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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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Lazzaro Tavarone

borndied
15591631
an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance and Mannerist period, active mainly in his native Genoa and in Spain. He was the pupil of the painter Luca Cambiasi. Tavarone accompanied Cambiaso to Spain in 1583, and helped decorate the Escorial for the Spanish King, including the chaotic battle painting of Battle of La Higueruela. He returned to Genoa in 1594, w...
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Tawaraya Sotatsu

bornactivedied
unknown1625 caunknown
a Japanese artist and also the co-founder of the Rimpa school of Japanese painting. Sotatsu began to work as a fan-painter in Kyoto. Later, he rose to work for the court as a producer of fine decorated papers for calligraphy. He was highly influenced by Kyoto’s courtly culture. Sotatsu met the great designer and calligrapher Hon'ami Koetsu, and painted un...
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Levina Teerlinc

borndied
15151576
a Flemish Renaissance miniaturist who served as a painter to the English court of Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Her documented works include paintings presented as gifts to the sovereign at the New Year including an image of the Trinity for Mary I in 1553. Howe...
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Abraham van den Tempel

borndied
16221672
a Dutch Golden Age painter. He probably learned painting from his father, also a painter, but who died when he was still quite young. He became master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1657 and in 1659 he was chartermaster.
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Antonio Tempesta

borndied
15551630
an Italian painter and engraver, whose art acted as a point of connection between Baroque Rome and the culture of Antwerp. His favourite subjects were battles, cavalcades, and processions. He relocated to Rome, where he associated with artists from the Habsburg Netherlands, which may have led to his facility with landscape painting.
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Jan Tengnagel

borndied
15841635
a Flemish draughtsman and painter. Tengnagel was born and died in Amsterdam, but traveled and lived in Rome. He painted mainly biblical and other religious works.
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Abraham Teniers

borndied
16291670
a member of the Flemish artist family Teniers who specialized in genre paintings of villages, inns and monkey scenes. Abraham Teniers is mainly known for his genre scenes which depict themes and are executed in a style not dissimilar to those of his father and brother David who are his presumed teachers.
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David Teniers III

borndied
16381685
a Flemish painter who was born in Antwerp, the son of David Teniers the Younger. David Teniers III painted in the style of his more celebrated father.
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David Teniers the Elder

borndied
15821649
a Flemish painter, born at Antwerp. Though his ambition led him at times to try his skill in large religious, historical and mythological compositions, his claim to fame depends chiefly on his landscapes and paintings of peasants carousing, of kermesse scenes and the like, which are marked by a healthy sense of humour, and which are not infrequently confused...
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David Teniers the Younger

borndied
16101690
a Flemish artist born in Antwerp, the son of David Teniers the Elder. His son David Teniers III and his grandson David Teniers IV were also painters. His wife Anna, née Anna Breughel, was the daughter of Jan Brueghel the Elder and the granddaughter of Pieter Bruegel the Elder.
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Gerard ter Borch the Elder

borndied
15831662
a Dutch Golden Age painter. According to Arnold Houbraken, who referred to him as Gerard Terburg's father, he was a good painter who had spent many years in Rome and who was the first teacher of his more famous son. According to the RKD, he was the pupil of P...
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Gerard ter Borch the Younger

aka: Gerard Terburg
borndied
1617, Dec1681, Dec 8
a Dutch genre painter who lived in the Dutch Golden Age. He received an excellent education from his father Gerard ter Borch the Elder, also an artist, and developed his talent very early. Ter Borch is a significant painter of genre subjects. He is known for his rendering of texture in draperies, for example in The Letter and in The Gallant Conversation, eng...
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Hendrick ter Brugghen

aka: Terbrugghen
borndied
15881629, Nov 1
a painter at the start of Dutch Golden Age painting and a leading member of the Dutch followers of Caravaggio – the so-called Utrecht Caravaggisti. Along with Gerrit van Hondhorst and Dirck van Baburen, Ter Brugghen was one of the most important Dutch painters t...
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Augustinus Terwesten

