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Much of what we know about the Early Modern era comes from the writings of that time. With the proliferation of the printing press and a somewhat more literate population, much more literature of this period is preserved (as opposed to earlier times). Whether from a novel, play, travel journal or scientific paper, these writings add greatly to our knowledge of our history.
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Cross-listed in Legal

Etienne Tabourot

aka: Étienne, Tabourot des Accords, Seigneur des Accords
borndied
15491590
a French jurist, writer and poet of the Renaissance. Tabourot produced two youthful works in Paris: Latin translations of Pierre de Ronsard's Fourmy and of Remy Belleau's Papillon. In 1572, he published a collection of sonnets and a dictionary of rhymes, and continued to write poetry throughout his life. In 1587 he published a Latin and French historical por...
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Takarai Kikaku

aka: Enomoto Kikaku
borndied
1661, Aug 111707, Apr 1
a Japanese haikai poet and among the most accomplished disciples of Matsuo Basho. Kikaku left an important historical document, describing Bash?'s final days, and the immediate aftermath of his death, which has been translated into English.
Links (5)


Hemmou Talb

bornactivedied
unknown1760-1780 caunknown
a Moroccan poet from the 18th century writing in Berber (Tashelhit). His nickname was bab n umargh, master of poetry. Tradition attributes a great number of poems to him that are still recited today. The subject of these poems are often auto-biographical stories. One of his most famous poems is the story about his competition with a poet of the Draa River va...
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Omer Talon

borndied
1510 ca1562
a French humanist, a close ally of Petrus Ramus. Biographical details are few; and there are some quite serious bibliographical difficulties in distinguishing Talon and Ramus as authors (prolific and given to teamwork).
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

Arthur Tappan

borndied
1786, May 221865, Jul 23
an American abolitionist. He was the brother of Senator Benjamin Tappan, and abolitionist Lewis Tappan and nephew of Harvard Theologian Rev. Dr. David Tappan. In 1826, Arthur and his brother Lewis moved to New York City, a center of business and retail trade...
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Juan de Tassis [2]

aka: 2nd Count of Villamediana
borndied
15821622, Aug 21
a Spanish poet. In Spain he is simply known as Conde de Villamediana. On leaving Salamanca he married in 1601, and succeeded to the title on the death of his father in 1607; he was prominent in the life of the capital, was forbidden to attend court, and resided in Italy from 1611 to 1617. On Villmediana's return to Spain, he was soon noted as a satirist.
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Torquato Tasso

borndied
15441595
an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. He suffered from mental illness and died a few days before he was due to be crowned as ...
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Nahum Tate

borndied
16521715, Jul 30
an Irish poet, hymnist and lyricist, who became England's poet laureate in 1692. Tate is best known for The History of King Lear, his 1681 adaptation of Shakespeare's King Lear.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Jemima von Tautphoeus

borndied
1807, Oct 231893, Nov 12
an Irish novelist writing in English, who wrote several stories dealing with Bavarian life, manners and history. Her four novels were described by Richard Garnett as "entertaining combinations of romance and travelogue," drawing on a knowledge of English and German manners and scenery.
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

bornactivedied
16051630-16681689
a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler. Tavernier, a private individual and merchant traveling at his own expense, covered, by his own account, 60,000 leagues in making six voyages to Persia and India between the years 1630 and 1668. In 1675, Tavernier, at the behest of his patron Louis XIV, published Les Six Voyages de Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (Six ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Edward Taylor

borndied
1642 ca1729
a colonial American poet, pastor and physician. He chronicled his Atlantic crossing and early years in America (from April 26, 1668, to July 5, 1671) in his now-published Diary. Taylor's poems, in leather bindings of his own manufacture, survived him, but he had left instructions that his heirs should "never publish any of his writings," and the poems remain...
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Henry Taylor

borndied
18001886
an English dramatist and poet, official, and well-connected man of letters. In Witton, Taylor wrote The Cave of Ceada which was accepted for the Quarterly Review. Taylor wrote a number of plays, including Isaac Comnenus (1827), and Philip van Artevelde (1834). This latter brought him fame and elicited comparisons with Shakespeare. In 1845 there followed a bo...
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John Taylor [1]

aka: The The Water Poet
borndied
1578, Aug 241653
an English poet who dubbed himself "The Water Poet". It is mainly through his writings that history is familiar with the watermen's disputes of 1641–42, in which an attempt was made to democratize the leadership of the Company.
Links (1)


