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Cross-listed in WritersLegal

Paulin Gagne

aka: Etienne-Paulin
borndied
18081876
a French poet, essayist, lawyer, politician, inventor, and eccentric whose best known poem, The Woman-Messiah, is among the longest poems in French, or any language. The poem is 25,000 verses (60 acts and 12 songs) and is notable for its 24th act entitled Bestiologie which enumerates the advantages that a citizen of Paris would have by marrying the animals o...
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Andre-Jacques Garnerin

aka: André-Jacques
borndied
1769, Jan 311823, Aug 18
a French balloonist and the inventor of the frameless parachute. He was appointed Official Aeronaut of France. Garnerin began experiments with early parachutes based on umbrella-shaped devices and carried out the first frameless parachute descent (in the gondola) with a silk parachute on 22 October 1797 at Parc Monceau, Paris (1st Brumaire, Year VI of the Re...
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Richard J. Gatling

borndied
1818, Sep 121903, Feb 26
an American inventor best known for his invention of the Gatling gun, considered to be the first successful machine gun though is not a true machine gun by modern definitions. While being most known for inventing the Gatling gun, Gatling invented and patented a number of other inventions. His inventions include a screw propeller and a wheat drill (a planting...
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E. K. Gauzen

bornactivedied
unknown1820s-1830sunknown
a Russian naval technician. Working in the Russian naval base at Kronshtadt near Saint Petersburg, in 1829 he invented a "diving machine". This was a type of diving costume that consisted of air-supplied metallic helmet and leather suit. Gauzen's invention was used by the Russian Navy for underwater work until 1880.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Friedrich Clemens Gerke

borndied
1801, Jan 221888, May 21
a German writer, journalist, musician and pioneer of telegraphy who revised the Morse code in 1848. It is Gerke's notation which is used today. In the years before Gerke joined the optical and later the electrical telegraph, he worked as a musician in pubs and establishments for sailors on the Reeperbahn. This area of Hamburg was under Danish administration ...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

James Edward Allen Gibbs

borndied
18291902
a farmer, inventor, and businessman from Rockbridge County in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. On June 2, 1857, he was awarded a patent for the first twisted chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine using a rotating hook. In partnership with James Willcox, Gibbs became a principal in the Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Company. Willcox & Gibbs commercial ...
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Henri Giffard

borndied
1825, Feb 81882, Apr 14
a French engineer. In 1852, he invented the steam injector and the powered airship. Giffard was granted a patent for the injector on 8 May 1858. Unusually, he had thoroughly worked out the theory of this invention before making any experimental instrument, having explained the idea in 1850. Others had worked on using jets, particularly Bourdon who patented a...
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Heinrich Gobel

aka: Göbel
borndied
1818, Apr 201893, Dec 4
a precision mechanic and inventor. In 1848 he emigrated to New York City, where he resided until his death. In 1893, magazines and newspapers reported 25 years earlier, Göbel had developed incandescent light bulbs comparable to those invented in 1879 by Thomas Alva Edison. Göbel did not apply for a patent. In 1893, the Edison Electric Light Company sued th...
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Thomas Godfrey

borndied
1704, Dec1749, Dec
an optician and inventor in the American colonies, who around 1730 invented the octant. At approximately the same time an Englishman, John Hadley, also invented the octant independently. Godfrey was born on his family's farm in Bristol Township, near Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. more
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Charles Goodyear

borndied
1800, Dec 291860, Jul 1
an American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844. Though Goodyear is often credited with the invention of vulcanized rubber, modern evidence has proven that the Mesoamericans used stabilized rubber for balls and other obje...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

