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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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Carl Engel von der Rabenau

borndied
18171870
a German painter, was born at Londorf, and died at Rödelheim, today part of Frankfurt am Main. The Darmstadt Gallery has a View of the Studio of the Sculptor Scholl, by him. Another painting Family Portrait of Councillor Debus from 1840 was added to the museum's collection, donated by the Museumsverein of Darmstadt in 2011.
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Sir Henry Raeburn

borndied
17561823
a Scottish portrait painter and Scotland's first significant portrait painter since the Union to remain based in Scotland. He served as Portrait Painter to King George IV in Scotland. Examples of his earlier portraiture include a bust of Mrs Johnstone of Baldovie and a three-quarter-length of Dr James Hutton, works which, if somewhat timid and tentative in h...
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Denis Auguste Marie Raffet

borndied
18041860
a French illustrator and lithographer. He was a student of Nicolas Toussaint Charlet, and was a retrospective painter of the Empire. Raffet's chief works were his lithographs of the Napoleonic campaigns, from Egypt to Waterloo, vigorous designs that are inspired by ardent patriotic enthusiasm.
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Francesco Raibolini

aka: Francia
borndied
1450 ca1517
an Italian painter, goldsmith, and medallist from Bologna, who was also director of the city mint. His major surviving paintings are altarpieces, mostly images of the Virgin and saints. He may have trained with Marco Zoppo and was first mentioned as a painter in 1486. His earliest known work is the Felicini Madonna, which is signed and dated 1494.
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Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Rama II

aka: Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai
borndied
1767, Feb 241824, Jul 21
the second monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1809 to 1824. In 1809, Itsarasunthon succeeded his father Rama I, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Loetlanaphalai the King of Siam. His reign was largely peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Loetlanaphalai was patron to a n...
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Cristobal Ramirez

aka: Cristóbal Ramírez
bornactivedied
unknown1560s1577
a Spanish painter and illuminator of manuscripts for King Philip II of Spain. He was a native of Valencia, and did most of his work in his native city; he is known to have been active in 1566. Returning to el Escorial. He died there, leaving his daughter and two sons under the king's protection. Among the books illuminated by this artist were the Oficio di d...
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Cristobal Ramirez de Arellano

aka: Christopher
bornactivedied
unknown1616-16441644
a Spanish Baroque painter active in Toledo. A painter of a small number of works signed in which a not inconsiderable quality is appreciated, his personality is little known and problematic. Angulo Iñiguez and Perez Sanchez assumed that it could be the same artist that signing "Xristofol ramires' he enrolled in 1616 at the College of Painters of Valencia , ...
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Juan Ramirez de Arellano

aka: Ramírez
borndied
17251782
a Spanish Baroque painter. Ramírez was a member of a family of artists from Aragon. Among the few known works by his hand, include the Virgin and Child with St. Anne (National Museum of Romanticism and sketch in the Museo del Prado) which, despite being signed J. Ra z, was claimed in the past the young Francisco Goya. He also painted a portrait of Charles ...
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Allan Ramsay [2]

borndied
1713, Oct 131784, Aug 10
a prominent Scottish portrait-painter. Among his most satisfactory productions are some of his earlier ones, such as the full-length of the duke of Argyll, and the numerous bust-portraits of Scottish gentlemen and their ladies which he executed before settling in London. They are full of both grace and individuality; the features show excellent draughtsmansh...
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Cross-listed in Inventors

John Goffe Rand

borndied
18011873
lived and worked in Boston, London, and New York as a portrait painter and inventor. Rand invented and patented the first collapsible artist's paint tube. The tin tube allowed unused oil paint to be stored and used later without drying out. In 1841, Rand patented the invention with the United States Patent Office. He went on to patent several later improvem...
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William Ranney

borndied
1813, May 91857, Nov 18
a 19th-century American painter, known for his depictions of Western life, sporting scenery, historical subjects and portraiture. In his 20-year career, he made 150 paintings and 80 drawings, and is considered the first major genre painter to work in New Jersey, and one of the most important pre-Civil War American painters.
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Cross-listed in Architects

