied
1798, Apr 81857, Feb 9
a Greek poet from Zakynthos. He is best known for writing the Hymn to Liberty, of which the first two stanzas, set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros, became the Greek national anthem in 1865. He was the central figure of the Heptanese School of poetry, and is considered the national poet of Greece—not only because he wrote the national anthem, but also becaus...
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William Somervile

aka: Somerville
borndied
1675, Sep 21742, Jul 19
an English poet. Somervile was the eldest son of a country gentleman, and was born at Edstone, in the parish of Warren, Warwickshire in 1677. He was educated at Winchester College and at New College, Oxford, where he studied law. While in school he did not show any hint of great knowledge of literature or seem to have a knack for writing poetry. His love of ...
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Cross-listed in Astronomers

Mary Fairfax Somerville

borndied
1780, Dec 261872, Nov 29
a Scottish science writer and polymath, at a time when women's participation in science was discouraged. She studied mathematics and astronomy, and was nominated to be jointly the first female member of the Royal Astronomical Society at the same time as Caroline Herschel.
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Song Yingxing

borndied
15871666
a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). He was the author of an encyclopedia that covered a wide variety of technical subjects, including the use of gunpowder weapons. Comparing him to the famous French encyclopedist Denis Diderot, the British sinologist and historian Joseph Needham called Song Yingxing "Th...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Songyun

borndied
17521835
a military governor during the Qing dynasty of Imperial China, from 1802-1809. He was an amban of Xinjiang, Guangdong, and Tibet. In Xinjiang, he was responsible for the compilation of a gazeteer of the area, using the services of officials exiled to the frontier area, including Wang Tingkai, Qi Yunshi and Xu Song.
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Charles Sorel

aka: sieur de Souvigny
borndied
1602 ca1674, Mar 7
a French novelist and general writer. Very little is known of his life except that in 1635 he was historiographer of France. He wrote on science, history and religion, but is only remembered for his novels. He tried to destroy the vogue for the pastoral romance by writing a novel of adventure, the Histoire comique de Francion (first edition in seven volumes...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Ericus Erici Sorolainen

bornactivedied
15461583-16251625
a Finnish Lutheran bishop, a Bishop of Turku from 1583 to 1625 as the successor to Paulus Juusten; and the administrator of the Diocese of Viipuri. After his ordination to priesthood, he was sent to University of Rostock (rector of which was then David Chytraeus). After his studies he became 1578 headmaster of the school in Gävle. 1583 he was consecrated a...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Domingo de Soto

borndied
14941560, Nov 15
a Dominican priest and Scholastic theologian born in Segovia, Spain, and died in Salamanca at the age of 66. He is best known as one of the founders of international law and of the Spanish Thomistic philosophical and theological movement known as the School of Salamanca. He held powerful positions including Confessor of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the e...
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Caroline Anne Southey

borndied
1786, Dec 61854, Jul 20
an English poet and second wife of Robert Southey. Her published output of five books of verse, two books of prose tales and one miscellany of mixed prose and verse has been described by the present-day scholar Anne Zanzucchi as the work of "an experimental and dexterous writer whose publications represent a range of forms: prose fiction (Chapters on Churchy...
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Robert Southey

borndied
1774, Aug 121843, Mar 21
an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 to his death in 1843. Although his fame has long been eclipsed by that of his contemporaries and friends William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Southey's verse still enjoys some popularity. Southey was also a prolific letter writer, li...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Robert Southwell

borndied
1561 ca1595, Feb 21
an English Roman Catholic priest of the Jesuit Order. He was also a poet and clandestine missionary in post-Reformation England. After being arrested and imprisoned in 1592, and intermittently tortured and questioned by Richard Topcliffe, Southwell eventually was tried and convicted of high treason for his links to the Holy See. On 21 February 1595, Father S...
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Solomon Southwick