Tom Taylor

bornactivedied
1817, Oct 191843-18761880, Jul 12
an English dramatist, critic, biographer, public servant, and editor of Punch magazine. He wrote about 100 plays during his career, including Our American Cousin (1858), famous as the play which was being performed in the presence of US President Abraham Lincoln when he was assassinated in 1865. Taylor began his working life as a journalist. Soon after movin...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Esaias Tegner

aka: Tegnér
borndied
1782, Nov 131846, Nov 2
a Swedish writer, professor of Greek language, and bishop. He was during the 19th century regarded as the father of modern poetry in Sweden, mainly through the national romantic epos Frithjof's Saga. He has been called Sweden's first modern man. Much is known about him, and he also wrote openly about himself.
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William Johnson Temple

aka: Johnstone
borndied
17391796
an English cleric and essayist, now remembered as a correspondent of James Boswell. Temple as man of letters compared literary London very unfavourably with Edinburgh. He did not at all share Boswell's adulation of Johnson, and in literary terms was more an ally of Gray and more
Links (1)


Alfred, Lord Tennyson

bornactivedied
18091827-18911892
Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu". Reportedly, "it was thought to be no slight honour for a young man of twenty to win the chancellor's gold medal". H...
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Frederick Tennyson

borndied
1807, Jun 51898, Feb 26
an English poet. he eldest son of George Clayton Tennyson, Rector of Somersby, Lincolnshire, and brother of Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He was educated at Eton College and St John's College, Cambridge. While at Cambridge he contributed four poems to Poems, by...
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Henri Ternaux-Compans

borndied
18071864, Dec
a French historian. After finishing his studies in Paris, he entered the diplomatic service and was secretary of the embassies at Madrid and Lisbon, and chargé d'affaires in Brazil, but resigned, and devoted several years to travel through Spain and South America, doing research in the state libraries. Toward the close of Louis Philippe's reign he was elect...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Jean Terrasson

aka: Abbé Terrasson
borndied
1670, Jan 311750, Sep 15
a French priest, author and member of the Académie française. Jean Terrasson, born in Lyon, was elected a member of the Académie française in 1707. His 1715 Dissertation on Homer's Iliad took the side of the 'moderns' in the quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. In 1721 he became Professor of Greek at the College de France. His best-known work is prob...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Terry

borndied
1555 ca1625
a Church of England clergyman and anti-Catholic controversialist. Educated at New College, Oxford, he was elected a fellow of the college until taking the living of Stockton, Wiltshire in 1590. The Triall of Truth attacked Roman Catholicism.
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Lucy Terry

aka: Lucy Terry Prince
borndied
1730 ca1821
an African-American writer, she was brought to Rhode Island as a slave from Africa. Her future husband purchased her freedom before their marriage in 1756. She composed a ballad, "Bars Fight", about a 1746 incident. It was preserved orally until being published in 1855. It is considered the oldest known work of literature by an African American.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Jean Testu de Mauroy

borndied
16261706, Apr
a French clergyman and academic. He was the member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1688. He was tutor to the daughters of Monsieur , brother of Louis XIV . He is the author of a doctrine of reason, or Honnesteté manners according to the maxims of Seneca, reduced interviews, published in 1666.
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William Makepeace Thackeray

borndied
1811, Jul 181863, Dec 24
an English novelist of the 19th century. He is famous for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society. In his earliest works, written under such pseudonyms as Charles James Yellowplush, Michael Angelo Titmarsh and George Savage Fitz-Boodle, he tended towards savagery in his attacks on high society, military prowess,...
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Emmanuel Theaulon

aka: Théaulon
borndied
1787, Aug 141841, Nov 16
a French playwright. A customs inspector, then an inspector of military hospitals, he composed an Ode on the birth of the King of Rome which brought him thanks from Napoleon himself. In 1814 he sang for the Bourbons and put on his first play, Les Clefs de Paris, ou le Dessert d’Henri IV (The Keys of Paris, or the Deservings of Henry IV), in their honour. I...
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Lewis Theobald

borndied
1688, Apr 1744, Sep 18
a British textual editor and author, was a landmark figure both in the history of Shakespearean editing and in literary satire. He was vital for the establishment of fair texts for Shakespeare, and he was the first avatar of Dulness in Alexander Pope's The Dunciad.
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Cross-listed in Military

