A growing assortment of words and definitions used in the Early Modern era. See the Guide for more information.
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A light, crisp cracker, usually curved or hollow. Also crackenelle, crackenal, and the like. As Lord Berners (Sir John Bourchier) put it, in his translation (1523) of Frolssart: Whan the plate is hote, they cast of the thyn paste thereon, and so make a little cake in maner of a crackenell, or bysket. In English biscuit; in the U.S., cracknel has been replaced by cracker or cookie.


The land, domain, or state of mind of the pagans; pagandom. Also payeny, paeni, paygne, paynye, and the like; via Old French paienie; paien, whence English payen, pagan; Latin paganus, of the country, rustic; pagus, a province, the countryside. Cp. paynim. Lord Berners (Sir John Bourchier) in THE BOKE OF DUKE HUON OF BURDEUX (1533) said: He slew Sorbryn, the moost valyant knyght in all pagany. Thus also paganalian, relating to the rustic feasts and festivals (May Day, Thanksgiving, country fairs) which in Roman times were held in each pagus or rural district and called paganalia; English, paganals.
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