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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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James Earl

borndied
17611796
an American portrait painter, was probably a brother of Ralph Earl. He was a native of Leicester, Massachusetts, and died of yellow fever at Charleston in 1796.
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Ralph Earl

borndied
17511801
an American painter known for his portraits, of which at least 183 can be documented. He also painted six landscapes, including a panorama display of Niagara Falls.
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Augustus Earle

borndied
1793, Jun 11838, Dec 10
a British painter. Unlike earlier artists who worked outside Europe and were employed on voyages of exploration or worked abroad for wealthy, often aristocratic patrons, Earle was able to operate quite independently - able to combine his lust for travel with an ability to earn a living through art. The body of work he produced during his travels comprises a ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Sir Charles Lock Eastlake

borndied
1793, Nov 171865, Dec 24
an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century. He was committed to becoming a painter, and in 1809 he became the first pupil of Benjamin Haydon and a student at the Royal Academy schools in London — where he later exhibited. Despite being based predominantly in mainland Europe, Eastlake regularly sent works back to Lo...
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Cross-listed in Military

Seth Eastman

borndied
18081875
an artist and West Point graduate who served in the US Army, first as a mapmaker and illustrator. He had two tours at Fort Snelling, Minnesota Territory; during the second, extended tour he was commanding officer of the fort. During these years, he painted many studies of Native American life. He was notable for the quality of his hundreds of illustrations f...
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Cross-listed in Military

Joseph Horace Eaton

borndied
18151896
an American artist and a career officer in the United States Army (Regular Army) who served as a brevet brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Following the Mexican War, Eaton was stationed on the frontier where he painted a series of landscapes in New Mexico in the 1850s. Those paintings are highly sought after by art collectors ...
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Adam Eberle

borndied
unknownunknown
A German painter. one of the earliest and most gifted pupils of Cornelius, was born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1804. He studied painting at the Düsseldorf Academy, and afterwards went with Cornelius to Munich. After commencing his career at Düsseldorf by painting The Entombment of Christ, and St. Helena with two Angels, he executed the large fresco-painting on ...
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Robert Eberle

borndied
1815, Jul 221862, Sep 19
a German animal painter, was born in Meersburg, on Lake Constance, and died at Eberingg, near Munich. He was first instructed by J.J. Bidermann at Constance, and afterwards went to Munich in 1830, where he studied from nature and the works of Van de Velde and Du Jardin. He spent three months in America (1848), and then settled at Eberfing, near Munich, where...
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Christian Nikolaus Eberlein

borndied
17201788
a German historical painter, was born at Rudolstadt in 1720. He worked in Göttingen, Wolfenbüttel, and Salzdahlum, and in 1776 became inspector of the gallery in the last-named town, and made good copies of many of the pictures therein. He died at Salzdahlum.
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Johann Christian Eberlein

borndied
17701815
a German painter, was born and died in Göttingen. Very little is known of his life, and few of his works have survived. An Italian Landscape by him is in the Modern Gallery at Munich.
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Michael Echter

borndied
1812, Mar 51879, Feb 4
a German painter. History painter, pupil of Munich Academy under Heinrich Hess, Clemens Zimmermann, and Julius Schnorr, then of Olivier; assisted Schnorr in the decoration of the Royal Palace in Munich, and in 1846 Kaulbach, by whom he was much influenced, in that of the Berlin Museum. After his return to Munich, he became member of the Academy in 1862, and ...
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Heinrich Ambros Eckert

borndied
18071840
a German painter of battle-pieces. He was born at Würzburg, and was at first instructed by Fessel. In 1825 he attended the Academy at Munich, and afterwards visited the Tyrol and France. Between 1835 and 1840, in conjunction with Monten and Schelver, he published a work upon the German federal army, with two hundred coloured lithographic plates; and another...
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Albert Eckhout

borndied
1610 ca1665
a Dutch portrait and still life painter. Eckhout, who was born in Groningen, was among the first European artists to paint scenes from the New World. In 1636 he traveled to Dutch Brazil, where he stayed until 1644, invited by count John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen. There, he painted portraits of the natives, slaves and mulattos of Brazil in the seventee...
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Cross-listed in SculptorsWriters