Henri de Thiard de Bissy

aka: comte de Thiard
borndied
1723, Jan 71794, Jul 26
a French general and writer. Very little is known about his life. He was the younger brother of Claude de Thiard de Bissy, also a general and a writer. Henri was guillotined on the day Robespierre fell during the French Revolution.
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Genevieve Thiroux d'Arconville

aka: Geneviève
borndied
1720, Oct 171805, Dec 23
a French author and chemist. Thiroux d'Arconville's interests included history, physics, chemistry, natural history and even medicine. She took classes in anatomy at the Jardin du Roi where a few women were admitted. She wrote and translated works on diverse subjects but they were invariably published anonymously in her lifetime.
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Antoine Leonard Thomas

aka: Antoine Léonard
borndied
1732, Oct 11785, Sep 17
a French poet and literary critic, best known in his time for his great eloquence. Extremely little information is know about his life. He was born in Clermont-Ferrand and died, aged 52, in Oullins.
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Robert Bailey Thomas

borndied
17661846
the founder and long-time editor (1792–1846) of The Farmer's Almanac[k] (later The Old Farmer's Almanac[k]). The work, which still has a new edition each year, has proven to be the most durable periodical in American publishing. The last important representative of a genre that in the 18th cent. attracted the efforts of up to 200 separate alm...
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Jakob Thomasius

borndied
16221684
a German academic philosopher and jurist. He is now regarded as an important founding figure in the scholarly study of the history of philosophy. He was influential in the contemporary realignment of philosophy as a discipline. He wrote on a wide range of topics, including plagiarism and the education of women.
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John Reuben Thompson

borndied
1823, Oct 231873, Apr 30
an American poet, journalist, editor and publisher. Thompson did not pursue a career in the legal field, but instead dedicated himself to journalism and editorship. In 1847, he became the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond, and in 1859 editor of The Southern Field and Fireside in Augusta, Georgia. Thompson was also a poet, most of his work...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Theophilus Thompson

borndied
18071860
a prominent London physician of the Victorian era known for his writings on tuberculosis and influenza. He is credited with introducing cod-liver oil into England, being the first to give bismuth to arrest diarrhea of phthisis (tuberculosis), and the first to prescribe oxide of zinc for night sweats. He was also one of the first British doctors to use the re...
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William Thompson

borndied
17751833, Mar 28
an Irish political and philosophical writer and social reformer, developing from utilitarianism into an early critic of capitalist exploitation. An enthusiastic student of the writers and ideas of the Enlightenment, particularly Condorcet, Thompson became a convinced egalitarian and democrat. His support for the French Revolution earned him the label of "Red...
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James Thomson

borndied
1700, Sep 11 ca1748, Aug 27
a Scottish poet and playwright, known for his masterpiece The Seasons and the lyrics of "Rule, Britannia!". By 1727, Thomson was working on Summer, published in February, and was working at Watt’s Academy, a school for young gentlemen and a bastion of Newtonian science. In later years, Thomson lived in Richmond upon Thames, and it was there that he wrote h...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Henry David Thoreau

bornactivedied
1817, Jul 121837-18621862, May 6
an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian. A leading transcendentalist, Thoreau is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Resistance to Civil Government (also known as Civil Disobedience), an argument for disobedien...
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Thomas Thorild

aka: Thomas Thorén
borndied
1759, Apr 181808, Oct 1
a Swedish poet, critic, feminist and philosopher. He studied at Lund University in Sweden and worked or studied at the University of Greifswald in Germany. He was an important member of the cultural elite in Stockholm during the Gustavian era. He was popular among women because of his beauty and because of his ideas of gender equality
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Cross-listed in Clergy