Raphael

aka: Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino
bornactivedied
1483, Mar 28/Apr 61490s-15201520, Apr 6
an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the tra...
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Jerg Ratgeb

borndied
1480 ca1526
a German painter and contemporary of Dürer. Around the turn of the 15th to 16th century, he appears to have spent time in Italy, where he came in contact with Italian Renaissance art and with the recently developed use of perspective in painting. After returning to Germany, he settled in Heilbronn. In 1510, he painted the altar of Saint Barbara in the churc...
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Jean-Baptiste Regnault

borndied
1754, Oct 91829, Nov 12
a French painter. Besides various small pictures and allegorical subjects, Regnault was also the author of many large historical paintings; and his school, which reckoned amongst its chief attendants Guérin, Crepin, Lafitte, Blondel, Robert Lefèvre, Henriette Lorimier and Alexandre Menjaud, was for a long while the rival in influence of that of David.
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Nicolas Regnier

aka: Régnier, Niccolò Renieri, Niccolo Renieri, Niccolò Renieri, Nicolaas Regnier, Nicolaas Renier, Nicolas Renier, Nicolas Renier
borndied
15911667
a Flemish painter and art collector, active in Italy during the Baroque period. Born in Maubeuge, he initially apprenticed in Antwerp. It is unclear if Régnier reached Rome in 1615 or 1621–1625. He appears to have met Bartolomeo Manfredi, of whom, Joachim von Sandrart calls him a follower. Régnier served as official painter to Marchese Vincenzo Giustinia...
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Tibout Regters

borndied
1710, Dec 241768, Jan 26
an 18th-century portrait painter from the Northern Netherlands. Regters was born in Dordrecht. According to his biographer Jan van Gool, his parents moved when he was two years old to Arnhem, where he grew up. He was first sent to learn painting from Ten Haeg, and then moved to Rotterdam at age 20 to study for two years with Meyer. He then moved to Amsterdam...
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Friedrich Rehberg

borndied
1758, Oct 221835, Aug 20
a German portrait and historical painter. In 1791 he went to Naples and made a series of drawings of Lady Hamilton posing as classical statuary, which were published in book form in 1794. In 1813 he went to London, and, in 1814, painted an allegory of Napoleon's fall. In the same year he returned for a time to Rome, but eventually settled at Munich, where he...
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Pieter Jan van Reijsschoot

borndied
17021772
Born in Leiden; Died in Amsterdam


Wenzel Lorenz Reiner

borndied
1686/89, Aug 81743, Oct 9
a Baroque painter who lived and died in Prague, Bohemia. He received his first training from his father Josef Reiner, who worked as a sculptor in Prague. Subsequently, he was student of the painter Petr Brandl and Michael Wenzel Halbax (Halwachs) and after 1705 by Anton Ferdinand Schweiger. In his early years he established himself a painter's workshop and ...
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Johann Christian Reinhart

borndied
1761, Jan 241847, Jun 9
a German painter and engraver. He was one of the founders, along with Joseph Anton Koch, of German romantic classical landscape painting. Reinhart's originality lay not so much in radical inventions but rather in new combinations of known styles, themes, and patterns. By skillfully merging these with a noble theme, Reinhart revitalised the heroic landscape. ...
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Rembrandt

aka: Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
borndied
1606, Jul 151669, Oct 4
a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baro...
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Johann Adam Remele

borndied
unknown1740
a German court painter who was active in Würzburg. Remele worked in various Franconian monasteries. His paintings in the staircase and the Kaisersaal at are known Cistercian monastery Ebrach and especially the ceiling frescoes in two halls of the monastery Bronnbach . The former refectory , now called Bernhard Hall is, with scenes from the life of St. Berna...
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Guido Reni