John Eckstein the Elder

borndied
17351817/1818
a German-born sculptor, engraver and painter who worked briefly in London before establishing himself in his homeland and then in America. He is not to be confused with his son, also known as John, a painter who worked in England and the West Indies. In 1805 he published the first part of The American Drawing Magazine, or, A Complete System of Drawing, descr...
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John Eckstein the Younger

borndied
unknown1838 ca
a painter who worked in England and the West Indies. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in London between 1787 and 1802. In 1803 he accompanied Samuel Hood to the "Diamond Rock" near Martinique. He then went to Barbados where he painted portraits of officers stationed on the island, and seems to have died in the West Indies in about 1838.


Gerard Edelinck

aka: Gérard
borndied
1640, Oct1707, Apr 2
a copper-plate engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin, who worked in Paris from 1666 and became a naturalized French citizen in 1675. His excellence was generally acknowledged; and having become known to Louis XIV he was appointed, on the recommendation o...
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Carl Eggers

borndied
17871863
a German historical painter, born at Neu Strelitz, was instructed by Matthäi at Dresden. He discovered the old mode of fresco-painting, and was employed in the Vatican at Rome, where he painted in the Braccio Nuovo. Subsequently he painted under the direction of Cornelius in the Museum at Berlin. Some of his oil-paintings are of considerable merit. He died ...
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Franz Xaver Eggert

borndied
18021876
a German glass painter. Eggert was born at Höchstädt on the Danube, and studied decorative painting at Augsburg and Munich; but he afterwards devoted himself entirely to glass-painting, in conjunction with Ainmiller, Hammerl, and Kirchmair, and endeavoured to raise the art from its long decline. He especially distinguished himself by the magnificence of hi...
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Julie von Egloffstein

borndied
1792, Sep 121869, Jan 16
countess, canoness of Hildesheim, and a German artist, encouraged in her work by Goethe. She was one of the most beautiful and gifted women at the court of Weimar, and many of Goethe's poems bear witness to the lively interest which he took in her artistic development. She painted several portraits, including those of the Grand-Duchess of Saxe-Weimar and of ...
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Cross-listed in WritersPerformers

Marianne Ehrenstrom

aka: Ehrenström
bornactivedied
1773, Dec 91790-18311867, Jan 4
a Swedish writer, singer, painter, pianist, culture personality, memorialist, principal and lady-in-waiting. She was a member of the Academy of the Free Arts and an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. She is foremost known for her memoirs, which are regarded as a valuable historical documentation, especially about the contemporary cultural...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Georg Dionysius Ehret

borndied
1708, Jan 301770, Sep 9
a botanist and entomologist, and is best known for his botanical illustrations. He had the income to attract the talents of botanists such as Carl Linnaeus and artists like Ehret. Together at the Clifford estate, Hartecamp, which is located south of Haarlem in H...
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Friedrich Eibner

borndied
18261877
a German painter of architectural subjects, was born at Hilpoltstein. He studied after the works of Heinrich Schönfeld, and travelled in Bavaria, and afterwards in Germany, France, Upper Italy, and Spain, making a large number of water-colour drawings of the places he visited. The Album for the Prince Metschersky, with whom he travelled in Spain in 1860–6...
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Andreas Eigner

borndied
18011870
born at Diedldorf, Upper Palatinate, distinguished himself as a painter and a restorer of old pictures. He successfully employed alcoholic vapours, and a varnish of his own invention, to protect paintings against the destructive influence of the atmosphere. He was chiefly employed in the Galleries of Munich, Augsburg, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe, Basle, and Solothu...
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El Greco

aka: Doménikos Theotokópoulos
borndied
15411614, Apr 7
a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. The nickname "El Greco" refers both to his Greek origin and Spanish citizenship. El Greco's dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries but found appreciation in the 20th century. El Greco is regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism, while his p...
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Jan van der Elburcht

borndied
15001571
an early Dutch painter. His name is derived from Elburg, his town of birth. According to Karel van Mander he was called cleen Hansken (little Hans), and was known for landscapes. Sandrart called him der kleine Hans and claimed he was known for his altarpiece for the fisher's altar in the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp depicting the Miraculous catch of ...
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Jan Frans Eliaerts