bornactivedied
1773, Dec 251792-18391839, Nov 18
a New York newspaper publisher and political figure who was a principal organizer of the Anti-Masonic Party. By 1817 or 1818 Southwick’s political views were no longer in line with those of the Democratic-Republicans, and he ceased publication of the Albany Register. He then published several specialty newspapers, including The Plough Boy, a publication wh...
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Madeleine de Souvre

aka: Souvré, marquise de Sablé
borndied
15991678, Jan 16
a French writer, was the daughter of Gilles de Souvré, marquis de Courtenvaux, tutor of Louis XIII, and marshal of France. In 1614 she married Philippe Emmanuel de Laval, marquis de Sablé, who died in 1640, leaving her in somewhat straitened circumstances. With her friend the comtesse de Saint Maure she took rooms in the Place Royale, Paris, and establishe...
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Fausto Sozzini

aka: Faustus Socinus, Faust Socyn
borndied
1539, Dec 51604, Mar 4
an Italian theologian and founder of the school of Christian thought known as Socinianism and the main theologian of Polish Brethren (a Protestant Polish church). Sozzini's works, edited by his grandson Andrzej Wiszowaty and the learned printer Frans Kuyper, are contained in two closely printed folios (Amsterdam, 1668). They rank as the first two volumes of ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Cornelis Speelman

borndied
1628, Mar 21684, Jan 11
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1681 to 1684. In his 16th year, he left aboard the Hillegersberg for the Indies. He was employed as an Assistant in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1645 he arrived in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. He became Bookkeeper in 1648 and Underbuyer in 1649. He became Secretary (secretaris) to the Dut...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Haquin Spegel

bornactivedied
1645, Jun 141670s-17141714, Apr 17
a religious author and hymn writer who held several bishop's seats for the Lutheran Swedish Church. In 1675, the King Charles XI of Sweden appointed him as court chaplain. He kept a diary during the whole time, which has proven to be valuable as research material. In 1680 he wed Queen Ulrika Eleonora and the King. He spent the following five years mainly on ...
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Hugh Speke

borndied
16561724 ca
an English writer and agitator. In 1683 he was put in prison for asserting that Arthur Capell, Earl of Essex, another of Monmouth's supporters, had been murdered by the friends of James, Duke of York. He was tried and sentenced to pay a fine, but he refused to find the money, and remained in prison for three years, being in captivity during Monmouth's rebell...
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Sir John Spelman

borndied
15941643
an English historian and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1626. He is known for his biography of Alfred the Great. He edited from manuscripts in his father's library. Psalterium Davidis latino-saxonicum vetus (1640), and wrote a Life of Alfred the Great which was translated into Latin and published in 1678. Whereas his father was a leading expos...
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Herbert Spencer

borndied
1820, Apr 271903, Dec 8
As both an adolescent and a young man Spencer found it difficult to settle to any intellectual or professional discipline. He worked as a civil engineer during the railway boom of the late 1830s, while also devoting much of his time to writing for provincial journals that were nonconformist in their religion and radical in their politics. From 1848 to 1853 h...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Philipp Spener

bornactivedied
1635, Jan 131653-17021705, Feb 5
a German Christian theologian known as the "Father of Pietism." Highly influenced by Johann Arndt, Lewis Bayly, Jean de Labadie, and Theophil Großgebauer, Spener’s own writings display an emphasis on personal transformation through spiritual rebirth and renewal. It is this focus on individual devotion and piety that places him within the realm of Pietism....
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Edmund Spenser

borndied
1552/531599, Jan 13
an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language. Spenser published numerous relatively short poems in the last decade...
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Adolf Bredo Stabell

borndied
1807, Nov 191865, Nov 21
a Norwegian newspaper editor, banker and politician. He edited the newspaper Morgenbladet from 1831 to 1857. He was elected to the Parliament of Norway from Akershus Amt in 1844, and was re-elected in 1847, 1850, 1853 and 1856. From 1848 he had served as President of the Odelsting. He co-founded Akers Sparebank in 1842, chairing it from 1846 to 1865, and in ...
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William Stafford