borndied
1575, Nov 41642, Aug 18
an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. Born in Bologna into a family of musicians, Guido Reni was the son of Daniele Reni and Ginevra de’ Pozzi. As a child of nine, he was apprenticed under the Bolognese studio of Denis Calvaert. Soon after, he was joined in that studio by Albani and Domenichino. He may also have trained with a painter by the name of Fe...
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Moritz Retzsch

borndied
1779, Dec 91857, Jun 11
a German painter, draughtsman, and etcher. Retzsch was born in the Saxon capital Dresden. He joined the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts in 1798 under Cajetan Toscani and Józef Grassi, later working autodidactically, copying the famous pictures of the Gemäldegalerie, among them a copy of the Sixtinian Madonna. He was made a member of the Academy in 1817 and pr...
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Marinus van Reymerswale

aka: Marinus de Seeu
borndied
1490 ca1546 ca
a Dutch painter. He studied at the University of Leuven (1504) and was trained as a painter in Antwerp (1509). His name is known from a small number of signed panels. A number of other paintings are attributed to Marinus on stylistic grounds. His oeuvre consists of a relatively small numbers of themes only, mostly adapted from Quentin Massys and Albrecht Dü...
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Sir Joshua Reynolds

borndied
1723, Jul 161792, Feb 23
an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits. He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was a founder and first president of the Royal Academy of Arts, and was knighted by George III in 1769. Reynolds was born in Plympton, Devon, the third son of the Rev. Samuel Reynolds, mas...
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Francisco Ribalta

aka: Ribaltá, de Ribalta
borndied
1565, Jun 21628, Jan 12
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, mostly of religious subjects. He was born in Solsona, Lleida. Although his first apprenticeship was apparently with Navarrete, who worked for years in the Escorial, Ribalta's earliest work (a Cruxifixion of 1582) was signed in Madrid. After his years in Madrid, Ribalta was to settle as an artist in Valencia. He became...
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Juan Ribalta

borndied
15971628 Oct
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. He was born and died in Valencia. His father, Francisco Ribalta, was a famous painter, active in the style of Caravaggio. Some sources said he was born in Madrid and later moved to Valencia. His mother Inés Pelayo died in 1601. Juan's works and style are similar to that of his father. He later painted Saint Sebastian...
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Juan Antonio Ribera

aka: de Ribera
borndied
1779, May 271860, Jun 15
a Spanish painter. Ribera was born in Madrid, and a student of Francisco Bayeu y Subías, and probably had occasion to meet Francisco Goya. He participated in 1802 in the annual competition of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando with a copy of Raphael's Pasmo de Sicilia. He won a prize, which allowed him to be awarded a scholarship in Paris whe...
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Jusepe de Ribera

aka: José, Lo Spagnoletto
borndied
1591, Jan 121652, Sep 2
a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy. In his earlier style, founded sometimes on Caravaggio and sometimes on the wholly diverse method of Correggio, the study of Spanish and Venetian masters may be traced. Along with his massive and predominating shadows...
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Carlos Luis de Ribera y Fieve

borndied
18151891, Apr 14
a Spanish painter, son of Juan Antonio Ribera. Carlos Luis studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. His talent was recognized at the age of fifteen in 1830, when he won first prize in the Academy's contest for his portrait painting Vasco Núñez de Balboa. He also received a pension, which allowed him to pursue his higher studies in Rome an...
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Theodule Ribot

aka: Théodule
borndied
1823, Aug 81891, Sep 11
a French realist painter and printmaker. He was born in Saint-Nicolas-d'Attez, and studied at the École des Arts et Métiers de Châlons before moving to Paris in 1845. There he found work decorating gilded frames for a mirror manufacturer. Although he received a measure of artistic training while working as an assistant to Auguste-Barthélémy Glaize, Ribo...
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Sebastiano Ricci

