Captain Smith writes that in New-England there growes a certain berry called Kermes, worth 10 shillings a pound, and had been formerly sold for 30 or 40 shillings a pound, which may yearly be gathered in good quantity. I have fought for this berry, he speaks of, as a man should seek for a needle in a bottle of Hay, but could never light upon it; unless that kind of Solomon seal called by the English Treacle-berry be it. Gerard our famous Herbalist writes that they grow upon a little Tree called Scarlet-Oake, the leaves have one sharp prickle at the end of it; it beareth small Acorns: But the grain or berry growes out of the woody branches, like an excrescence of the substance of the Oake- Apple, and of the bigness of Pease, at first white, when ripe of an Ash-colour, which ingenders little Maggots, which when it begins to have wings are put into a bag and boulted up and down till dead, and then made up into lumps, the Maggot as most do deem is Cutchenele; So that Chermes is Cutchenele: the berries dye scarlet. Mr. George Sands in his Travels saith (much to the same purpose) that scarlet dye growes like a blister on the leaf of the Holy Oake, a little shrub, yet producing Acorns, being gathered they rub out of it a certain red dust, that converteth after a while into worms, which they kill with Wine, when they begin to quicken. See farther concerning Treacle-berries and Cutchinele in the rarities of New-England.

The Pine-Tree challengeth the next place, and that sort which is called Board-pine is the principal, it is a stately large Tree, very tall, and sometimes two or three fadom about: of the body the English make large Canows of 20 foot long, and two foot and a half over, hollowing of them with an Adds, and shaping of the outside like a Boat. Some conceive that the wood called Gopher in Scripture, of which Noah made the Ark, was no other than Pine, Gen. 6. 14. The bark thereof is good for Ulcers in tender persons that refuse sharp medicines. The inner bark of young board-pine cut small and stampt and boiled in a Gallon of water is a very foveraign medicine for burn or scald, washing the sore with some of the decoction, and then laying on the bark stampt very soft: or for frozen limbs, to take out the fire and to heal them, take the bark of Board-pine-Tree, cut it small and stamp it and boil it in a gallon of water to Gelly, wash the fore with the liquor, stamp the bark again till it be very soft and bind it on. The Turpentine is excellent to heal wounds and cuts, and hath all the properties of Venice Turpentine, the Rosen is as good as Frankincense, and the powder of the dryed leaves generateth flesh; the distilled water of the green Cones taketh away wrinkles in the face being laid on with Cloths. 

The Firr-tree is a large Tree too, but seldom so big as the Pine, the bark is smooth, with knobs or blisters, in which lyeth clear liquid Turpentine very good to be put into salves and oyntments, the leaves or Cones boiled in Beer are good for the Scurvie, the young buds are excellent to put into Epithemes for Warts and Corns, the Rosen is altogether as good as Frankincense; out of this Tree the Poleakers draw Pitch and Tarr; the manner I shall give you, for that it may (with many other things contained in this Treatise) be beneficial to my Countrymen, either there already seated, or that may happen to go thither hereafter. Out of the fattest wood changed into Torch-wood, which is a disease in that Tree, they draw Tarr, first a place must be paved with stone or the like, a little higher in the middle, about which there must be made gutters, into which the liquor falls, then out from them other gutters are to be drawn, by which it may be received, then is it put into barrels. The place thus prepared, the cloven wood must be set upright, then must it be covered with a great number of firr and pitch bowes; and on every part all about with much lome and sods of earth, and great heed must be taken, left there be any cleft or chink remaining, only a hole left in the top of the furnace, through which the fire may be put in, and the flame and smoak to pass out: when the fire burneth, the Pitch or Tarr runneth forth first thin and then thicker; of which when it is boiled is made Pitch: the powder of dried Pitch is used to generate flesh in wounds and sores. The knots of this Tree and fat-pine are used by the English instead of Candles, and it will burn a long time, but it makes the people pale.

The Spruce-tree I have given you an account of in my New-England rarities. In the North-east of Scotland upon the banks of Lough-argick, there hath been formerly of these Trees 28 handful about at the Root, and their bodies mounted to 90 foot of height, bearing at the length 20 inches diameter. At Pascataway there is now a Spruce-tree brought down to the waterside by our Mass-men of an incredible bigness, and so long that no Skipper durst ever yet adventure to ship it, but there it lyes and. Rots. 