borndied
1761, Dec 301848, May 17
a Flemish painter of animals, flowers, and fruit who migrated to France where he was active most of his life. His flower paintings are in the tradition of the Baroque tradition of flower painting developed by Daniel Seghers, Jan Philip van Thielen and Jan van Huysum and show parallels with the work of Jan Frans van Dael. Together with Georges Frédéric Zies...
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Pieter Janssens Elinga

borndied
16231682
a Dutch Golden Age painter, mainly of domestic interior scenes with a strong emphasis on the rectangular geometrical elements of windows, floor tiling paintings, and other elements, and a few genre figures. He also painted still lives. He is best known today for his perspective box, one of only 6 known to be still intact. It is on show at the Bredius Museum ...
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Marie Ellenrieder

borndied
1791, Mar 201863, Jun 5
a German painter. She studied under the miniature painter Joseph Einsle. Her portraits, similar in style to the ones of Angelica Kauffman, made her the first woman to enter the Academy of Fine Arts Munich. She spent the time between 1822 and 1824 in Rome, where she became a disciple of Johann Friedrich Overbeck. After this journey, she started painting image...
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Anthony Elliger

borndied
17011781
Elliger was born in Amsterdam as the son of Ottomar Elliger II. He was the brother of Ottmar Elliger III. He married Christina Houbraken, a daughter of Arnold Houbraken and they became the father of Christina Maria Alleger. Besides his daughter, his pupils we...
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Ottmar Elliger the Elder

borndied
16331679
a Flemish Baroque flower painter. He was born in Göteborg, but he was trained in Antwerp by Daniel Seghers. His earliest dated work is from 1653. He is registered in Copenhagen in 1654, Amsterdam in 1660 (where he married), Dordrecht in 1662, and Hamburg in 1665. In 1670 he became court painter to Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg in Berlin, where he stayed...
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Ottmar Elliger the Younger

aka: Ottomar
borndied
16661735
a Dutch painter from Germany. He was born in Hamburg as the son of the Danish painter Ottomar Elliger the Elder. After being instructed in the first elements of the art by his father, he was sent to Amsterdam, where he became a scholar of Michiel van Musscher, a painter of small portraits and conversations, under whom he studied a short time, but being ambi...
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Friedrich August Elsasser

borndied
18101845
a painter of landscapes and architectural views, was born at Berlin and studied at the Academy of that city under Blechen, whose influence on art was at that time very great. In 1831 he went to Italy, and in 1834 and 1835 he visited Sicily. The King of Prussia sent him the Order of the Red Eagle, and granted him a pension for life, which he did not long enjo...
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Adam Elsheimer

borndied
1578, Mar 181610, Dec 11
a German artist working in Rome who died at only thirty-two, but was very influential in the early 17th century in the field of Baroque paintings. His relatively few paintings were small scale, nearly all painted on copper plates, of the type often known as cabinet paintings. They include a variety of light effects, and an innovative treatment of landscape. ...
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Ludwig Elsholtz

borndied
18051850
a German painter of genre subjects and battles, born at Berlin, studied in the Academy of his native city, and afterwards in the studio of Franz Krüger, the painter of horses. His best work is The Battle of Leipsic, painted in 1833, and now in the possession of the German Emperor. He died at Berlin in 1850. In the Berlin National Gallery is The Beginning of...
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Master of the Embroidered Foliage

bornactivedied
unknown1480-1510unknown
a Netherlandish painter or a group of painters who worked out of Bruges and Brussels. In 1926 the German art historian Max Jakob Friedländer attributed a group of paintings of the Virgin and Child in a landscape, in identical poses to "Master of the Embroidered Foliage." The foliage painted in these works was likened by Friedländer to the repeated pattern ...
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Cornelis Engebrechtsz

aka: Cornelis, Engebrechtsz.
borndied
1462 ca1527
an early Dutch painter. He was born and died in Leiden, and is considered the first important painter from that city. Engebrechtsz. taught a number of other Leiden painters, including Lucas van Leyden, Aertgen van Leyden and Engebrechtsz.' own sons Cornelis, Lucas, and Pieter Cornelisz. Kunst. Lucas van Leyden is considered his most important pupil, eclipsin...
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Cornelis Engelbrechtsz