borndied
1659, Aug 11734, May 15
an Italian painter of the late Baroque school of Venice. About the same age as Piazzetta, and an elder contemporary of Tiepolo, he represents a late version of the vigorous and luminous Cortonesque style of grand manner fresco painting. He was born in Belluno. In 1678, a youthful indiscretion led to an unwanted pregnancy, and ultimately to a greater scandal,...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Jonathan Richardson

borndied
1667, Jan 121745, May 28
an English artist, collector of drawings, and writer on art, working almost entirely as a portrait-painter in London. Richardson was even more influential as a writer than as a painter according to Samuel Johnson. In 1722, Richardson published with his son, als...
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Henry James Richter

borndied
1772, Mar 81857
an English artist and philosopher. Throughout the 1790s Richter worked mainly as an illustrator, demonstrating skills as both draftsman and engraver; projects included editions of Samuel Richardson's Sir Charles Grandison and Clarissa Harlowe (with others, ...
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Johann Elias Ridinger

borndied
1698, Feb 161767, Apr 10
a German painter, engraver, draughtsman and publisher. He is considered one of the most famous German engravers of animals, particularly horses, hounds and hunting scenes.He began his training in Ulm with the painter Christoph Resch (1701–16), and later studied under Johann Falch (1687–1727) in Augsburg. He learned the art of engraving from Georg Philipp...
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Lluis Rigalt

aka: Lluís
borndied
18141894, Apr 16
a Catalonian landscape painter and graphic artist. He was a quiet and sickly child and was frequently in poor health throughout his life. His first art lessons were with his father at the Escola de la Llotja in Barcelona, then he went to Madrid, where he studied with Jenaro Pérez Villaamil. Despite the instability in Catalonia during the 1830s and 40s, he r...
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Hyacinthe Rigaud

borndied
1659, Jul 181743, Dec 29
a French baroque painter of Catalan origin whose career was based in Paris. Received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1700, he rose to the top of this institution before retiring from it in 1735. Since Rigaud's paintings captured very exact likenesses along with the subject's costumes and background details, his paintings are consider...
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David Rijckaert III

aka: the Younger
borndied
1612, Nov1661, Nov 11
a Flemish painter known for his contribution to genre painting, in particular through his scenes of merry companies and peasants. He enjoyed the patronage of prominent patrons and was a painter to the court of the governor of the Southern Netherlands. David Ryckaert III worked his entire career in Antwerp. His work was very well received and one of his patro...
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Pieter Andreas Rijsbrack

aka: Peter Rysbrack
borndied
1685/901748
a Flemish painter of still lifes and landscapes who was active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He is particularly known for launching the vogue of topographical views of English country houses and gardens. He was the older brother of the sculptor John Michael Rysbrack. He also established a reputation with his topographical landscapes and p...
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Johann Christoph Rincklake

borndied
1764, Oct 191813, Jun 19
a German portrait painter of the Romantic era, with a high standing in international art history. The son of a carpenter, he took an apprenticeship then began training as an artist, studying at Berlin's Akademie der Künste and the painting academies in Vienna, Frankfurt am Main and Düsseldorf, spending a few years in each. He painted portraits of several n...
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Peter Rindisbacher

borndied
1806, Apr 121834, Aug 12/13
a Swiss artist who specialized in watercolors and illustrations dealing with First Nation tribes of mid-Western Canada and the United States, mostly depictions of the Anishinaabe, Cree, and Sioux, usually in group action or genre scenes. He seldom did individual portraits; however, he painted himself into a few interior tipi scenes, usually smoking a pipe. H...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Juan Rizi

borndied
16001681
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. He was born in Madrid. He was a brother of Francisco Rizi, and a pupil of Juan Bautista Mayno. In 1628 he entered the Benedictine Order, studied in Salamanca, and became Abbot of the Medina del Campo in Madrid. He painted several works for St. Juan Bautista in Burgos, St. Martin in Madrid, and Monte Cassino in Italy. ...
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Hubert Robert