borndied
15931684
born in Norfolk, England and was an English landownwer. He was the son of the conspirator William Stafford and his wife Anne Gryme. Very little is known about the details of his life. He was the author of The Reason of the War, with the Progress and Accidents Thereof, Written by an English Subject which was published in 1646, which argued for Charles I to g...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Georg Ernst Stahl

borndied
1659, Oct 221734, May 24
a German chemist, physician and philosopher. He was a supporter of vitalism, and until the late 18th century his works on phlogiston were accepted as an explanation for chemical processes. Stahl's focus was on the distinction between the living and nonliving. Although he did not support the views of iatro-mechanists, he believed that all non-living creatures...
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Adolf Stahr

borndied
1805, Oct 221876, Oct 3
a German writer and literary historian. In 1849 he published a three volume novel The Republicans which appeared in Naples, 1849–50, followed by a work about the Revolution of 1848 in Prussia (The Prussian Revolution, 2 vols), plus several travel books, art-historical works (Torso. art, the artists and artworks Old, 2 vols 1854/55), translations of Aristot...
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Wilhelmina Stalberg

aka: Stålberg
borndied
1803, Nov 261872, Jul 23
a Swedish writer, poet, translator, and lyricist. She worked under the pseudonym "Wilhelmina". She began back in 1819 to contribute to Stockholm magazine , etc. magazines with poems, signed Wilhelmina and debuted in 1826 with My Lyra's first tones. Her later literary products consists of a few works in bound form, including Diodes and Lydia (1841), as well a...
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John Stanbridge

borndied
14631510
an English grammarian and schoolmaster. In 1480 he went to New College, Oxford and stayed until 1486, when he joined the staff of the newly founded Magdalen College School, founded by William Waynflete. Stanbridge became headmaster in 1488, following the death of John Anwykyll. He is best remembered for the series of educational books which he wrote and edit...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Richard Stanihurst

aka: Stanyhurst
borndied
15471618
an Irish alchemist, translator, poet and historian, born in Dublin. Richard was sent to Peter White's Kilkenny College after which, in 1563, he continued to University College, Oxford, where he took his degree five years later. At Oxford he became intimate with Edmund Campion. After leaving the university he studied law at Furnival's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. H...
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Thomas Stanley

borndied
16251678, Apr 12
an English author and translator. Stanley was the last of the metaphysical poets; born into a later generation than that of Edmund Waller and John Denham, he rejected their influence in prosody and forms of fancy. Stanley's major work was The History of Philosophy, a series of critical biographies of philosophers, beginning with Thales; the life of Socrates ...
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Thomas Starkey

borndied
1495 ca1538
an English political theorist and humanist. Starkey attended the University of Oxford and gained an MA at Magdalen College in 1521. After this, Starkey stayed in Padua until around 1526. Here he studied the works of Aristotle and admired the government of Venice. Between 1529 and 1532 Starkey wrote his A Dialogue between Pole and Lupset, later known as Stark...
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William Staunford

borndied
15091558, Aug 28
an English jurist and was appointed a judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1554. Very little is known about the details of his life. In 1557 Staunford published the first textbook of English criminal law; Les Plees del Coron. In 1561 his An Exposicion of the Kinges Prerogative (which he wrote in 1548) was published.
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Charles Woodward Stearns

borndied
1817, Sep 241887, Sep 8
an American physician and author. Stearns graduated from Yale College in 1837. After graduation he studied for two years in the Medical School of Harvard College, but took his degree of M. D. at the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1840. He began practice in Springfield, but soon became a surgeon in the United States Army, and served in Fl...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersPhysicians

Samuel Stearns

borndied
1741, Jul 131810, Aug 8
an American astronomer, doctor, author and publisher. His trade was medicine but he also studied herbalism and astronomy. The book Annals of Brattleboro, 1681-1895 states of him that: "His fame as an astronomer led many of the inhabitants to consult him on the turn of future events." Stearns was a British Loyalist during and after the American Revolutionary ...
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Richard Steele

borndied
1672, Mar1729, Sep 1
an Irish writer and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Spectator. Steele's first published work, The Christian Hero (1701), attempted to point out the differences between perceived and actual masculinity. Written while Steele served in the army, it expressed his idea of a pamphlet of moral instruction. ...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Joseph Stefan

borndied
18351893
an ethnic Carinthian Slovene physicist, mathematician, and poet of the Austrian Empire. After having graduated top of his class in high school, he briefly considered joining the Benedictine Order, but his great interest in physics prevailed. He left for Vienna in 1853 to study mathematics and physics. His professor of physics in gymnasium was Karel Robida, w...
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Stefan Stefanovic

borndied
18071828
a Serbian writer and playwright who is best remembered for the popular play about Stefan Uroš V of Serbia. Stefan Stefanovi?, who lived and worked in Novi Sad and Budapest, is said to have been only nineteen years of age when he wrote the 1826 tragic drama "Death of Uroš V the Last Serbian Tsar." Stefanovi? read German authors in the original language and ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Jacopo Stellini

borndied
1699, Apr 271770, Mar 27
an Italian abbot, writer and philosopher. Very little is known about the details of his life. Born in Cividale del Friuli in 1699, Stellini engaged in medicine, mathematics, literature and philosophy (he was an Aristotelian). He wrote many poems, but his main work is the essay De ortu et progressu morum. In Udine there is an high school dedicated to him.
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Stendhal

aka: Marie-Henri Beyle
borndied
1783, Jan 231842, Mar 23
a 19th-century French writer. Best known for the novels Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black, 1830) and La Chartreuse de Parme (The Charterhouse of Parma, 1839), he is highly regarded for the acute analysis of his characters' psychology and considered one of the earliest and foremost practitioners of realism.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

John Lloyd Stephens

bornactivedied
1805, Nov 281834-18521852, Oct 13
an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. He initially entered law practice in New York. After 8 years, he embarked on a journey through Europe in 1834, and went on to Egypt and the Levant, returning home in 1836. Stephens wrote several popular books about his travels and explorations. Stephens was a pivotal figure in the rediscovery of Maya civilization t...
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George Stepney

borndied
16631707, Sep 15
an English poet and diplomat. Stepney had a full and accurate knowledge of German affairs, and was a great letter-writer. Among his correspondents was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, with whom he was on friendly terms. Much of his official and other corre...
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Cesare Sterbini

borndied
17841831, Jan 19
an Italian writer and librettist. Possessing a deep knowledge of classical and contemporary culture, philosophy, linguistics, he was fluent in Greek, Latin, Italian, French and German. He is best known as the librettist for two operas by Gioachino Rossini: more
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Laurence Sterne

bornactivedied
1713, Nov 241737-17681768, Mar 18
an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman. He is best known for his novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy; but he also published many sermons, wrote memoirs, and was involved in local politics. In 1759, to support his dean in a church squabble, Sterne wrote A Political Romanc...
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Thomas Sternhold

borndied
15001549
an English courtier and the principal author of the first English metrical version of the Psalms, originally attached to the Prayer-Book as augmented by John Hopkins. Sternhold (with the exception of Psalm cxx) used only one metre, and this the simplest of all ballad measures, the metre of Chevy Chace. This choice of metre became the predominant metre (commo...
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William Stewart

borndied
1476 ca1548 ca
a Scottish poet working in the first half of the 16th-century. Stewart wrote a number of advice poems for the young James V of Scotland, and a verse translation of Hector Boece's Latin History of Scotland. He was the poet mentioned twice in David Lindsay of the Mount's Complaynt of the Papingo. Some of Stewart's surviving poems describe life in the Stewart c...
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John Stewart of Baldynneis

borndied
1545 ca1605 ca
a writer and courtier at the Scottish Court. he was one of the Castalian Band grouped around James VI. He was the translator of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso producing an abridgment in twelve cantos in 1590 preceding Sir John Harington's translation the following year. The translation appeared with some of his own poems in a volume bearing the title Ane Abbregem...
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Elisabeth Stierncrona

