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Cross-listed in Inventors

Coenraad Johannes van Houten

borndied
1801, Mar 151887, May 27
a Dutch chemist and chocolate maker known for the treatment of cocoa mass with alkaline salts to remove the bitter taste and make cocoa solids more water-soluble; the resulting product is still called "Dutch process" chocolate. He is also credited with introducing a method for pressing the fat (cocoa butter) from roasted cocoa beans, though this was in fact ...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

borndied
1632, Oct 241723, Aug 26
a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology.
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Pieter van Musschenbroek

borndied
1692, Mar 141761, Sep 19
a Dutch scientist. He was a professor in Duisburg, Utrecht, and Leiden, where he held positions in mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and astronomy. He is credited with the invention of the first capacitor in 1746: the Leyden jar. He performed pioneering work on the buckling of compressed struts. Musschenbroek was also one of the first scientists (1729) to p...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Lucien Vidi

aka: Vidie
bornactivedied
18051844-18581866
a French physicist. In 1844 he invented the barograph, that is, a device to monitor pressure, a recording aneroid barometer. Vidie's death was ascribed to his excessive use of hydrotherapy.
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Cross-listed in GovernanceWritersPhysicians

Rudolf Virchow

borndied
1821, Oct 131902, Sep 5
a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and t...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

Alessandro Volta

borndied
1745, Feb 181827, Mar 5
an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power, who is credited as the inventor of the electrical battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the Voltaic pile in 1799, and reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the President of the Royal Society. With this invention Volta proved that electricity ...
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