The Hemlock-tree is a kind of spruce or pine; the bark boiled and stampt till it be very soft is excellent for to heal wounds, and so is the Turpentine thereof, and the Turpentine that issueth from the Cones of the Larch-tree, (which comes nearest of any to the right Turpentine) is singularly good to heal wounds, and to draw out the malice (or Thorn, as Helmont phrases it) of any Ach, rubbing the place therewith, and strowing upon it the powder of Sage-leaves. 

The white Cedar is a stately Tree, and is taken by some to be Tamarisk, this Tree the English saw into boards to floor their Rooms, for which purpose it is excellent, long lasting, and wears very smooth and white; likewise they make shingles to cover their houses with instead of tyle, it will never warp. This Tree, the Oak and the Larch-tree are best for building. Groundsels made of Larch-tree will never rot, and the longer it lyes the harder it growes, that you may almost drive a nail into a bar of Iron as easily as into that. Oh, that my Countreymen might obtain that blessing with their buildings, which Esay prophesied to the Jewes in the 65 Chapter and 22 verse. Non aedisicabunt & alius inhabitabit, non plantabunt & alius comedet: fed ut funt dies Arboris, dies erunt populi mei, & opus manuum suarum deterent electi mei.

The Saffafras-tree is no great Tree, I have met with some as big as my middle, the rind is tawny and upon that a thin colour of Ashes, the inner part is white, of an excellent smell like Fennel, of a sweet tast with some bitterness; the leaves are like Fig-leaves of a dark green. A decoction of the Roots and bark thereof sweetned with Sugar, and drunk in the morning fasting will open the body and procure a stool or two, it is good for the Scurvie taken some time together, and laying upon the legs the green leaves of white Hellebore. They give it to Cows that have newly calved to make them cast their Cleanings. This Tree growes not beyond Black-point Eastward: it is observed, that there is no province but produces Trees and plants not growing in other Regions. 
Non omnis sert omnia tellus. 
The Walnut which is divers, some bearing square nuts, others like ours, but smaller: there is likewise black Walnut of precious use for Tables, Cabinets and the like. The Walnut-tree is the toughest wood in the Countrie, and therefore made use of for Hoops and Bowes, there being no Yew there growing; In England they made their Bowes usually of Witch Hasel, Ash, Yew, the best of outlandish Elm, but the Indians make theirs of Walnut. 

The Line-tree with long nuts, the other kind I could never find: the wood of this Tree, Laurel, Rhamnus, Holly and Ivy are accounted for woods that cause fire by attrition; Laurel and Ivy are not growing in New-England: the Indians will rub two fear'd sticks of any sort of wood, and kindle a fire with them presently.

The Maple-tree, on the boughs of this Tree I have often found a jellied substance like Jewes-Ears, which I found upon tryal to be as good for sore throats &c.

The Birch-tree is of two kinds, ordinary Birch, and black Birch, many of these Trees are stript of their bark by the Indians, who make of it their Canows, Kettles, and Birchen-dishes: there is an excrescence growing out of the body of the Tree called spunck, or dead mens Caps, it growes at the Roots of Ashi, or Beech, or Elm; but the best is that which growes upon the black Birch, this boiled and beaten, and then dried in an Oven maketh excellent Touch-wood, and Balls to play with.

Alder, of which wood there is abundance in the wet swamps: the bark thereof with the yolke of an Egg is good for a strain; an Indian bruising of his knee, chew'd the bark of Alder fasting and laid it to, which quickly helped him. The wives of our West-Countrey English make a drink with the seeds of Alder, giving it to their Children troubled with the Alloes. I have talk'd with many of them, but could never apprehend what disease it should be they so name, these Trees are called by some Sullinges.

The Indians tell of a Tree that growes far up in the land, that is as big as an Oake, that will cure the falling-sickness infallibly, what part thereof they use, Bark, Wood, leaves or fruit, I could never learn; they promised often to bring of it to me, but did not. I have seen a stately Tree growing here and there in valleys, not like to any Trees in Europe, having a smooth bark of a dark brown colour, the leaves like great Maple, in England called Sycamor, but larger, it may be this is the Tree they brag of.