borndied
1714, Jan 91769, Jun 28
a Swedish countess and writer. The first of her published works were the political work En swensks tankar öfwer den 22 Junii 1756 (The Thoughts of a Swede regarding the events of the 22 June 1756). The subjects were the recent failed attempt of Queen Louisa Ulrika to stage a coup d'état to overthrow the parliament and the political system of the age of lib...
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Georg Stiernhielm

borndied
1598, Aug 71672, Apr 22
a Swedish civil servant, linguist and poet. He was a pioneer of linguistics, and even if many of his conclusions later proved wrong they were accepted by his contemporaries. Stiernhielm tried to prove that Gothic, which he equated with Old Norse was the origin of all languages, and that the Nordic countries were vagina gentium, the human birthplace. His most...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Still

borndied
1543 ca1607/1608, Feb 26
a bishop of Bath and Wells, enjoyed considerable fame as a preacher and disputant. He was formerly reputed to be the author of the early English comedy drama Gammer Gurton's Needle. He was appointed in 1570 Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, subsequently held livings in Suffolk (where he was Archdeacon of Sudbury from 1576 to 1593) and Yorkshire, ...
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Milica Stojadinovic-Srpkinja

borndied
18281878
arguably the greatest female Serbian poet of the 19th century. Her first book of poems—Pesme (Poems)—was published in 1850, and, later on, two expanded editions were issued in 1855 and 1869. She also wrote a diary entitled U Fruskoj gori 1854 (In Fruska Gora: 1854), in three volumes, published in 1861, 1862 and 1866. As her fame spread beyond the confine...
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Catharine Stolberg

borndied
1751, Dec 51832, Feb 22
a Danish-German countess and writer. She published novels and plays, and was also known for her biography and her preserved correspondence. She was born in Bramstedt in Holstein but grew from the age of five in Copenhagen and Hørsholm castle , where her father was hovchef of the dowager queen Sofia Magdalena. The family consisted of twelve children, of whom...
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Louise Stolberg

borndied
17461824
a Danish Salonist, playwright and letter writer. She is contributed with a certain degree of political influence upon various power holders in the policy of Denmark and Germany; she participated in the 1784 coup in Denmark. She corresponded with many of the leading figures within the literal and political world in Denmark and Germany, among them Goethe. She ...
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John Augustus Stone

borndied
1801, Dec 151834, Jun 1
an American actor, dramatist, and playwright. He appeared on the New York stage beginning in 1822. He wrote Metamora; or, The Last of the Wampanoags, as a vehicle for Edwin Forrest, who offered as a prize $500 and half the proceeds of the third night. William Cullen Bryant headed a committee which chose Stone's play as the best of 14 submitted. The play was ...
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Cross-listed in Military

Henry Butler Stoney

bornactivedied
18161850s1894
a British army officer; Major, 40th Regiment and writer.
Notes (1)


William Stork

bornactivedied
unknown1750s-1760s1768
an oculist in England and the American colonies, and subsequently settled in the British colony of East Florida and published pamphlets encouraging its settlement. The British acquired Florida from the Spanish by the treaty of 1763 which ended the Seven Years War (i.e. the French and Indian War). Stork made a career change in 1764, and decided to be a planta...
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Theodor Storm

borndied
1817, Sep 141888, Jul 4
a German writer. Storm went to school in Husum and Lübeck and studied law in Kiel and Berlin. While still a law student in Kiel he published a first volume of verse together with the brothers Tycho and Theodor Mommsen (1843). From 1843 until his admission was revoked by Danish authorities in 1852, he worked as a lawyer in his home town of Husum. Storm was o...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Joseph Story

bornactivedied
1779, Sep 181801-18451845, Sep 10
an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845. He is most remembered for his opinions in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee and The Amistad case, and especially for his magisterial Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, first published in 1833. Dominating the field in the 19th century, this work i...
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William Stoughton