borndied
1733, May 221808, Apr 15
a French painter, noted for his landscape paintings and capriccio, or semi-fictitious picturesque depictions of ruins. He spent fully eleven years in Rome, a remarkable length of time; after the young artist's official residence at the French Academy in Rome ran out, he supported himself by works he produced for visiting connoisseurs like the abbé de Saint-...
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Louis Leopold Robert

aka: Louis Léopold
borndied
1794, May 131835, Mar 20
a Swiss painter. He was born at La Chaux-de-Fonds (Neuchâtel) in Switzerland, but left his native place with the engraver Jean Girardet at the age of sixteen for Paris. He was on the eve of obtaining the grand prix for engraving when the events of 1815 blasted his hopes, for Neuchâtel was restored to Prussia, and Robert was struck off the list of competito...
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Kshitiz Robertson

borndied
17991895
painter of miniatures


Charles Rochussen

borndied
1814, Aug 11894, Sep 22
a 19th-century painter from Rotterdam, the Netherlands, who was also known as an illustrator and printmaker. While still a child, Charles showed a talent for drawing; between 1831 and 1834 he produced watercolor studies of birds. He worked for a few years in an office before resolving at the age of 22 to turn to painting. In 1837 he enrolled at the academy i...
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Bernhard Rode

borndied
1725, Jul 251797, Jun 28
a Prussian artist and engraver well known for portraying historical scenes and allegorical works. He knew most of the central figures in the Berlin Enlightenment as Friedrich Nicolai and Gotthold Lessing, and the philosophical and political discussions of the Berlin Philosophs informed much of the subject matter of his artistic work. His paintings include se...
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Roelant Roghman

borndied
1627, Mar 141692, Jan 3
a Dutch Golden Age painter, sketcher and engraver. According to Houbraken, he only had one eye, but painted in a rough and ready way, that perhaps was the result of his eyesight. He specialized in landscapes, and in later life became a history buff, working on several prints of old castle ruins and defunct family estates based on drawings he made during trav...
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Bartolome Roman

aka: Bartolomé Román
borndied
1587 ca1647
a Spanish Baroque painter known for his series of archangels. From 1629 there is abundant documentary evidence relating to the painter and the paintings signed by him. A year later Román worked for the Archdiocese of Toledo, in 1634 intervened with other painters in the complex litigation that painters from Madrid faced questions regarding the dignity of th...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Giulio Romano

bornactivedied
1499 ca1520-15461546, Nov 1
an Italian painter and architect. A pupil of Raphael, his stylistic deviations from high Renaissance classicism help define the 16th-century style known as Mannerism. Giulio's drawings have long been treasured by collectors; contemporary prints of them engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi were a significant contribution to the spread of 16th-century Italian styl...
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Gillis Rombouts

borndied
16301672, Feb 25
a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. There is very little information available as the the details of his life. According to the RKD he painted landscapes and beach scenes. He was followed by his son, the painter Salomon Rombouts.
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Jan Rombouts I

aka: Johannes, Rombauts
borndied
1480 ca1535
a Flemish Renaissance painter, glass painter, draftsman, printmaker and glass designer of a religious-themed oeuvre. Jan Rombouts was active in Leuven where he introduced the Renaissance innovations of Bernard van Orley and the Antwerp school. The details of the life of Jan Rombouts are sketchy. He signed his work with the monograms IVR and IANR and was as a...
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Salomon Rombouts

borndied
16551702 ca
a Dutch Golden Age painter. Rombouts was born in Haarlem. According to the RKD he was the son of the landscape painter Gillis Rombouts and, like his father, painted landscapes and beach scenes. His parents had had two sons before him that were also named Salomon who died in infancy, leading to some confusion in the literature about his date of birth being 16...
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Theodoor Rombouts

borndied
1597, Jul 21637, Sep 14
a Flemish painter who is mainly known for his Caravaggesque genre scenes depicting lively dramatic gatherings as well as religiously themed works. He is considered to be the primary and most original representative of Flemish Caravaggism. He painted mainly profane works as well as some altar pieces and civil commissions. His profane works depict merry compan...
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Jose Romeo