Thus much concerning Trees, now I shall present to your view the Shrubs; and first of the Sumach Shrub, which as I have told you in New-Englands rarities, differeth from all the kinds set down in our English Herbals; the root dyeth wool or cloth reddish, the decoction of the leaves in wine drunk, is good for all Fluxes of the belly in man or woman, the whites, &c. For galled places stamp the leaves with honey, and apply it, nothing so soon healeth a wound in the head as Sumach stampt and applyed once in three dayes, the powder strewed in stayeth the bleeding of wounds: The feed of Sumach pounded and mixt with honey, healeth the Hemorrhoids, the gum put into a hollow tooth asswageth the pain, the bark or berries in the fall of the leaf, is as good as galls to make Ink of.

Elder in New-England is shrubbie, & dies once in two years: there is a sort of dwarf-Elder that growes by the Sea-side that hath a red pith, the berries of both are smaller than English-Elder, not round but corner'd, neither of them smell so strong as ours. 

Juniper growes for the most part by the Sea-fide, it bears abundance of skie-coloured berries fed upon by Partridges, and hath a woodie root, which induceth me to believe that the plant mention'd in Job 30. 4. Qui decerpebant herbas é salsilagine cum stirpibus: etiam radices Juniperorum cibo erant illis, was our Indian plant Cassava. They write that Juniper-coals preserve fire longest of any, keeping fire a whole year without supply, yet the Indian never burns of it. 

Sweet fern, see the rarities of New England, the tops and nucaments of sweet fern boiled in water or milk and drunk helpeth all manner of Fluxes, being boiled in water it makes an excellent liquor for Inck. 

Current-bushes are of two kinds red and black, the black currents which are larger than the red smell like cats piss, yet are reasonable pleasant in eating.

The Gooseberry-bush, the berry of which is called Grosers or thorn Grapes, grow all over the Countrie, the berry is but small, of a red or purple colour when ripe.

There is a small shrub which is very common, growing sometimes to the height of Elder, bearing a berry like in shape to the fruit of the white thorn, of a pale yellow colour at first, then red, when it is ripe of a deep purple, of a delicate Aromatical tast, somewhat stiptick: to conclude, alwayes observe this rule in taking or refusing unknown fruit: if you find them eaten of the fowl or beast, you may boldly venture to eat of them, otherwise do not touch them. 

Maze, otherwise called Turkie-wheat, or rather Indian-wheat, because it came first from thence; the leaves boiled and drunk helpeth pain in the back; of the stalks when they are green you may make Beverage, as they do with Calamels, or Sugar-canes. The raw Corn chewed ripens felons or Cats hairs, or you may lay Samp to it: The Indians before it be thorow ripe eat of it parched. Certainly the parched corn that Abigail brought to David was of this kind of grain, 1 Sam. 25. 18. The Jewes manner was (as it is delivered to us by a learned Divine) first to parch their Corn, then they fryed it, and lastly they boiled it to a paste, and then tempered it with water, Cheese-Curds, Honey and Eggs, this they carried drye with them to the Camp, and so wet the Cakes in Wine or milk; such was the pulse too in  Africa.

French-beans or rather American-beans, the Herbalifts call them kidney-beans from their shape and effects, for they they strengthen the kidneys; they are variegated much, some being bigger a great deal than others; some white, black, red, yellow, blew, spotted; befises your Bonivis and Calavances and the kidney-bean, that is proper to Ronoake, but these are brought into the Countrie, the other are natural to the climate. So the Mexico pompion which is flat and deeply camphered, the flesh laid to, asswageth pain of the eyes. The water-mellon is proper to the Countrie, the flesh of it is of a flesh colour, a rare cooler of Feavers, and excellent against the stone. Pomum spinofum and palma-Christi too growes not here, unless planted, brought from Peru; the later is thought to be the plant, that shaded Jonah the Prophet, Jonas 4. 6. Paraverat enim Jehova Deus ricinum qui ascenderet supra Jonam, ut esset umbra super caput ejus ereptura eum à malo to ipsius; latabaturque Jonas de ricino illo Iatitia magna. Ricinum, that is palma Christi, called alfo cucurbita, and therefore translated a Gourd.