John Thornborough

bornactivedied
15511593-16171641
an English bishop. In a long ecclesiastical career, he was employed as a chaplain by the Earl of Pembroke, and Queen Elizabeth. He was Dean of York, Bishop of Limerick in 1593, Bishop of Bristol in 1603, and Bishop of Worcester from 1617. He was tolerant of Puritans, encouraging his congregation to attend puritan lectures. He wrote an alchemical book, Lithot...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet

borndied
1682, Apr 11768, Oct 8
a French abbot, writer, grammarian and translator. Very little is know for certain about his life, other than he was elected the fourth occupant of Académie française seat 31. He initially entered the Jesuit order, which he left in 1705 to devote himself to the grammar of the French language, translation of the works of Cicero and Demosthenes, as well as t...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Josephine Thrane

borndied
1820, Apr 51862, Sep 30
a Norwegian teacher and political activist. She was born in Bragernes, and was married to Marcus Thrane. From 1841 to 1846 she was running a private school for boys and girls, along with her husband. From 1854 she published the periodical Arbeider-Foreningernes Blad, which her husband had started in 1849, and she was also editor for some period. During the s...
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Marcus Thrane

borndied
1817, Oct 141890, Apr 30
a Norwegian author, journalist, and the leader of the first Norwegian labor movement, later known as the Thrane movement (Norwegian: Thranebevegelsen). Although his movement only existed for a few years, Thrane's work was an important contribution in the politicization of the Norwegian worker. Indeed, the Thrane movement brought the rural and urban lower cla...
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Job Throckmorton

borndied
15451601
an English religious pamphleteer and Member of Parliament. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Warwick in 1572 and 1586. Possibly with John Penry and John Udall, he authored the Martin Marprelate anonymous anti-clerical satires; scholarly consensus now makes him the main author.
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Moritz August von Thummel

aka: Thümmel
borndied
17381817
a German humorist and satirical author. He wrote a comic prose epic, Wilhelmine, oder der vermählte Pedant (1764); and Die Inoculation der Liebe (1771), a tale in verse. His most famous work is his Reise in die mittäglichen Provinzen van Frankreich im Jahre 1785-1786 (1791–1805), a "sentimental journey" in ten volumes, in which the influence of Wieland i...
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Chidiock Tichborne

aka: Charles
borndied
1562, Aug 241586, Sep 20
an English conspirator and poet. He is sometimes erroneously referred to as Charles. Tichborne's Elegy (his rhyming, final soliloquy poem), uses two favorite Renaissance figures of speech - antithesis and paradox - to crystallize the tragedy of the poet's situation. Often a Renaissance poem will begin with antithesis to establish circumstances and reveal its...
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Thomas Tickell

borndied
1685, Dec 171740, Apr 21
a minor English poet and man of letters. Tickell's success in literature, as in life, was largely due to the friendship of Joseph Addison, who procured for him (1717) an under-secretaryship of state, to the chagrin of Richard Steele, who from then on bore a grudge against Tickell. During the peace negotiations with France, Tickell published in 1713 the Prosp...
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Ludwig Tieck

borndied
1773, May 311853, Apr 28
a German poet, translator, editor, novelist, writer of Novellen, and critic, who was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Tieck's importance lay in the readiness with which he adapted himself to the emerging new ideas which arose at the close of the 18th century, as well as his Romantic works such as...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

aka: Louis-Sébastien
borndied
1637, Nov 301698, Jan 10
a French ecclesiastical historian. Tillemont became a priest at the age of thirty-nine and settled at Port-Royal. When Port-Royal was dissolved in 1679, he moved to his family estate at Tillemont, where he spent the rest of his life, pursuing his historical work with great devotion. His Histoire began to issue from the press in 1690 and his Mémoires in 1693...
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Louis Timothee

aka: Lewis Timothy
borndied
16991738, Dec 30
a prominent Colonial American printer in the Colonies of Pennsylvania and South Carolina, who worked for Benjamin Franklin. He was the first American librarian. The South Carolina Gazette newspaper of 2 February 1734 contains an essay attributed to Timothee.
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Henry Timrod

bornactivedied
1829, Dec 81848-18671867, Oct 7
an American poet, often called the poet laureate of the Confederacy. He took a position with a lawyer and planned to begin a law practice. From 1848 to 1853, he submitted a number of poems to the Southern Literary Messenger under the pen name Aglaus, where he attracted some attention for his abilities. He left his legal studies by December 1850, calling it "...
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Richard Tipper

bornactivedied
unknown1709-1742 caunknown
an Irish scribe. Richard Tipper lived at Mitchelstown, parish of Castleknock, County Dublin. He left a considerable body of manuscripts, which are now divided between Dublin and the British Museum. A collection of tales in his handwriting was completed in 1713, while Edward O'Reilly was in possession of a manuscript made by him in 1742. Tipper left no Irish...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Tirso de Molina