borndied
unknownunknown
developer of the most complete and insightful version of classical republicanism that had yet appeared in England. He sat in Parliament from 1584 to 1585 and took a role in leading religious agitation. His An abstract of certaine acts of parlement (1584) attacked episcopal pretensions, their civil functions and their seats in Parliament. Stoughton also wrote...
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John Stow

aka: Stowe
borndied
1524/251605, Apr 5
an English historian and antiquarian best known for his 1598 Survey of London. Stow's antiquarian interests attracted suspicion from the ecclesiastical authorities as a person "with many dangerous and superstitious books in his possession", and in 1568 his house was searched. An inventory was made of all the books at his home especially those "in defence of ...
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Harriet Beecher Stowe

borndied
1811, Jun 141896, Jul 1
an American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a famous religious family, and is best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). It depicts the harsh life for African Americans under slavery. It reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and Great Britain. It energized anti-slavery forces in t...
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William Strachey

bornactivedied
1572, Apr 41605-16211621, Jun 21
an English writer whose works are among the primary sources for the early history of the English colonisation of North America. He is best remembered today as the eye-witness reporter of the 1609 shipwreck on the uninhabited island of Bermuda of the colonial ship Sea Venture, which was caught in a hurricane while sailing to Virginia. The survivors eventually...
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Agnes Strickland

borndied
1796, Aug 191874, Jul 8
an English historical writer and poet. She began her literary career with a poem, Worcester Field, followed by The Seven Ages of Woman and Demetrius. Abandoning poetry, she produced Historical Tales of Illustrious British Children (1833), The Pilgrims of Walsingham (1835) and Tales and Stories from History (1836). Strickland's researches were laborious and c...
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Alessandro Striggio the Younger

borndied
1573 ca1630, Jun 8
an Italian librettist, the son of the composer Alessandro Striggio. The younger Striggio is most famous for his association with the composer Claudio Monteverdi. He wrote the libretto for Monteverdi's first opera Orfeo (1607), a landmark in the history of the genre, as well as the ballo (sung ballet) Tirsi e Clori. Striggio worked at the court of Mantua and ...
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Hedvig Stromfelt

aka: Strömfelt
borndied
1723, Oct 111766, May 22
a Swedish Baroness and psalm writer. She occupied an important place in the Moravian Church Stockholm congregation in 18th-century Sweden. She composed the psalms number 46, 59 and 63 in Sions Sånger (Songs of Sion) of 1743, and likely 72, 78, 85, 86, 105 and 108 in Sions Nya Sånger (New Songs of Sion) of 1748.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Strong

borndied
unknown1654
an English clergyman and then pastor of an independent congregation, and member of the Westminster Assembly. He was born in Dorset, and was educated at Cambridge, graduating B. A. from St. Catharine Hall, of which he was elected a fellow on 30 December 1631. In 1640 he became rector of Moore Critchell in Dorset, but he was driven out in 1643, when the royali...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Joseph Strutt [1]

borndied
1749, Oct 271802, Oct 16
an English engraver, artist, antiquary, and writer. He is today most significant as the earliest and "most important single figure in the investigation of the costume of the past", making him "an influential but totally neglected figure in the history of art in Britain", according to Sir Roy Strong. Strutt was born at Springfield Mill in Chelmsford, Essex, t...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Mary Stuart

aka: Mary, Queen of Scots, Mary I of Scotland
bornactivedied
1542, Dec 81558-15871587, Feb 8
reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, who was next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim...
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John Stubbs

aka: Stubbe
borndied
1544 ca1590+
an English pamphleteer or political commentator during the Elizabethan era. He was born in the County of Norfolk, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. After reading law at Lincoln's Inn, he lived at Thelveton, in the County of Norfolk. He was a committed Puritan, and he opposed the negotiations for marriage between Queen Elizabeth and François, D...
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Philip Stubbs