aka: José , Josef
borndied
17011772
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. He was born in Cervera de la Cañada in Aragón. He painted some dark paintings recalling Salvator Rosa. He studied in Zaragoza and was given a scholarship to study in Rome under Agostino Massuci. He returned to Barcelona, then moved to Madrid to become chamber painter for the king Felipe V. He was employed in restori...
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George Romney

borndied
1734, Dec 261802, Nov 15
an English portrait painter. He was the most fashionable artist of his day, painting many leading society figures – including his artistic muse, Emma Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson. He proved to have a natural ability for drawing and making things from wood – including violins (which he played throughout his life). From the age of 15, he was taught ar...
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John Romney

borndied
1785, Jun1863, Feb 1
an English artist in printmaking and watercolour who lived and worked in London and Chester. Much of his work consisted of reproductions of the work of other artists, but he produced some original prints, paintings and drawings. Like the great majority of contemporary printmakers he worked in both engraving and etching, often on the same plate, and descripti...
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Henriette Ronner-Knip

borndied
1821, May 311909, Feb 28
a Dutch-Belgian artist in the Romantic style who is best known for her animal paintings; especially cats. She was born into a family of artists and she received her first lessons from her father, Josephus Augustus Knip, who also gave lessons to her aunt (his youngest sister), Henriëtte Geertruida Knip. Henriette was essentially in charge of the family's fin...
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Cajetan Roos

borndied
16901770
an Italian landscape painter of German descent. According to the RKD he was the son and pupil of Philipp Peter Roos. He signed his name "Rosa", "Gaetano Rosa" and "Gaetano de Rosa". He was the father of the painter Joseph Roos. Like his father and grandfather before him, he is known for Italianate landscapes with streams and cows, though after 1743-1744 he p...
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Johann Heinrich Roos

borndied
1631, Sep 291685, Oct 3
a German Baroque era landscape painter and etcher. Roos specialized in pastoral idylls, idealized landscapes with ancient ruins. He found inspiration in engravings. These pastoral scenes represent the longing of Roos for harmony between men and animals with nature. Among biblical, historical and genre scenes, Roos preferred subjects involving animals: the sh...
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Philipp Peter Roos

aka: Rosa di Tivoli
borndied
16551706
a German Baroque painter, active in and near Rome from 1677 onward. He was born in Frankfurt am Main and learned to paint from his father, the landscape painter Johann Heinrich Roos. He was the brother of the painter Johann Melchior Roos, who briefly worked with him in Italy. As a young man, he painted in the style of his father. He was called to paint for C...
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Theodor Roos

borndied
16381698
a German Baroque painter of historical scenes. His family left their home in the Palatinate c. 1637, fleeing the Thirty Years War, and moved to Amsterdam around 1640. There, Roos trained with his brother Johann Heinrich Roos during the years (1647–51) in history painting with Guilliam Dujardin (1597–after 1647), in landscape with Cornelis de Bie and in p...
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Nicolaas Johannes Roosenboom

borndied
18051880
a Flemish landscape painter, naval painter, genre painter, etcher and lithographer. There are very little other information available about the details of his life.


Camille Roqueplan

borndied
1802/03, Feb 181855, Sep 29
a French Romantic painter of landscapes, genre and historical scenes. From an early age, he displayed an aptitude for drawing, and would often correct his classmates. Around the age of eighteen, he began to take painting lessons. Oddly enough, when his father encouraged him to take up art as a profession, Camille hesitated because he wanted it to remain a pl...
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Salvator Rosa

borndied
1615, Jun 20/Jul 211673, Mar 15
an Italian Baroque painter, poet, and printmaker, who was active in Naples, Rome, and Florence. As a painter, he is best known as "unorthodox and extravagant" as well as being a "perpetual rebel" and a proto-Romantic. He began painting haunting landscapes, overgrown with vegetation, or jagged beaches, mountains, and caves. Rosa was among the first to paint "...
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Johannes Rosierse