aka: Gabriel Téllez, Tellez
borndied
1579, Mar 241648, Mar 12
a Spanish Baroque dramatist, poet and Roman Catholic monk. He is primarily known for writing The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest, the play from which the popular character of Don Juan originates. His work is also of particular significance due to the abundance of female protagonists, as well as the exploration of sexual issues.
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Alexis de Tocqueville

bornactivedied
1805, Jul 291839-18561859, Apr 16
a French political thinker and historian best known for his works Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856). In both of these, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals, as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societie...
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Francis Tolson

borndied
unknown1745
an English poet, dramatist, and the author of several works. Very little is known about his life. He was the Vicar of Easton Maudit and Chaplain to the Rt. Hon.ble the Earl of Sussex. He published a total of five known volumes, ranging from poetry to printing techniques to a biography of the Earl of Warwick.
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Leo Tolstoy

borndied
1828, Aug 281910, Nov 7
a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War.
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Robert Tomes

borndied
1817, Mar 271882
American physician, diplomat and writer. Beginning to write around 1853, Tomes gradually relinquished his medical business and became an author. Dr. Tomes married Katherine Fasnet of Wiesbaden, Germany, and had one daughter and two sons. The family lived in New York City, Wiesbaden, Germany, and Rheims, France.
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Thomas Tomkinson

borndied
16311710
an English Muggletonian writer born at Ilam, near Dovedale, in Staffordshire. His faith was initially Presbyterian but in 1661 he read a book by Laurence Clarkson (presumably The Lost Sheep Found) and became attracted to Muggletonianism. Earlier, in February 1652, he had had a revelatory experience similar to the one Lodowicke Muggleton reported in 1650 but ...
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Grizelda Elizabeth Cottnam Tonge

borndied
18031825
a Nova Scotian poet and was known as the “highly-gifted songstress of Acadia.” Very little is known about her life, other than she died quite young. She was the daughter of William Cottnam Tonge, and was known for her five surviving works.
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Christian Tonsberg

aka: Tønsberg
borndied
1813, Dec 71897, Feb 6
a Norwegian publisher and author. Christian Tønsberg became one of the larger Norwegian publishers and was best known for illustrated books about Norway. When the publishing company of Guldberg & Dzwonkowski was dissolved in 1844, Tønsberg assumed a large part of the publisher's legal literature. Tønsberg became strongly influenced by the National Romanti...
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William Tooker

aka: Tucker
borndied
1557/581621, Mar 19
an English churchman and theological writer. Tooker was a good scholar and was also a skilful courtier in his choice of topics. In 1597 he published Charisma sive Donum Sanationis (London), a historical vindication of the power inherent in the English sovereign of curing the king's evil. In 1604 he published a treatise entitled Of the Fabrique of the Church ...
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William Toone

bornactivedied
unknown1830sunknown
Author of A Glossary and Etymological Dictionary: Of Obsolete and Uncommon Words (Bennett: London, 1834)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Edward Topsell

borndied
1572 ca1625
writeran English cleric and author best remembered for his bestiary. Topsell's The History of Four-footed Beasts (1607) and The History of Serpents (1608), both published by William Jaggard, were reprinted together as The History of Four-Footed Beasts and Serpents in 1658. An 1100-page treatise on zoology, Topsell's work repeats ancient and fantastic legends...
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Nathaniel Torporley

borndied
15641632
an English clergyman, mathematician, and astrologer. He published Diclides Coelometricae; seu Valuae Astronomicae universales, omnia artis totius munera Psephophoretica in sat modicis Finibus Duarum Tabularum methodo Nova, generali et facillima continentes, London, 1602. With this was presented a preface, entitled Directionis accuratae consummata Doctrina, A...
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Daniel Tossanus

borndied
1541, Jul 151602
a French Reformed theologian. He was educated at Basel and Tübingen. Returning to France he preached for six months in his native town, and went to Orléans, 1560, where, after being a teacher of Hebrew, he was ordained minister of the local Reformed church in 1561. In 1568 he was forced to flee with other Protestants, but was soon discovered and imprisoned...
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Andrea Leone Tottola

borndied
unknown1831, Sep 15
a prolific Italian librettist, best known for his work with Gaetano Donizetti and Gioachino Rossini. It is not known when or where he was born. He became the official poet to the royal theatres in Naples and agent for the impresario Domenico Barbaia, and star...
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Cross-listed in Military