Tobacco, or Tabacca so called from Tabaco or Tabago, one of the Caribbe-lslands about 50 English miles from Trinidad. The right name, according to Monardus, is picielte, as others will petum, nicotian from Nicot, a Portingal, to whom it was presented for a raritie in Anno Dom. 1559. by one that brought it from Florida. Great contest there is about the time when it was first brought into England, some will have Sir John Hawkins the first, others Sir Francis Drake's Mariners; others again say that one Mr. Lane imployed by Sir Walter Rawleigh brought it first into England; all conclude that Sir Walter Rawleigh brought it first in use. It is observed that no one kind of forraign Commodity yieldeth greater advantage to the publick than Tobacco, it is generally made the complement of our entertainment, and hath made more slaves than Mahomet. There is three sorts of it Marchantable, the first horse Tobacco, having a broad long leaf piked at the end; the second round pointed Tobacco; third sweet scented Tobacco. These are made up into Cane, leaf or ball; there is little of it planted in New-England, neither have they learned the right way of curing of it. It is sowen in April upon a bed of rich mould sifted, they make a bed about three yards long, or more according to the ground they intend to plant, and a yard and a half over; this they tread down hard, then they sow their seed upon it as thick as may be, and sift fine earth upon it, then tread it down again as hard as possible they can, when it hath gotten four or six leaves, they remove it into the planting ground; when it begins to bud towards flowring, they crop off the top, for the Flower drawes away the strength of the leaf For the rest I refer you to the Planter, being not willing to discover their mysteries. The Indians in New England use a small round leafed Tobacco, called by them, or the Fishermen Poke. It is odious to the English. The vertues of Tobacco are these, it helps digestion, the Gout, the Tooth-ach, prevents infection by scents, it heats the cold, and cools them that sweat, feedeth the hungry, spent spirits restoreth, purgeth the stomach, killeth nits and lice; the juice of the green leaf healeth green wounds, although poysoned; the Syrup for many diseases, the smoak for the Phthisick, cough of the lungs, distillations of Rheume, and all diseases of a cold and moist cause, good for all bodies cold and moist taken upon an emptie stomach, taken upon a full stomach it precipitates digestion, immoderately taken it dryeth the body, enflameth the bloud, hurteth the brain, weakens the eyes and the sinews. 

White Hellebore is used for the Scurvie by the English. A friend of mine gave them first a purge, then conserve of Bear-berries, then sumed their leggs with vinegar, sprinkled upon a piece of mill-stone made hot, and applied to the sores white Hellebore leaves; drink made of Orpine and sorrel were given likewise with it, and Sea-scurvie-grafs. To kill lice, boil the roots of Hellebore in milk, and anoint the hair of the head therewith or other places.

Mandrake, is a very rare plant, the Indians know it not, it is found in the woods about Pascataway, they do in plain terms stink, therefore Reubens Flowers that he brought home were not Mandrakes, Gen. 30. 14, 15, 16. They are rendered in the Latine Amabiles flores, the same word say our Divines is used in Canticles, 7. 4. Amabiles istos flores edentes odorem, & secundum ostia nostra omnes pretiosos fructus, recentes simulac veteres, dilecte mi, repono tibi. So that the right translation is, Reuben brought home amiable and sweet smelling Flowers; this in the Canticles (say they) expounding the other. 

Calamus Aromaticus, or the sweet smelling reed, it Flowers in July; see New-Englands rarities. 

Sarsaparilla or roughbind-weed (as some describe it) the leaves and whole bind set with thorns, of this there is store growing upon the banks of Ponds. See the rarities of New-England. The leaves of the Sarsaparilla there described pounded with Hogs grease and boiled to an unguent, is excellent in the curing of wounds.

Live for ever, it is a kind of Cud-weed, flourisheth all summer long till cold weather comes in, it growes now plentifully in our English Gardens, it is good for cough of the lungs, and to cleanse the breast taken as you do Tobacco; and for pain in the head the decoction, or the juice strained and drunk in Bear, Wine, or Aqua vitae, killeth worms. The Fishermen when they want Tobacco take this herb being cut and dryed.

