Time: To be left to rise an hour the first time, 3/4 hour the second time; to be baked from 1 to 1-1/4 hour, or baked in one loaf from 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

  1. 1 quartern of flour
  2. 1 large tablespoonful of solid brewer's yeast, or nearly 1 oz. of fresh German yeast
  3. 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 pint of warm milk-and-water.
  • Put the flour into a large earthenware bowl or deep pan
  • With a strong metal or wooden spoon, hollow out the middle; but do not clear it entirely away from the bottom of the pan, as, in that case, the sponge (or leaven, as it was formerly termed) would stick to it, which it ought not to do
  • Take either a large tablespoonful of brewer's yeast which has been rendered solid by mixing it with plenty of cold water, and letting it afterwards stand to settle for a day and night; or nearly an ounce of German yeast
  • Put the yeast into a large basin, and proceed to mix it, so that it shall be as smooth as cream, with 3/4 pint of warm milk-and-water, or with water only; though even a very little milk will much improve the bread
  • Pour the yeast into the hole made in the flour, and stir into it as much of that which lies round it as will make a thick batter, in which there must be no lumps
  • Strew plenty of flour on the top
  • Throw a thick clean cloth over, and set it where the air is warm; but do not place it upon the kitchen fender, for it will become too much heated there
  • Look at it from time to time: when it has been laid for nearly an hour, and when the yeast has risen and broken through the flour, so that bubbles appear in it, you will know that it is ready to be made up into dough
  • Then place the pan on a strong chair, or dresser, or table, of convenient height
  • Pour into the sponge the remainder of the warm milk-and-water
  • Stir into it as much of the flour as you can with the spoon; then wipe it out clean with your fingers, and lay it aside
  • Take plenty of the remaining flour, throw it on the top of the leaven, and begin, with the knuckles of both hands, to knead it well
  • When the flour is nearly all kneaded in, begin to draw the edges of the dough towards the middle, in order to mix the whole thoroughly; and when it is free from flour and lumps and crumbs, and does not stick to the hands when touched, it will be done
  • Cover again with the cloth, and leave it to rise a second time
  • In 3/4 hour look at it, and should it have swollen very much, and begin to crack, it will be light enough to bake
  • Turn it then on to a paste-board or very clean dresser, and with a large sharp knife divide it in two
  • Make it up quickly into loaves, and dispatch it to the oven: make one or two incisions across the tops of the loaves, as they will rise more easily if this be done
  • If baked in tins or pans, rub them with a tiny piece of butter laid on a piece of clean paper, to prevent the dough from sticking to them
  • All bread should be turned upside down, or on its side, as soon as it is drawn from the oven: if this be neglected, the under part of the loaves will become wet and blistered from the steam, which cannot then escape from them.

  • To make the dough without setting a sponge: merely mix the yeast with the greater part of the warm milk-and-water, and wet up the whole of the flour at once after a little salt has been stirred in, proceeding exactly, in every other respect, as in the directions just given. As the dough will soften in the rising, it should be made quite firm at first, or it will be too lithe by the time it is ready for the oven.

    Source: The Book of Household Management by Isabella Beeton (1859)

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