Cyril Tourneur

borndied
15751626, Feb 28
an English soldier, diplomat and dramatist who wrote The Atheist's Tragedy (published 1611). A difficult allegorical poem called The Transformed Metamorphosis (1600) is Tourneur's earliest extant work; an elegy on the death of Prince Henry, son of James I of England, is the latest (1613). Tourneur's other non-dramatic works include a prose pamphlet, Laugh an...
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Aurelian Townshend

aka: Townsend
borndied
1583 ca1649 ca
a seventeenth-century English poet and playwright. Very little is well established about Townshend's life. He was one of the Cavalier poets, and his masque Tempe Restored was performed on Shrove Tuesday of 1632 and had in its cast Queen Henrietta Maria and fourteen court ladies. In 1613, he became the librettist of Inigo Jones. He became a friend of Thomas C...
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Hayward Townshend

aka: Heyward, Heywood
borndied
1577 ca1603 ca
a Member of Parliament for Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, England, in 1597–1598 and 1601. Hayward Townshend was the eldest son of Sir Henry Townshend, second justice of Chester, and his wife, Susan Hayward. His parliamentary diary, first published in 1680, covers both of these Parliaments, and is one of the fullest available records of proceedings in the 16...
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Thomas Traherne

borndied
1636/371674, Sep 27 ca
an English poet, clergyman, theologian, and religious writer. Little information is known about his life. The work for which Traherne is best known today is the Centuries of Meditations, a collection of short paragraphs in which he reflects on Christian life and ministry, philosophy, happiness, desire and childhood. Traherne's poetry is often associated wit...
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Catharine Parr Traill

borndied
1802, Jan 91899, Aug 29
an English-Canadian author and naturalist who wrote about life as a settler in Canada. She began writing children's books in 1818, after the death of her father. Her early work, such as Disobedience, or Mind What Mama Says (1819), and "Happy Because Good", were written for children, and often dwell on the benefits of obedience to one's parents. A prolific au...
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Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

John Trapp

bornactivedied
1601, Jun 51622-16691669, Oct 16
an English Anglican Bible commentator. His large five-volume commentary is still read today and is known for its pithy statements and quotable prose. His volumes are quoted frequently by other religious writers. Trapp studied at the Free School in Worcester and then at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1622; M.A., 1624). He became usher of the free school of Stra...
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Melesina Trench

borndied
1768, Mar 221827, May 27
an Irish writer, poet and diarist. During her lifetime she was known more for her beauty than her writing, and it wasn't until her son, Richard Chenevix Trench, published her diaries posthumously in 1861 that her work received notice. Between 1799 and 1800, Melesina travelled around Europe, especially Germany. It was during these travels that she met Lord Ne...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Jean Balthasar Tricklir

borndied
17501813, Nov 29
a French cellist and composer of German descent. Born in Dijon, he studied at Mannheim, and became a court musician in Dresden in 1783, remaining there until his death. He was regarded as one of the finest cellist of his days. Tricklir wrote a number of cello concertos and sonatas, as well as solo and duet works for cello, however, his works are mostly unkno...
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Sarah Trimmer

borndied
1741, Jan 61810, Dec 15
a writer and critic of 18th-century British children's literature, as well as an educational reformer. Her periodical, The Guardian of Education, helped to define the emerging genre by seriously reviewing children's literature for the first time; it also provided the first history of children's literature, establishing a canon of the early landmarks of the g...
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Flora Tristan

borndied
1803, Apr 71844, Nov 14
a socialist writer and activist. She made important contributions to early feminist theory, and argued that the progress of women's rights was directly related with the progress of the working class. She wrote several works, the best known of which are Peregrinations of a Pariah (1838), Promenades in London (1840), and The Workers' Union (1843).
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Johannes Trithemius

borndied
1462, Feb 11516, Dec 13
a German Benedictine abbot and a polymath active in the German Renaissance as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer and occultist. He had considerable influence on the development of early modern and modern occultism. His students included Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and Paracelsus.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Michel Tronchay

borndied
1668, Oct1733, Oct 30
a French Catholic priest, writer, philosopher, and the secretary of French historian Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont. After Tillemont's death, Tronchay completed and published volumes 6–16 of Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique des six premiers siècles, a history of the first six-centuries of the Christian church. He also completed a...
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Cross-listed in ClergyEducators