borndied
1818, Sep 111901, Nov 16
a Dutch painter. He was mainly known for his interiors with figures, mostly by candle or lamp light. Rosierse was born in Dordrecht and, except for a brief trip to Leeuwarden, lived the rest of his life and work in the city. At first he was a clerk in a shoemaking, but later he chose painting as a career and he became a student of Machiel Versteeg and John B...
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Cosimo Rosselli

borndied
14391507
an Italian painter of the Quattrocento, active mainly in his birthplace of Florence, but also Lucca earlier in his career, and from 1480 in the Sistine Chapel in Rome, where he painted some of the large fresco panels on the side walls. Despite being roughly the same age (slightly older in each case) as Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino and Domenico Ghirland...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Dante Gabriel Rossetti

borndied
1828, May 121882, Apr 9
an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, and was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. His work also influenced the European...
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Francesco de' Rossi

aka: Francesco Salviati, Il Salviati, Francesco Rossi, Cecchino del Salviati.
borndied
15101563
a Florentine Mannerist painter who lived and worked mainly in Florence, but also produced several works in Rome. He frescoed an Annunciation in San Francesco a Ripa (1533–35). His mature style has mannerist contortions and crowded scenes similar to the output of Giulio Romano. In 1538 he joined Jacopino del Conte in completing a fresco of the Visitation fo...
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Peter F. Rothermel

borndied
1817, Jul 81895, Aug 15
an American painter. He had a common-school education, and studied land surveying. At age 20, he moved to Philadelphia and became a sign painter. Then at age 22, he took up the study of art. He was instructed in drawing by John Rubens Smith, and subsequently became a pupil of Bass Otis in Philadelphia. His 1844 work De Soto discovering the Mississippi was pu...
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Jacob Rotius

borndied
1644, Sep 111681
a Dutch Golden Age painter. According to Houbraken he was a pupil of Jan Davidsz de Heem, whose style he successfully copied. He earned a good living as a flower painter, but died relatively young due to his "melancholy attitude". According to the RKD he was the son of Jan Albertsz Rotius, and specialized in flower and vegetable still life paintings.
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Jan Albertsz Rotius

borndied
1624, Oct 201666, Oct
a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter, and father (and teacher) of the flower painter Jacob Rotius. Rotius's schutterstukken were painted quite soon after similar paintings in Amsterdam were completed by van der Helst and Govert Flink. Comparative study shows he was influenced by these paintings, and perhaps was encouraged to achieve similar effects by his pat...
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Hans Rottenhammer

borndied
15641625, Aug 14
a German painter. He specialized in highly finished paintings on a small scale. In Venice he gained a reputation for small highly finished cabinet paintings on copper, of religious and mythological subjects, combining German and Italian elements of style. In particular he combines the landscape tradition of the North with the compositional and figure styles ...
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Johann Michael Rottmayr

bornactivedied
1656, Dec 111689-17301730, Oct 25
an Austrian painter. He was the first notable baroque painter north of Italy. Rottmayr was born in Laufen an der Salzach, Salzburg, now Germany. Along with his Laufen-born contemporary, Hans Adam Weissenkircher, he received his education from Johann Carl Loth in Venice. Just as Weissenkircher had brought the Italian Renaissance to the southern Alps and the c...
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Theodore Rousseau

aka: Théodore
borndied
1812, Apr 151867, Dec 22
a French painter of the Barbizon school. Rousseau's pictures are always grave in character, with an air of exquisite melancholy. They are well finished when they profess to be completed pictures, but Rousseau spent so much time developing his subjects that his absolutely completed works are comparatively few. He left many canvases with parts of the picture r...
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Jakob Wilhelm Roux