borndied
16491711
a 17th-century painter from the northern Netherlands specialized in portraits, architectural, and historical themes. In Rome he became a member of the painters' circle known as the Bentvueghels, where he earned the nickname "Patrysvogel", or partridge, after the story of Perdix by Ovid. He went back to the Hague via France and England, and was gone for a tot...
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Anna Dorothea Therbusch

aka: Anna Dorothea Lisiewski
borndied
1721, Jul 231782, Nov 9
a prominent Rococo painter born in the Kingdom of Prussia. About 200 of her works survive, and she painted at least eighty-five verified portraits. Anna Dorothea married Berlin innkeeper Ernst Friedrich Therbusch and gave up painting until around 1760 in order to help her husband in the restaurant. Not until her spousal obligations were discharged did she ab...
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Jeremiah Theus

borndied
17161774
a Swiss-born American painter, primarily of portraits. He was active mainly around Charleston, South Carolina, in which city he remained almost without competition for the bulk of his career. Theus typically confined himself to uncomplicated compositions, and the bulk of his portraits are bust-length works, approximately thirty by twenty-five inches at their...
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Jan Philip van Thielen

borndied
16181667
a Flemish painter who specialized in flower pieces and garland paintings. He was a regular collaborator with leading Flemish and Dutch figure painters of his time. Van Thielen was the most popular flower painter in Flanders.
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Maria Theresia van Thielen

borndied
1640, May 71706
a Flemish Baroque painter. She learned flower painting from their father, Jan Philip van Thielen. Maria's work is in the same style as her father, and probably much of her work has been attributed to him.
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Pieter Thijs

borndied
16241677
a Flemish Baroque painter of portraits as well as religious and history paintings, whose work was heavily influenced by the courtly and elegant style of Anthony van Dyck. He gained a reputation for large family portraits. His portraits followed the style of van Dyck in the eloquence of the hands and the meticulous execution of the reflections on the shimmeri...
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Leonard Thiry

borndied
15001550
a Flemish Renaissance painter. He was born in Deventer and but was trained in Antwerp as an engraver and painter who worked in Paris with the master of the Médaillons Historiques. He is registered in Rome in 1530, in Antwerp in 1533, and in Fontainebleau from 1535 onwards. He is considered a member of the School of Fontainebleau. He died in Antwerp.
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Cross-listed in MilitaryInventorsScientists

Benjamin Thompson

aka: Count Rumford
borndied
1753, Mar 261814, Aug 21
an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. He served as lieutenant-colonel of the King's American Dragoons, part of the British Loyalist forces, during the American Revolutionary War. After the end of the war he moved to London, where his administ...
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Cephas Thompson

borndied
17751856
a successful, self-taught, early nineteenth-century portrait painter in the United States, who was born, died, and lived most of his life in Middleborough, Massachusetts. Although Thompson lived most of his life in Middleborough, he produced portraits throughout New England and from 1800-25 also made annual trips to the south during the winter months to pain...
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James Thornhill

borndied
16751734
an English painter of historical subjects working in the Italian baroque tradition. He was responsible for some large-scale schemes of murals, including the "Painted Hall" at the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, the paintings on the inside of the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, and works at Chatsworth House and Wimpole Hall.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Pellegrino Tibaldi

aka: Pellegrino di Tibaldo de Pellegrini
bornactivedied
15271542-15921592/1596
an Italian mannerist architect, sculptor, and mural painter.who spread the style of Italian Mannerist painting in Spain during the late 16th century. His first documented painting was likely as at 15 years of age, a Marriage of Saint Catherine. In 1561, he met Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, who employed him in Milan mostly as architect in the nearly endless task o...
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Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

aka: Gianbattista, Giambattista, Giovan Battista
borndied
16961770
an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice. He was prolific, and worked not only in Italy, but also in Germany and Spain. Successful from the beginning of his career, he has been described by Michael Levey as "the greatest decorative painter of eighteenth-century Europe, as well as its most able craftsman."
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Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo

borndied
17271804
an Italian painter and printmaker in etching. His painting style developed after the death of his father in 1770, at which time he returned to Venice, and worked there as well as in Genoa and Padua. His painting, though keeping the decorative influence of his father, moved from its spacial fancy and began to take a more realistic depiction. His portraits and...
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Jan Baptist Tijssens the Younger

borndied
16571723+
a Flemish painter mainly known for his 'guardroom scenes' and still lifes. He was also active as an art dealer. He is mainly known for his genre scenes and still lifes but also painted mythological and Christian religious scenes. His still lifes are mainly still lifes of armour in addition to a few hunting pieces. He was specialized in 'guardroom scenes', a ...
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Gillis van Tilborch

borndied
16251678
a Flemish painter who worked in various genres including portraits, 'low-life' and elegant genre paintings and paintings of picture galleries. He became the keeper of the picture collection of the governor of the Habsburg Netherlands and travelled in England where he painted group portraits.
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Tintoretto

aka: Jacopo Comin, Jacopo Robusti, Il Furioso, Il Tintoretto
borndied
15181594
an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School. Tintoretto scarcely ever travelled out of Venice. He loved all the arts and as a youth played the lute ...
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Johann Friedrich August Tischbein

borndied
1750, Mar 91812, Jun 21
a German painter. He was the most notable painter from the second generation of the Tischbein family of portrait painters and was known as the Leipziger Tischbein (the Tischbein from Leipzig). He was the son of the theatre painter Johann Valentin Tischbein and the cousin of Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein.
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Johann Heinrich Tischbein

borndied
1722, Oct 31789, Aug 22
one of the most respected European painters in the 18th century and an important member of the Tischbein dynasty of German painters, which spanned four generations. His work consisted primarily of portraits of the nobility, mythology scenes, and historical paintings. For his mythology paintings he mostly resorted to models of the highest aristocracy.
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Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein

borndied
1751, Feb 151828, Feb 26
a German painter. He was a descendant of an artist family. Like many contemporary colleagues, he moved to Rome for some years. During his first stay in Rome (1779–1781) his style changed from Rococo to Neoclassicism. He painted landscapes, historical scenes and still lifes. From 1808, Tischbein was a painter at the court of Oldenburg in Northern Germany. H...
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Johann Jacob Tischbein

borndied
1725, Feb 211791, Aug 22/23
a German painter of the Tischbein family, known as the Lübecker Tischbein. He learned first in Kassel the wallpaper painting, but also created paintings. Tischbein married a daughter of the painter Johann Dietrich Lilly. He operated out of Hamburg and from 1775, in Lübeck.
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Johann Valentin Tischbein

borndied
1715, Dec 111768, Apr 24
a German painter of the Tischbein family. He was born in Kloster Haina, and is most notable as a court and theatre painter and the father of Johann Friedrich August Tischbein. He died, aged 52, in Hildburghausen.
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Titian

aka: Tiziano Vecelli, Tiziano Vecellio, da Cadore
borndied
1489 ca1576
an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto, Republic of Venice). Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the appli...
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Lodewijk Toeput

borndied
15501605
a Mannerist landscape painter active in Italy. Toeput was born in Antwerp. According to Karel van Mander, who listed him as one of two painters from Northern Europe whom he met in Venice, he was a good poet (rederijker) as well as a painter; van Mander thought he came from Mechelen. Van Mander listed him with Dirck de Vries, a painter of kitchen pieces and f...
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Jacob Toorenvliet

borndied
16401719
a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works. Torenvliet was active in a number of different cities throughout his career, mainly in Italy and the Netherlands. He was in Vienna in 1663, and in Rome for a portrait commission in 1669. From 1670 to 1673 they lived in Venice, making another trip to Rome in 1671, where Torenvliet became a member of the Bentvueghels....
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Alonso Miguel de Tovar