Lysimachus or Loose-strife: there are several kinds, but the most noted is the yellow Lysimachus of Virginia, the root is longish and white, as thick as ones thumb, the stalkes of an overworn colour, and a little hairie, the middle vein of the leaf whitish, the Flower yellow and like Primroses, and therefore called Tree-primrose, growes upon seedie vessels, &c. The first year it growes not up to a stalke, but sends up many large leaves handsomely lying one upon another, Rose fashion. Flowers in June, the seed is ripe in August, this as I have said is taken by the English for Scabious.

St. Johns wort, it preserveth Cheese made up in it, at Sea.

Spurge or Wolfes milch there are several sorts.

Avens, or herb-bennet; you have an account of it in New-Englands rarities, but one thing more I shall add, that you may plainly perceive a more masculine quality in the plants growing in New-England. A neighbour of mine in Hay-time, having overheat himself, and melted his grease, with striving to outmowe another man, fell dangerously sick, not being able to turn himself in his bed, his stomach gon, and his heart fainting ever and anon; to whom I adminstered the decoction of Avens-Roots and leaves in water and wine, sweetning it with Syrup  of Clove-Gilliflowers, in one weeks time it recovered him, so that he was able to perform his daily work, being a poor planter or husbandman as we call them.

Red-Lilly growes all over the Countrey amongst the bushes. Mr. Johnson upon Gerard takes the Tulip to be the Lilly of the field mentioned by our Saviour, Matth. 6. 28, 29. Ac de vestitu quid soliciti estis? discite quomodo lilia agrorum augescant: non fatigantur neque nent, fed dico vobis, ne Solomonem quidem cum universa gloria sic amictum fuisse ut unum ex istis. Solomon in all his Royalty was not like one of them. His reasons are, first from the shape, like a lilly; The second, because those places where our Saviour was conversant they grow wild in the fields. Third, the infinite variety of the colours. The fourth and last reasons, the wondrous beautie and mixture of these Flowers.

Water-lillys; the black roots dryed and pulverized, are wondrous effectual in the flopping of all manner of fluxes of the belly, drunk with wine or water.

Herba-paris, one berry, herb true love, or four-leaved night-shade, the leaves are good to be laid upon hot tumours. 

Umbilicus veneris, or New-England daisie, it is good for hot humours, Erisipelas, St. Anthonie's fire, all inflammations.

Glass-wort, a little quantity of this plant you may take for the Dropsie, but be very careful that you take not too much, for it worketh impetuously. 

Water-plantane, called in New-England water Suck-leaves, and Scurvie-leaves, you must lay them whole to the leggs to draw out water between the skin and the flesh.

Rosa-folis, Sun-dew, moor-grass, this plant I have seen more of, than ever I saw in my whole life before in England, a man may gather upon some marish-grounds an incredible quantity in a short time; towards the middle of June it is in its season, for then its spear is shot out to its length, of which they take hold and pull the whole plant up by the roots from the moss with ease. 

Amber-greese I take to be a Mushroom, see the rarities of New-England. Monardus writeth that Amber-greese riseth out of a certain clammy and bituminous earth under the Seas, and by the Sea-Side, the billows casting up part of it a land, and fish devour the rest. Some say it is the seed of a Whale, others, that it springeth from fountains as pitch doth, which fishes swallow down; the air congealeth it. And sometimes it is found in the crevises and corners of Rocks. 

Fuss-balls, Mullipusses called by the Fishermen Wolves-farts, are to be found plentifully, and those bigger by much than any I have seen in England.

Coraline there is infinite store of it cast upon the shore, and another plant that is more spinie, of a Red colour, and as hard as Corral. Coraline laid to the gout easeth the pain.

Sea-Oake or wreach, or Sea-weed, the black pouches of Oar-weed dryed and pulverized, and drunk with White-wine, is an excellent remedy for the stone.

I will finish this part of my relation concerning plants, with an admirable plant for the curing and taking away of Corns, which many times sore troubleth the Traveller: it is not above a handful high; the little branches are woodie, the leaves like the leaves of Box, but broader and much thicker, hard and of a deep grass-green colour; this bruised or champt in the mouth and laid upon the Corn will take it away clean in one night. And observe all Indian Trees and plants, their Roots are but of small depth, and so they must be set. 