John Gorrie

borndied
1803, Oct 31855, Jun 29
a physician, scientist, inventor, and humanitarian. Dr. Gorrie's medical research involved the study of tropical diseases. At the time the theory that bad air caused diseases was a prevalent hypothesis and based on this theory, he urged draining the swamps and the cooling of sickrooms. Since it was necessary to transport ice by boat from the northern lakes, ...
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Richard Hall Gower

borndied
17681833
an English mariner, empirical philosopher, nautical inventor, entrepreneur, and humanitarian. Gower and his family removed to Nova Scotia House at Ipswich in 1817. There he devoted himself to the invention, patenting, design and building of a remarkable series of novel vessels including three vessels named Transit, a fly boat, two yachts the Unique and the G...
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Henry Greathead

borndied
17571818
a pioneering rescue lifeboat builder from South Shields. Although Lionel Lukin had patented a lifeboat in 1785, Greathead successfully petitioned parliament in 1802 with the claim that he had invented a lifeboat in 1790, and he was awarded £1,200 for his trouble. Although his claims have been contested, he did build 31 boats, which saved very many lives, an...
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Hanson Crockett Gregory

borndied
18321921
long believed to be the sole inventor of the doughnut hole by the people of Camden township, Maine. The area’s youngest-ever sea captain at 19, he sailed regularly from Camden seaport and though the “Great Donut Debate” judges ruled unanimously in his favor, there are a number of different stories as to how he came to put the hole in the doughnut.
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Cross-listed in AstronomersWriters

James Gregory

aka: Gregorie
borndied
1638, Nov1675, Oct
a Scottish mathematician and astronomer. He described an early practical design for the reflecting telescope – the Gregorian telescope – and made advances in trigonometry, discovering infinite series representations for several trigonometric functions. In his book Geometriae Pars Universalis (1668) Gregory gave both the first published statement and proo...
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William Robert Grove

borndied
1811, Jul 111896, Aug 1
a Welsh judge and physical scientist. He anticipated the general theory of the conservation of energy, and was a pioneer of fuel cell technology. He invented the Grove voltaic cell. In 1839, Grove developed a novel form of electric cell, the Grove cell, which used zinc and platinum electrodes exposed to two acids and separated by a porous ceramic pot. Grove...
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Otto von Guericke

aka: Gericke
borndied
1602, Nov 201686, May 11
a German scientist, inventor, and politician. His major scientific achievements were the establishment of the physics of vacuums, the discovery of an experimental method for clearly demonstrating electrostatic repulsion, and his advocacy of the reality of "action at a distance" and of "absolute space". All of von Guericke's work on the vacuum and air pressur...
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Napoleon Guerin

bornactivedied
unknown1830s-1840sunknown
an inventor who obtained a U.S. patent for the first life preserver made of cork on November 16, 1841. It was constructed in jacket form, with two layers of material between which the cork could be inserted. Guerin suggested using between 18 and 20 quarts of rasped or grated cork, depending on the weight of the person, but he was not specific about the type ...
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Cross-listed in PhysiciansScientists

Goldsworthy Gurney

borndied
17931875
a surgeon, chemist, lecturer, consultant, architect, builder and prototypical British gentleman scientist and inventor, of the Victorian era. Amongst many accomplishments, he developed the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe, and later applied its principles to a novel form of illumination, the Bude light; developed a series of early steam-powered road vehicles; and laid ...
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Cross-listed in ClergyScientists

Bartolomeu de Gusmao

aka: Gusmão
bornactivedied
1685, Dec1709-17241724, Nov 18
a Portuguese priest and naturalist, noted for his early work on lighter-than-air airship design. He completed his course of study at the University of Coimbra, devoting his attention principally to philology and mathematics, but received the title of Doctor of Canon Law (related to Theology). He is said to have had a remarkable memory and a great command of ...
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Cross-listed in Physicians

Samuel Guthrie

borndied
17821848
an American physician from Hounsfield, New York. He invented a form of percussion powder and also the punch lock for igniting it, which made the flintlock musket obsolete. He discovered chloroform independently in 1831, by distilling chloride of lime with alcohol in a copper barrel, using it as a mild anesthetic in amputation surgeries. The same chemical com...
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