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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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Jose Antonio Zapata

aka: José
borndied
17621837
a Spanish painter, active in Valencia and mainly painting still life floral arrangements. He studied at the Escuela de San Carlos where he received several awards at the school's competitions; for history painting and, in 1792, first place for flower painting. Although primarily remembered for his flower paintings and other decorative work, he also created p...
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Johann Eleazar Zeissig

aka: Schenau
borndied
1737, Nov 71806, Aug 23
a German genre, portrait and porcelain painter, and engraver; director of the Royal Academy of Arts in Dresden. He showed an early talent for painting and drawing, and was sent away at the age of twelve to study art in Dresden, where he was also employed as a lawyer's clerk. Through the help of a pupil of Anton Raphael Mengs, he was accepted at the Dresden a...
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Bartholomaus Zeitblom

aka: Bartholomäus
borndied
1450 ca1519 ca
a German painter, the chief master of the school of Ulm, where he is on official record from 1482 to 1518. His principal works include the altarpiece from the church at Heerberg (1497), and four panels from the Eschach altarpiece (1495), depicting "The Two Saint Johns," the "Annunciation," and "Visitation," all in the Royal Gallery, Stuttgart; the great alta...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Hristofor Zhefarovich

bornactivedied
1690 ca1730s1753
an 18th-century painter, engraver, writer and poet and a notable proponent of Pan-Slavism. His name was first mentioned in 1734 in Belgrade, where he was well known as an artist. Zhefrovich was the author of two religious works, an instruction to newly appointed priests and a description of Jerusalem. His name is also associated with two textbooks — a prim...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Januarius Zick

bornactivedied
1730, Feb 61750s-17971797, Nov 14
a painter and architect. He is considered to be one of the main masters of the Late-Baroque. Januarius Zick was born in Munich and began to learn his trade from his father, Johannes Zick, a renowned painter himself, to whom he was apprenticed in order to learn how to paint frescoes. He died in Ehrenbreitstein.
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Johannes Zick

borndied
1702, Jan 101762, Mar 4
a German painter of frescoes in southern Germany and active during the Baroque period. He was the father of painter Januarius Zick and considered to be an important master of the Late Baroque.
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Johann Ziegler

borndied
17491812, Mar 18
a German and Austrian painter. Ziegler was born in Meiningen, and painted primarily landscapes. He traveled Austria and produced a collection of works depicting views of Vienna. Ziegler committed suicide in Vienna.
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Georges Frederic Ziesel

borndied
17561809
a Flemish flower and still life painter. He was born in Hoogstraten and became a follower of Jan van Huysum. He died in Antwerp.
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Johann Georg Ziesenis

borndied
17161776, Mar 4
a German-Danish portrait painter. In 1764 he became court painter at Hanover. Johann Georg Ziesenis created about 260 portraits and other paintings and sketches in the course of his life.
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Clemens von Zimmermann

borndied
1788, Nov 81869, Jan 25
an historical painter, was born at Düsseldorf. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. In 1815 he went to Augsburg, where he was appointed professor and director of the school of art.
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Cross-listed in Architects

Johann Baptist Zimmermann

bornactivedied
1680, Jan 31701-17571758, Mar 2
a German painter and a prime stucco plasterer during the Baroque, he was born in Gaispoint, Wessobrunn. He and his brother Dominikus Zimmermann were descended from an artist family of the Wessobrunner School.
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Christian Friedrich Zincke

borndied
1683/85 1767, Mar 24
a German miniature painter active in England in the 18th century. Zincke painted using existing portraits for reference, but also painted from life. To create skin tones he used a stipple technique of tiny red dots, sometimes described as 'measles'.
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Johann Zoffany

borndied
17331810
a German neoclassical painter, active mainly in England. His works appear in many prominent British National galleries such as the National Gallery, London, the Tate Gallery and in the Royal Collection.
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Franz Joseph Zoll

borndied
17721833
a professor of design at Freiburg University, and director of the Mannheim Gallery. His early works were chiefly portraits.
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Cross-listed in Architects

Federico Zuccari

bornactivedied
1540/41 ca1550-16091609, Aug 6
an Italian Mannerist painter and architect, active both in Italy and abroad. His documented career as a painter began in 1550, when he moved to Rome to work under Taddeo, his elder brother. He went on to complete decorations for Pius IV, and help complete the fresco decorations at the Villa Farnese at Caprarola.
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Taddeo Zuccari

borndied
15291566
an Italian painter, one of the most popular members of the Roman mannerist school. His best frescoes were a historical series in quadro reportati painted on the walls and ceiling of Villa Farnese at Caprarola, built for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, for which Zuccari also designed a great quantity of rich decorations in stucco relief after the style of Giulio...
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Francisco de Zurbaran

aka: Zurbarán
bornactivedied
1598, Nov1617-16641664
a Spanish painter. He is known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs, and for his still-lifes. Zurbarán gained the nickname Spanish Caravaggio, owing to the forceful, realistic use of chiaroscuro in which he excelled.
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Juan de Zurbaran

aka: Zurbarán
borndied
16201649
a Spanish Baroque painter, born in Llerena, Badajoz, the son of Francisco de Zurbarán (1598 - 1664), and joined in the workshop that his father owned in Seville, with which it is likely they collaborated on different paintings. The parental influence is evident in his work, but also his style reflects Dutch, Lombard and Neapolitan influences. He primarily p...
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Gustav Philipp Zwinger

borndied
1779, Jan 31819, Jan 15
a painter and etcher, born at Nuremberg, the son and pupil of the painter and engraver Sigmund Zwinger (1744—1813), now chiefly remembered as a teacher. He was also known as an historical painter, both in oil and watercolour, and as a designer of book illustrations. He etched a few plates and tried his hand at lithography. He died at Nuremberg.
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