Of Beasts of the earth there be scarce 120 several kinds, and not much more of the Fowls of the Air, is the opinion of some Naturalists; there are not many kinds of Beasts in New-England, they may be divided into Beasts of the Chase of the stinking foot, as Roes, Foxes, Jaccals, Wolves, Wild-cats, Raccons, Porcupines, Squncks, Musquashes, Squirrels, Sables, and Mattrises; and Beasts of the Chase of the sweet foot. Buck, Red Dear, Rain-Dear, Elke, Marouse, Maccarib, Bear, Beaver, Otter, Marten, Hare.

The Roe a kind of Deer, and the fleetest Beast upon earth is here to be found, and is good venison, but not over fat.

The Fox, the male is called a dog-fox, the female a bitch-fox, they go a clicketing the beginning of the spring, and bring forth their Cubs in May and June. There are two or three kinds of them; one a great yellow Fox, another grey, who will climb up into Trees; the black Fox is of much esteem. Foxes and Wolves are usually hunted in England from Holy-Rood day, till the Annunciation. In New-England they make bell sport in the depth of winter; they lay a sledg-load of Cods-heads on the other side of a paled fence when the moon shines, and about nine or ten of the clock the Foxes come to it, sometimes two or three, or half a dozen, and more; these they shoot, and by that time they have cased them, there will will be as many; So they continue shooting and killing of Foxes as long as the moon shineth; I have known half a score kill'd in one night. Their pisles are bonie like a doggs, their fat liquified and put into the ears easeth the pain, their tails or bushes are very fair ones and of good use, but their skins are so thin (yet thick set with deep furr) that they will hardly hold the dressing.

Jaccals there be abundance, which is a Creature much like a Fox, but smaller, they are very frequent in Palestina, or the Holy-land.

The Wolf seeketh his mate and goes a clicketing at the fame season with Foxes, and bring forth their whelps as they do, but their kennels are under thick bushes by great Trees in remote places by the swamps, he is to be hunted as the Fox from Holy-rood day till the Annunciation. But there they have a quicker way to destroy them. See New-Englands rarities. They commonly go in routs, a rout of Wolves is 12 or more, sometimes by couples. In 1664, we found a Wolf asleep in a small dry swamp under an Oake, a great mastiff which we had with us seized upon him, and held him till we had put a rope about his neck, by which we brought him home, and tying of him to a stake we bated him with smaller Doggs, and had excellent sport; but his hinder legg being broken, they knockt out his brains. Sometime before this we had an excellent course after a single Wolf upon the hard sands by the Sea-side at low water for a mile or two, at last we lost our doggs, it being (as the Lancashire people phrase it) twi-light, that is almost dark, and went beyond them, for a mastiff-bitch had seized upon the Wolf being gotten into the Sea, and there held him, till one went in and led him out, the bitch keeping her hold till they had tyed his leggs, and so carried him home like a Calf upon a staff between two men; being brought into the house they unbound him and set him upon his leggs, he not offering in the least to bite, or so much as to shew his teeth, but clapping his stern betwixt his leggs, and leering towards the door would willingly have had his liberty, but they served him as they did the other, knockt his brains out, for our doggs were not then in a condition to bate him; their eyes shine by night as a Lanthorn: the Fangs of a Wolf hung about childrens necks keep them from frighting, and are very good to rub their gums with when they are breeding of Teeth, the gall of a Wolf is Soveraign for swelling of the sinews; the siants or dung of a Wolf drunk with white-wine helpeth the Collick.

The Wild-cat, Lusern or luceret, or Ounce as some call it, is not inferiour to Lamb, their grease is very soveraign for lameness upon taking cold.

The Racoon or Rattoon is of two sorts, gray Rattoons, and black Rattoons, their grease is soveraign for wounds with bruises, aches, streins, bruises; and to anoint after broken bones and dislocations. 