aka: Stubbes
borndied
1555 ca1610 ca
an English pamphleteer. He was from Cheshire, possibly the area near Congleton. According to Anthony Wood he was educated at Cambridge and subsequently at Oxford, but did not take a degree and his name is not in university records. He is reputed to have been a brother or near relation of John Stubbs. He married Katherine Emmes (1570/71 –1590) in 1586. He s...
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Oscar Patric Sturzen-Becker

aka: Orvar Odd
borndied
18111869
a Swedish poet, writer and journalist, who often wrote under the pseudonym Orvar Odd. He was born in Stockholm. He wrote several volumes of poetry, and worked at different newspapers, most notable in the 1830s at the liberal Aftonbladet. The street Orvar Odds väg at Kungsholmen in Stockholm is named after him, and in Helsingborg there is a Sturzen-Beckers p...
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Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Suard

borndied
1732, Jan 151817, Jul 20
a French journalist, translator and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment. He was born in Besançon and died in Paris. He was the editor of the Journal étranger in the years 1760–1762 and of the Gazette littéraire d'Europe in the years 1764–1766. Suard was on intimate terms with the philosophes and regularly attended the salon of Baron d'Holba...
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Sir John Suckling

bornactivedied
1609, Feb 101631-16421642 ca
an English poet and a prominent figure among those renowned for careless gaiety and wit, the accomplishments of a Cavalier poet. He was also the inventor of the card game cribbage. He is best known for his poem "Ballad Upon a Wedding". As a dramatist Suckling is noteworthy as having applied to regular drama the accessories already used in the production of m...
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Cross-listed in ClergyGovernance

Suleiman I

aka: the Magnificent
bornactivedied
1494, Nov 61520-15661566, Sep 7
the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Empire/Caliphate, from 1520 to his death in 1566. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political, and economic power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds as ...
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Timeline (12)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

John Bird Sumner

bornactivedied
1780, Feb 251848-18621862, Feb 6
a bishop in the Church of England and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1848 to 1862. Sumner's numerous writings were much esteemed, especially by the Evangelical party to which he belonged. His best known writings are his Treatise on the Records of Creation and the Moral Attributes of the Creator (London, 1816) and The Evidence of Christianity derived from its ...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Thomas Sutton [2]

borndied
18191875, Mar 19
an English photographer, author, and inventor. In 1855 he set up a photographic company in Jersey with business partner Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard that produced prints from calotype negatives.[citation needed] The following year, Sutton and Blanquart-Evrard founded the journal Photographic Notes, which Sutton edited for eleven years. A prolific author,...
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Cross-listed in InventorsScientists

Emanuel Swedenborg

borndied
1688, Jan 291772, Mar 29
a Swedish scientist, philosopher, theologian, revelator, and mystic. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at age 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions. According to The Heavenly Doctrine t...
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Joseph Swetnam

bornactivedied
unknown1610s1621
a Renaissance pamphleteer and Jacobean fencing master. He is best known for his misogynistic authorship as part of the Pamphlet Wars in Renaissance England. These so-called "wars" were fought in writing, by common and unknown writers. The printing press led to an increase in the availability of printed materials, and literate people with the time and means t...
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Jonathan Swift

bornactivedied
1667, Nov 301690s-1740s1745, Oct 19
an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. He is regarded as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms or anonymously. He is a...
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Josuah Sylvester

aka: Joshua
borndied
15631618
an English poet. He translated into English heroic couplets the scriptural epic of Guillaume du Bartas. His Essay of the Second Week was published in 1598; and in 1604 The Divine Weeks of the World's Birth. The Sepmaines of Du Bartas appealed most to his English and German co-religionists. His popularity ceased with the Restoration, and John Dryden called hi...
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Jonasz Szlichtyng

aka: Jonas Schlichting
borndied
15921661
a Polish nobleman and theologian of the Socinian Polish Brethren. Following the 1639 ban on Socinianism he was convicted by the Warsaw parliament for spreading "godless" dogma and exiled. He hid for several months in the homes of sympathetic nobles but finally departed for the Netherlands. During the Swedish invasion 1655 he returned temporarily to Kraków, ...
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