Theodore Tronchin

aka: Théodore
bornactivedied
1582, Apr 171608-16551657, Nov 19
a Swiss Calvinist theologian, controversialist and Hebraist. He studied theology at Geneva, Basel, Heidelberg, Franeker, and Leiden. He became professor of oriental languages at the academy of Geneva in 1606; he was preacher there in 1608, and professor of theology in 1618. He was rector in 1610. In 1618 he was sent with his colleague Giovanni Diodati to the...
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Primoz Trubar

aka: Primož
borndied
15081586, Jun 28
the Protestant reformer, most known as the author of the first Slovene language printed book, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Duchy of Carniola, notable for consolidating the Slovene language. Trubar is the key figure of Slovenian cultural history and in many aspects a major historical personality.
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Nicolas-Charles-Joseph Trublet

borndied
1697, Dec 41770, Mar 14
a French churchman and moralist, best known for his clash with Voltaire, whose La Henriade he critiqued. Very little is known about his life. There are five surviving works by him, mostly on literature and ethics, as well as journals and biographies.
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William Trumbull

borndied
1575 ca1635
an English diplomat, administrator and politician. Trumbull also had an interest in music. Around 1595 he compiled a personally prepared collection of lute manuscripts that has become known as the Trumbull lute book, which shows he would have had access to the lute music of English court composers spanning much of the reign of Elizabeth I. Trumbull's corresp...
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Sojourner Truth

aka: Isabella Baumfree, Bell
borndied
1797 ca1883, Nov 26
an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, Ulster County, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. After going to court to recover her son, in 1828 she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man.
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Andreas Tscherning

borndied
1611, Nov 181659, Sep 27
a German poet, hymn writer and literary theorist in the tradition of Martin Opitz. He emerged as a poet, publishing volumes such as Deutscher Gedichte Frühling (Spring of German Poems, 1642), Vortrab des Sommers deutscher Gedichte (1655), and Unvorgreifliches Bedenken über etliche Mißbräuche in der deutschen Schreib- und Sprachkunst, insonderheit der edl...
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Abraham Tucker

aka: Edward Search
borndied
1705, Sep 21774, Nov 20
an English country gentleman, who devoted himself to the study of philosophy. He wrote The Light of Nature Pursued (1768–1777) under the name of Edward Search. Tucker was born in London of a Somerset family, the son of a wealthy city merchant. His parents died during his infancy, and he was brought up by his uncle, Sir Isaac Tillard. In 1721, he ent...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Jethro Tull

borndied
16741741, Feb 21
an English agricultural pioneer from Berkshire who helped bring about the British Agricultural Revolution. He perfected a horse-drawn seed drill in 1700 that economically sowed the seeds in neat rows. He later developed a horse-drawn hoe. Tull's methods were adopted by many great landowners and helped to provide the basis for modern agriculture. Jethro Tull ...
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Tulsidas

borndied
1497/15321623
a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher from Ramanandi Sampradaya in the lineage of Jagadguru Ramanandacharya renowned for his devotion to the Lord Shri Rama . A composer of several popular works, he is best known as the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana based on Rama's life in the vernacular Awadhi. Tulsidas was ac...
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George Turberville

aka: Turbervile
borndied
1540 ca1597 ca
an English poet. In 1562 he began to study law in London, and gained a reputation as a poet and man of affairs. His Epitaphs, Epigrams, Songs and Sonnets appeared "newly corrected with additions" in 1567. In the same year he published translations of the Heroycall Epistles of Ovid, and of the Eglogs of Mantuan (Gianbattista Spagnuoli, also known as Mantuanus...
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Ivan Turgenev

borndied
1818, Oct 281883, Sep 3
a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator, popularizer of Russian literature in the West. His first major publication, a short story collection entitled A Sportsman's Sketches (1852), was a milestone of Russian Realism. After the standard schooling for a son of a gentleman, Turgenev studied for one year at the University of Moscow...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

aka: Baron de Laune
borndied
1727, May 101781, Mar 18
a French economist and statesman. Originally considered a physiocrat, he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism. He is thought to be the first economist to have recognized the law of diminishing marginal returns in agriculture. The first complete statement of the Idea of Progress is that of Turgot, in his "A Philosophical Revie...
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Cross-listed in Composers