The Squnck is almost as big as a Racoon, perfect black and white or pye-bald, with a bush-tail like a Fox, an offensive Carion; the Urine of this Creature is of so strong a scent, that if it light upon any thing, there is no abiding of it, it will make a man smell, though he were of Alexanders complexion; and so sharp that if he do but whisk his bush which he pisseth upon in the face of a dogg hunting of him, and that any of it light in his eyes it will make him almost mad with the smart thereof.

The Musquashes is a small Beast that lives in shallow ponds, where they build them houses of earth and sticks in shape like mole-hills, and feed upon Calamus Aromaticus: in May they scent very strong of Muske; their furr is of no great esteem; their stones wrapt up in Cotten-wool will continue a long time, and are good to lay amongst cloths to give them a grateful smell. 

The Squirril, of which there are three sorts, the mouse-squirril, the gray squirril, and the flying squirril, called by the Indian Assapanick. The mouse-squirril is hardly so big as a Rat, streak'd on both sides with black and red streaks, they are mischievous vermine destroying abundance of Corn both in the field and in the house, where they will gnaw holes into Chests, and tear clothes both linnen and wollen, and are notable nut-gathers in August; when hasel and filbert nuts are ripe you may see upon every Nut-tree as many mouse-squirrils as leaves; So that the nuts are gone in a trice, which they convey to their Drays or Nests. The gray squirril is pretty large, almost as big as a Conie, and are very good meat: in some parts of the Countrie there are many of them. The flying squirril is so called, because (his skin being loose and large) he spreads it on both sides like wings when he passeth from one Tree to another at great distance. I cannot call it flying nor leaping, for it is both. 

The Mattrise is a Creature whose head and fore-parts is shaped somewhat like a Lyons, not altogether so big as a house-cat, they are innumerable up in the Countrey, and are esteemed good furr.

The Sable is much of the size of a Mattrise perfect black, but what store there is of them I cannot tell, I never saw but two of them in Eight years space. 

The Martin is as ours are in England, but blacker, they breed in holes which they make in the earth like Conies, and are innumerable, their skins or furr are in much request. 

The Black, Stag, and Rain-Dear are Creatures that will live in the coldest climates, here they are innumerable, bringing forth three Fawns or Calves at a time, which they hide a mile asunder to prevent their destruction by the Wolves, wild-Cats, Bears, and Mequans: when they are in season they will be very fat; there are but few slain by the English. The Indians who shoot them, and take of them with toyls, bring them in with their suet, and the bones that grow upon Stags-Hearts.

The Moose or Elke is a Creature, or rather if you will a Monster of superfluity; a full grown Moose is many times bigger than an English Oxe, their horns as I have said elsewhere, very big (and brancht out into palms) the tips whereof are sometimes found to be two fathom asunder, (a fathom is fix feet from the tip of one finger to the tip of the other, that is four cubits,) and in height from the toe of the fore-foot, to the pitch of the shoulder twelve foot, both which hath been taken by some of my sceptique Readers to be monstrous lyes. If you consider the breadth that the beast carrieth, and the magnitude of the horns, you will be easily induced to contribute your belief.

What would you say, if I should tell you that in Green-land there are Does that have as large horns as Bucks, their brow Antlers growing downwards beyond their Musles, and broad at the end wherewith they scrape away the snow to the grass, it being impossible for them otherwayes to live in those cold Countries; the head of one of these Does was sometime since nailed upon a sign-post in Charter-House-lane, and these following verses written upon a board underneath it.
Like a Bucks-head I stand in open view,
And yet am none; nay, wonder not, 'tis true;
The living Beast that these fair horns did owe
Well known to many, was a Green-land Doe
The proverb old is here fulfill'd in me,
That every like is not the same you see.
And for their height since I came into England I have read Dr. Scroderns his Chymical dispensatory translated into English by Dr. Rowland, where he writes that when he lived in Finland under Gustavus Horn, he saw an Elke that was killed and presented to Gustavus his Mother, seventeen spans high. Law you now Sirs of the Gibing crue, if you have any skill in mensuration, tell me what difference there is between Seventeen spans and twelve foot. There are certain transcendentia in every Creature, which are the indelible Characters of God, and which discover God; There's a prudential for you, as John Rhodes the Fisherman used to say to his mate, Kitt Lux. But to go on with the Moose; they are accounted a kind of Deer, and have three Calves at a time, which they hide a mile asunder too, as other Deer do, their skins make excellent Coats for Martial men, their sinews which are as big as a mans finger are of perdurable toughness and much used by the Indians, the bone that growes upon their heart is an excellent Cordial, their bloud is as thick as an Asses or Bulls who have the thickest bloud of all others, a man the thinnest. To what age they live I know not, certainly a long time in their proper climate. Some particular living Creatures cannot live in every particular place or region, especially with the same joy and felicity as it did where it was first bred, for the certain agreement of nature that is between the place and the thing bred in that place: As appeareth by Elephants, which being translated and brought out of the Second or Third Climate, though they may live, yet will they never ingender or bring forth young. So for plants. Birds, &c. Of both these Creatures, some few there have been brought into England, but did not long continue. Sir R. Baker in his Chronicle tells us of an Elephant in Henry the Thirds Raign, which he saith was the first that was ever seen there, which as it seems is an error, unless he restrain it to the Norman's time. For Mr. Speed writeth that Claudius Drusius Emperour of Rome brought in the first in his Army; the bones of which digg'd up since are taken for Gyants bones. As for the Moose the first that was seen in England, was in King Charles the First Raign; thus much for these magnals amongst the Creatures of God to be wondered at, the next beast to be mentioned is

