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While many freelance operators abounded with the Age of Exploration, national interests were also paying attention and quickly organized their own expeditions. The individuals on these ships were also frequently also explorers, but their main mission was to deliver the Rule of Law -- for each's respective country -- on the High Seas.
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Cross-listed in Pirates

John Callice

aka: Challis
bornactivedied
1558 ca1570s-1580s1587
Born in Southeastern Wales, Callice moved to London as a youth, became a retailer and later joined the navy in about 1571. In early 1574, while commanding a royal ship, he seized an Italian merchantman and sold her cargo in Cardiff and Bristol. For the next four years, Callice plundered mercilessly with other captains who sailed under his leadership. In 1...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryWriters

Christopher Carleill

bornactivedied
1551 ca1573-15931593
an English military and naval commander. In 1588, he was appointed constable of Carrickfergus, County Antrim, and later, he was governor of Ulster. In 1590, he wrote to Lord Burghley, requesting a commission from the queen to seize for lawful prize any goods which might be found in England belonging to Spanish subjects, and complaining of his monetary losses...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Juan Carrasco

bornactivedied
unknown1784-1803unknown
a Spanish naval officer, explorer, and navigator. He is remembered mainly for his work in the Pacific Northwest during the late 18th century. He was second in command of the 1791 voyage of José María Narváez, the first European exploration of the Strait of Georgia.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Luis de Carvajal

aka: Luis de Carabajal y de la Cueva
borndied
1537 ca1591
governor of the Spanish province of Nuevo León in present-day Mexico, an alleged slave trader, and the first Spanish subject known to have entered Texas from Mexico across the lower Rio Grande. The territory granted to Carvajal included some portions in the south that had been settled by other Spaniards who refused to accept the terms of the grant and sued ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Jacques Cassard

borndied
unknownunknown
a French naval officer and privateer. In 1700, Cassard became a merchantman captain. The next year, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out, and Cassard converted to a privateer. In 1705, he captained the privateer Saint Guillaume, capturing 12 merchantmen and raiding Cork. Two years later, he captured 13 merchantmen with the Duchesse Anne, earning a ran...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

George Clifford

aka: 3rd Earl of Cumberland
bornactivedied
unknown1558-1605unknown
an English peer, naval commander and courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. He helped to prepare an expedition with Walter Raleigh which led to the Battle of Flores in 1592 and the capture of richly laden carrack Madre de Deus off Flores, Azores. He commissioned the building of his own ship, the 38-gun Scourge of Malice. During the Battle of San Juan in 1598 he achi...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

George Clinton [1]

bornactivedied
1686 ca1720s-17611761, Jul 10
a Royal Navy officer and politician. Benefiting from the patronage of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle he served as a naval captain during the 1720s and 1730s. Clinton went on to be Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland, Commodore and Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet and then Governor of the Province of New York where he had to deal ...
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Gaspard II de Coligny

aka: Seigneur de Châtillon, Chatillon
borndied
1519, Feb 161572, Aug 24
a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and a close friend and advisor to King Charles IX of France. Following the death of Henry II he placed himself with Louis, Prince of Condé, at the forefront of the Huguenot party, and demanded religious toleration and certain other reforms. In 1560...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Jacob Collaart

bornactivedied
unknown1625-16371637
a Flemish admiral who served as privateer and one of the Dunkirkers in Spanish Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt. He was responsible for the capture of destruction of at least 150 fishing vessels, bringing 945 captured sailors back to his base in Dunkirk for ransom. A leading admiral over the next decade, he would have later encounters with other Dutc...
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Cross-listed in Pirates

Gustavus Conyngham 

borndied
1747 ca1819, Nov 27
an Irish-born American merchant sea captain, an officer in the Continental Navy and a privateer. As a commissioned captain fighting the British in the American Revolutionary War, he captured 24 ships in the eastern Atlantic between May 1777 and May 1778, bringing the expenses associated with British shipping to a then all-time high. He has been called "the m...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersCartographers

James Cook

bornactivedied
1728, Nov 71755-17791779, Feb 14
a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Explored ...
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Timeline (27)Links (18)


Abraham Crijnssen

bornactivedied
unknown1632-16691669, Feb 1
a Dutch naval commander, notable for capturing Surinam from the British in 1667 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. The minesweeper HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen and the frigate HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen have been named after him.
Timeline (2)Links (1)

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