borndied
1468 ca1527
an early Dutch painter. He was born and died in Leiden, and is considered the first important painter from that city. Engebrechtsz. taught a number of other Leiden painters, including Lucas van Leyden, Aertgen van Leyden and Engebrechtsz.' own sons Cornelis, Lucas, and Pieter Cornelisz. Kunst. Lucas van Leyden is considered his most important pupil, eclipsin...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Josef Otto Entres

aka: Joseph
borndied
1804, Mar 131870, May 14
a German sculptor and painter. There is very little information available about the details of his life. Entres was born in Fürth, and studied sculpture in Munich after July 1822, where he was a student of Konrad Eberhard. He died in Munich, where he lived at Herbststraße and at "Salzstraße" around 1850.
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Engelbert Ergo

aka: Engel
borndied
1615 ca1652+
a Flemish Baroque painter of history paintings and landscapes. His few known works often include religious elements or allegories. Ergo's works are very rare. His paintings often contain an allegorical meaning. For instance a landscape painting held by the Pushkin Museum contains an allegorical meaning relating to patience and the painting is therefore refer...
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Antonio de Espinosa

borndied
15651630
[ed- confusion with another painter with same name, worked in Mexico, active second half of the 17th century?]


Jeronimo Jacinto de Espinosa

aka: Jerónimo
borndied
16001667
a Spanish painter, active in Valencia and a painter of great reputation in the reign of Philip IV. His father was the painter Jerónimo Rodriguez de Espinosa, born in 1562 at Valladolid and settled, about the close of the century, in the town of Cocentayna, near Valencia. There, in 1596, he married Aldonza Lied, Jacinto's mother.
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Jeronimo Rodriguez de Espinosa

aka: Jerónimo
borndied
15621630 ca
a Spanish painter of the Renaissance period active in the region of Valencia. He was born at Valladolid, where he received his initial training, and as an adult moved to the Valencian town of Cocentaina. There he married, in 1596, Aldonza Lied, by whom he fathered Jerónimo Jacinto de Espinosa, a painter of great reputation in the reign of Philip IV. For the...
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Juan Bautista de Espinosa

borndied
15901641
a Spanish painter. Much of his work, which included religious paintings and portraits, is now untraced, and his few known extant paintings are all still lives. Little is known of his life. He worked in Toledo and Madrid from 1612 to 1626 and, judging by his style, he was trained in Holland. De Espinosa's style is judged to be the transition from Flemish Baro...
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Juan de Espinosa

bornactivedied
unknown1628-1659unknown
Spanish Baroque painter specializing in still life painting. There is a great deal of confusion in the documentation of de Espinosa's life and works because there are a number of artists using the same name who also painted still lifes around the same time (son of Juan Bautista de Espinosa?). Still another Juan de Espinosa was a known contemporary painter w...
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Antonio Maria Esquivel

borndied
1806, Mar 81857, Apr 9
a Spanish painter in the Romantic style who specialized in portraits. In 1831, already married and in need of work, he moved to Madrid and enrolled at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, becoming a merit scholar. He was also involved in the intellectual life of Madrid and, in 1837, was an active participant in founding the local "Artistic and ...
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Jacob Esselens

borndied
16261687
a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. There is very little information available about the details of his life. He was born in Amsterdam and also died there. According to the RKD travelled to Kleve in 1663 and got married in 1668 in Amsterdam. He travelled in France and later to England as a silk merchant.
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Adrianus Eversen

borndied
1818, Jan 131897, Dec 1
a Dutch painter. Adrianus Eversen portrayed the typical 19th century Dutch atmosphere in his work. As a member of Arti et Amicitiae he belonged to the society of elite artists of his time. He painted mostly imaginary cityscapes, consisting of existing and invented fragments, unlike the more faithful representations of Springer. The everyday life of people, D...
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Adolf Eybel

borndied
18081882
a German painter of historical and genre subjects and of portraits, was born at Berlin. He studied at the Berlin Academy, and under Professor Kolbe, as well as in Paris under Delaroche. One of his most noted pictures represents Richard Coeur-de-Lion with his Court listening to Blondel's Song. He died in Berlin.
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