The Maurouse, which is somewhat like a Moose, but his horns are but small, and himself about the size of a Stag, these are the Deer that the flat-footed Wolves hunt after. 

The Maccarib is a Creature not found that ever I heard yet, but upon Cape-Sable near to the French plantations. 

The Bear when he goes to mate is a terrible Creature, they bring forth their Cubs in March, hunted with doggs they take a Tree where they shoot them, when he is fat he is excellent Venison, which is in Acorn time, and in winter, but then there is none dares to attempt to kill him but the Indian. He makes his Denn amongst thick Bushes, thrusting in here and there store of Moss, which being covered with snow and melting in the day time with heat of the Sun, in the night is frozen into a thick coat of Ice; the mouth of his Den is very narrow, here they lye single, never two in a Den all winter. The Indian as soon as he finds them, creeps in upon all four, seizes with his left hand upon the neck of the sleeping Bear, drags him to the mouth of the Den, where with a club or small hatchet in his right hand he knocks out his brains before he can open his eyes to see his enemy. But sometimes they are too quick for the Indians, as one amongst them called black Robin lighting upon a male Bear had a piece of his buttock torn off before he could fetch his blow: their grease is very soveraign. One Mr. Purchase cured himself of the Sciatica with Bears- greese, keeping some of it continually in his groine. It is good too for swell'd Cheeks upon cold, for Rupture of the hands in winter, for limbs taken suddenly with Sciatica, Gout, or other diseases that cannot stand upright nor go, bed-rid; it must be well chast in, and the same cloth laid on still; it prevents the shedding of the hair occasioned by the coldness of winters weather; and the yard of a Bear which as a Doggs or Foxes is bonie, is good for to expell Gravel out of the kidneys and bladder, as I was there told by one Mr. Abraham Philater a Jersey-man.

The Beaver or Pound-dog is an Amphibious Creature, lives upon the land as well as in the water. I suppose they feed upon fish, but am sure that the Bark of Trees is also their food; there is an old proverbial saying, sic me jubes quotidie, ut fiber salicem: you love me as the Beaver doth the willow; who eateth the Bark and killeth the Tree. They will be tame, witness the Beaver that not long since was kept at Boston in the Massachusets-Bay, and would run up and down the streets, returning home without a call. Their skins are highly valued, and their stones are good for the palsie, trembling, and numbness of the hands, boiling of them in Oyl of Spike, and anointing the sinews in the neck. If you take of Castorium two drams, of womans hair one dram, and with a little Rozen of the Pine-Tree, make it up into pills as big as Filberts and perfume a woman in a fit of the mother with one at a time laid upon coals under her nostrils, it will recover her out of her fit. The grease of a Beaver is good for the Nerves, Convulsions, Epilepsies, Apoplexies &c. The tail as I have said in another Treatise, is very fat and of a masculine vertue, as good as Eringo's or Satyrion-Roots.

Source: Overview by Bryan Wright

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John Josselyn

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