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Rene Laennec

aka: René
bornactivedied
1781, Feb 171804-18261826, Aug 13
a French physician. He invented the stethoscope in 1816, while working at the Hôpital Necker, and pioneered its use in diagnosing various chest conditions. He became a lecturer at the Collège de France in 1822 and professor of medicine in 1823. His final appointments were that of Head of the Medical Clinic at the Hôpital de la Charité and Professor at th...
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Frederick Langenheim

borndied
1809, May 51879, Jul 16
a German-American photographer and pioneer of stereoscopic photography. With his brother, he made the first set of panoramic pictures of Niagara Falls and a sequential set of pictures of the first American total solar eclipse ever photographed. Langenheim invented a technique in 1846 for coloring daguerreotype plates and was issued a patent for it. With his ...
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John Bennet Lawes

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
1814, Dec 281900, Aug 31
n English entrepreneur and agricultural scientist. He founded an experimental farm at his home at Rothamsted Manor that eventually became the Rothamsted Experimental Station, where he developed a superphosphate that would mark the beginnings of the chemical fertilizer industry. Even before leaving Oxford in 1832, Lawes had begun to interest himself in growin...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceCommerce

John Wheeley Lea

borndied
1791, May 81874, Mar 23
an English pharmacist and sauce manufacturer. Born on a farm with three brothers and four sisters, Lea wanted to be a chemist from a young child. In 1823 he partnered with William Henry Perrins, opening a drug store in Worcester, and in 1837 they began selling the Lea & Perrins brand of Worcestershire sauce. Lea was also an alderman and was elected mayor of ...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

William Lee

borndied
15631614
an English clergyman and inventor who devised the first stocking frame knitting machine in 1589, the only one in use for centuries. Its principle of operation remains in use. Lee was born in the village of Calverton, Nottinghamshire. He entered Christ's College, Cambridge in 1579 as a sizar and graduated from St. John's College in 1582.
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

aka: von Leibniz
borndied
1646, Jun 211716, Nov 14
a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy, having developed differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton. Leibniz's notation has been widely used ever since it ...
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Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir

borndied
1822, Jan, 121900, Aug 4
a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858. Prior designs for such engines were patented as early as 1807 (De Rivaz engine), but none were commercially successful. Lenoir's engine was commercialized in sufficient quantities to be considered a success, a first for the internal combustion engine.
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Cross-listed in ArtistsAstronomersSculptorsArchitectsScientistsCartographers

Leonardo da Vinci

bornactivedied
1452, Apr 151466-15191519, May 2
an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of paleontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest pain...
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Cross-listed in Scientists

Justus von Liebig

borndied
1803, May 121873, Apr 18
a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He has been described ...
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Carl Linnaeus

aka: Carolus Linnæus, Carolus a Linné, Carl von Linné
borndied
1707, May 231778, Jan 10
a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". One of the first scientists Linnaeus met in the Netherlands was Johan Frederik Gronovius to whom Linnaeus showed one of the several manuscripts he had brought with him from Sw...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Hymen L. Lipman

borndied
1817, Mar 201893, Nov 4
credited with registering the first patent for a pencil with an attached eraser on March 30, 1858 (U.S. Patent 19,783). Hymen L. Lipman was born March 20, 1817, in Kingston, Jamaica, to English parents. He emigrated to the United States around 1829 with them, arriving in Philadelphia, Pa., where he resided for the remainder of his life. In 1840, Lipman succe...
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Hans Lippershey

aka: Johann, Lipperhey
borndied
15701619
a German-Dutch spectacle-maker. He is commonly associated with the invention of the telescope, although it is unclear if he was the first to build one. There are many stories as to how Lippershey came by his invention. One version has Lippershey observing two children playing with lenses in his shop and commenting how they could make a far away weather-vane ...
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Ivan Fyodorovich Lisitsyn

bornactivedied
unknown1770s-1780sunknown
one of the two sons of Fyodor Lisitsyn. From their childhood they were engaged in metalworking at their family's factory. In 1778 they made a samovar, and the same year Nazar Lisitsyn registered the first samovar-making factory in Russia. They may not have been the inventors of samovar, but they were the first historically recorded and documented samovar-ma...
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Nazar Fyodorovich Lisitsyn

bornactivedied
unknown1770s-1780sunknown
one of the two sons of Fyodor Lisitsyn. From their childhood they were engaged in metalworking at their family's factory. In 1778 they made a samovar, and the same year Nazar Lisitsyn registered the first samovar-making factory in Russia. They may not have been the inventors of samovar, but they were the first historically recorded and documented samovar-ma...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersWritersScientists

Mikhail Lomonosov

borndied
1711, Nov 81765, Apr 4
a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus and the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov ...
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William Longstreet

borndied
1760 ca1814
an inventor. He made a steamboat and improved the cotton gin. Longstreet patented a valuable improvement in cotton gins, called the “breast roller,” moved by horse power, which entirely superseded the old method. He set up two of his gins in Augusta, which were propelled by steam and worked admirably; but they were destroyed by fire within a week. He nex...
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Cross-listed in WritersPhysicians

Antoine Louis

borndied
1723, Feb 131792, May 20
an 18th-century French surgeon and physiologist. Louis is credited with designing a prototype of the guillotine. For a period of time after its invention, the guillotine was called a louisette. However, it was later named after French physician Joseph Ignace Guillotin (1738–1814), who advocated a more humane method of capital punishment.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Ada Lovelace

aka: Augusta Ada Byron, Ada Gordon, Lady Lovelace
borndied
1815, Dec 101852, Nov 27
an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognise that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and created the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as ...
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Ignacy Lukasiewicz

borndied
1822, Mar 81882, Jan 7
a Polish pharmacist and petroleum industry pioneer who in 1856 built the world's first oil refinery. His achievements included the discovery of how to distill kerosene from seep oil, the invention of the modern kerosene lamp (1853), the introduction of the first modern street lamp in Europe (1853), and the construction of the world's first modern oil well (1...
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