borndied
16781758
a Spanish baroque painter, appointed court painter by Philip V in 1723. His own portraits include Portrait of a Young Girl (1732), now in Meiningen, at Schloss Elisabethenburg. In 1733 he travelled with the court when it returned to Madrid, and he may have worked as an assistant to Louis-Michel van Loo. Tovar also probably painted the theme of the Holy Sheph...
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Francis Towne

borndied
1739/401816
a British watercolour landscape painter. In 1759 he won a design prize from the Society of Arts, and studied for a while at St Martin’s Lane Academy. In 1763 Towne was employed by a coach painter called Thomas Watson in Long Acre, and went to Exeter on business. He had already begun painting in oils and also taught drawing, and now he began to accept commi...
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Luis Tristan

aka: Tristán
borndied
15861624
a Spanish painter. Tristán was born and died in Toledo. He became an assistant of El Greco between 1603 and 1607; Tristán's later works were influenced by his master. One of his most important paintings is an altar image in the church of Yepes (1616) as well as The Adoration of the Magi (now at the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest), San Luis repartiendo limos...
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Cross-listed in Performers

Cornelis Troost

borndied
16961750
an 18th-century actor and painter from Amsterdam. Troost was trained as an actor and married the actress Susanna Maria van der Duyn, but became a pupil of Arnold Boonen and gave up his career for painting in 1723. He is primarily remembered for his works depicting scenes from the Amsterdam Theatre (he also made theatre decorations for plays) and daily life o...
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Wouter Johannes van Troostwijk

borndied
17821810
a 19th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands. He was born in Amsterdam. According to the RKD he entered the Amsterdam drawing academy in 1803 where he took drawing lessons from Anthonie Andriessen and painting lessons from his brother Jurriaen Andriessen (the father of Amsterdam draughtsman Christiaan Andriessen). From 1805 until his death he was con...
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Benjamin Trott

bornactivedied
unknown1791-18411843
Benjamin Trott, thought to have been born in Boston, ranks with Edward Greene Malbone and Charles Fraser as one of America’s best miniaturists. During a long career that spanned from 1791 to 1841, Trott worked along the eastern seaboard from Boston to Charleston. In 1793 he settled in Philadelphia to make watercolor miniatures on ivory of Gilbert Stuart’...
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Francois de Troy

aka: François
borndied
16451730
a French painter and engraver who became principal painter to King James II in exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Director of the Académie Royale de peinture et de sculpture. Troy's early known works include tapestry designs for Madame de Montespan, one of the many mistresses of more
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Constant Troyon

borndied
18101865
a French painter, was born in Sèvres, near Paris, where his father was connected with the famous manufactory of porcelain. Troyon was an animal painter of the first rank, and was closely associated with the artists who painted around Barbizon. The technical qualities of his methods of painting are most masterly; his drawing is excellent, and his composition...
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John Trumbull

borndied
1756.Jun 61843, Nov 10
an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary War and was notable for his historical paintings. His Declaration of Independence (1817) was used on the reverse of the two-dollar bill. As a soldier in the American Revolutionary War, Trumbull rendered a particular service at Boston by sketching plans of the British works. Trumbull completed...
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J.M.W. Turner

aka: Joseph Mallord William Turner
borndied
17751851
an English Romanticist landscape painter. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting. He is commonly known as "...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Lancelot-Theodore Turpin de Crisse

aka: Lancelot-Théodore Turpin de Crissé
borndied
1782, Jul 91859, May 15
a French writer and painter. His most familiar works are landscapes with structures, usually set in Italy. His father was Colonel Henri Roland Lancelot Turpin de Crissé, an amateur painter of some note. The family was financially ruined by the Revolution and had to flee Paris, but he was able to finish his studies in Switzerland and Italy, thanks to the pat...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Carl Marcus Tuscher

borndied
1705, Jun 11751, Jan 6
a German-born Danish polymath: portrait painter, printmaker, architect, and decorator of the Baroque period. In Italy besides painting he lay now also to the art of building and made drawings for several churches and palaces, his projects for church buildings earned him a Papal Knight's Cross. In London he painted a portrait of the family of instrument-maker...
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