Daniel Gottlob Turk

aka: Türk
borndied
17561813
a notable composer, organist, and music professor of the Classical Period. On April 18, 1779, Halle University granted Türk's request to begin lecturing on music theory, making him the University's "Director of Music." While at Halle, Türk published his treatise On the Role of the Organist in Worship which is still occasionally reprinted. Several of Türk'...
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Charles Tennyson Turner

borndied
1808, Jul 41879, Apr 25
an English poet. Born in Somersby, Lincolnshire, he was an elder brother of Alfred, Lord Tennyson; his friendship and the "heart union" with his greater brother is revealed in Poems by Two Brothers (1829). Another poet brother was more
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Nat Turner

bornactivedied
1800, Oct 21822-18311831, Nov 11
an African-American slave who led a slave rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 white deaths. Turner hid successfully for two months. When found, he was quickly tried, convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged. Soon after Turner's execution, more
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Richard Turner [1]

borndied
1724 ca1791
an English divine and author. He matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 14 July 1748. He became chaplain to the Countess Dowager of Wigton, and on 11 June 1754 was instituted vicar of Elmley Castle in Worcestershire. On 19 June of the same year he was appointed rector of Little Comberton. In 1785 he received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Glasgow Uni...
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Richard Turner [2]

borndied
17531788, Aug 22
an English author. In 1778 he published "An Heretical History, collected from the original authors," London, 8vo, a compilation setting forth the origin and doctrines of the various heretical sects of the early Christian world. This was followed in 1780 by "A New and Easy Introduction to Universal Geography," issued in the form of a series of letters. He bro...
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Cross-listed in Artists

Lancelot-Theodore Turpin de Crisse

aka: Lancelot-Théodore Turpin de Crissé
borndied
1782, Jul 91859, May 15
a French writer and painter. His most familiar works are landscapes with structures, usually set in Italy. His father was Colonel Henri Roland Lancelot Turpin de Crissé, an amateur painter of some note. The family was financially ruined by the Revolution and had to flee Paris, but he was able to finish his studies in Switzerland and Italy, thanks to the pat...
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Jean Alphonse Turretin

borndied
1671, Aug1737, May
a Swiss theologian. He enjoyed great influence in Geneva as the advocate of a more liberal theology than had prevailed under the preceding generation, and it was largely through his instrumentality that the rule obliging ministers to subscribe to the Helvetic Consensus was abolished in 1706, and the Consensus itself renounced in 1725. He also wrote and labor...
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Thomas Tusser

borndied
15241580, May 3
an English poet and farmer, best known for his instructional poem Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, an expanded version of his original title, A Hundreth Good Pointes of Husbandrie, first published in 1557. Tusser includes a homely mix of instructions and observations about farming and country customs which offer insight into life in Tudor England, and ...
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Cross-listed in Educators

John Twyne

borndied
1505 ca1581
an English schoolmaster, scholar and author, and also Member of Parliament for Canterbury. Twyne was a reputed antiquary, classical scholar and teacher. His first literary work was an introduction to an anonymous edition of Hugh of Caumpeden's History of Kyng Boccus and Sydracke. Twyne collaborated with Robert Saltwood to edit (or translate again) the work f...
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Sir Roger Twysden

aka: 2nd Baronet
borndied
1597, Aug 211672, Jun 27
an English historian and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1625 and 1640. In 1642 he was arrested after signing a petition from Kent and, once he was released on bail, he published the seditious Instructions. He was caught while trying to flee the country and was imprisoned again. In 1643 his estates were sequestrated. After...
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Pontus de Tyard

borndied
1521 ca1605, Sep 23
French poet and priest; member of "La Pléiade". Tyard contributed to the poetic and metaphysical program of La Pléiade by elaborating, in his Solitaire Premier, ou Prose des Muses, et de la fureur poétique, a full theory of divine fury, derived in large part from the Latin translations and commentaries. In his later years he devoted himself to the study o...
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Simon Tyssot de Patot

borndied
16551738
a French writer and poet during the Age of Enlightenment who penned two very important, seminal works in fantastic literature. In Voyages et Aventures de Jacques Massé [Voyages And Adventures Of Jacques Massé], published in 1714, he wrote of a fictional country located near South Africa. While the book kept to the confines of the traditional Utopias of the...
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Fyodor Tyutchev

borndied
1803, Nov 231873, Jul 15
generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov. Tyutchev is one of the most memorized and quoted Russian poets. Occasional pieces, translations and political poems constitute about a half of his overall poetical output. The 200 or so lyric pieces which represent the core of his poetic ...
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