borndied
1771, Apr 131830, Aug 22
a German painter and draughtsman. Roux was born to a Huguenot family. He studied mathematics for a time at the University of Jena. He later enrolled in the university of Christian Immanuel Oehme where his interests and classes turned to the arts. It was while studying there that he met the surgeon Justus Christian Loder, with whom he collaborated with. Roux ...
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Thomas Rowlandson

borndied
1756, Jul 131827, Apr 21
an English artist and caricaturist. Rowlandson was educated at the school of Dr Barvis in Soho Square, then "an academy of some celebrity," where one of his classmates was Richard Burke, son of the politician Edmund Burke. As a schoolboy, Rowlandson "drew humourous characters of his master and many of his scholars before he was ten years old," covering the m...
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Arnold Frans Rubens

borndied
16871719
a Flemish Baroque painter who specialized in cabinet pictures of landscapes and battle scenes. His work consists mainly of cabinet paintings that depict landscapes and battle scenes. Many of his landscapes are river landscapes or seascapes. The battles are often placed in antiquity or an oriental setting. He also copied paintings of his famous namesake Peter...
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Peter Paul Rubens

borndied
1577, Jun 281640, May 30
a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobi...
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Joaquin Bernardo Rubert

aka: Joaquín
borndied
17721817
a Spanish painter, active in Valencia and mainly painting still life floral arrangements. There is little other information available about the details of his life.
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Georg Philipp Rugendas

borndied
1666, Nov 271742
a battle and military genre painter and engraver born in the Free Imperial City of Augsburg in what is now Bavaria, Germany. During the siege and pillage of Augsburg in 1703, he exposed himself to great danger by drawing, in the midst of the engagements, the scenes around him. The six etchings resulting from this are perhaps the most meritorious part of his ...
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Jacob Isaacksz van Ruisdael

borndied
1629 ca1682, Mar 10
a Dutch painter, draughtsman, and etcher. He is generally considered the pre-eminent landscape painter of the Dutch Golden Age, a period of great wealth and cultural achievement when Dutch painting became highly popular. Prolific and versatile, Ruisdael depicted a wide variety of landscape subjects. From 1646 he painted Dutch countryside scenes of remarkable...
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Alexander Runciman

bornactivedied
1736, Aug 151750-17731785, Oct 4
a Scottish painter of historical and mythological subjects. He was the elder brother of John Runciman, also a painter. After a brief time in London, where in 1772 he exhibited in the Royal Academy, he settled in Edinburgh, and was appointed master of the Trustees' Academy. He was patronised by Sir James Clerk, whose hall at Penicuik House he decorated with a...
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John Runciman

borndied
17441768/69
a Scottish painter known for Biblical and literary scenes. His works include Flight into Egypt and King Lear in the Storm, both in the National Gallery of Scotland. His earliest surviving work is the 1764 etching, Taking-down of the Netherebow Port, Edinburgh, which depicts the demolition of one of Edinburgh's old city gates. In Edinburgh he produced a numbe...
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Anna Ruysch

borndied
16661741
a Dutch Golden Age flower painter. When Anna was an infant the Ruysch family moved from The Hague to Amsterdam. There Frederik Ruysch exhibited anatomical still lifes consisting of insects, flowers, and plants that would become subjects for Anna and Rachel Ruysch. At the age of 15 or 16 Rachel was apprenticed to still life painter Willem van Aelst, and it is...
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Rachel Ruysch

borndied
1664, Jun 31750, Aug 12
a still life painter from the Northern Netherlands who specialized in flowers. She invented her own style and achieved international fame in her lifetime, being followed by Jan van Huysum who took flower painting to another degree of popularity. Due to her long and successful career that spanned over 6 decades, she became the best documented woman painter of...
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Salomon van Ruysdael

borndied
1602 ca1670
a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. He was the uncle of Jacob van Ruisdael. Salomon was known for his landscapes and river scenes, and there are a few fish still life paintings known. Salomon joined the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1623 (as Salomon de Gooyer), and he became a follower of Jan Porcellis and Esaias van de Velde. He travelled from Haarlem to L...
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Martin Ryckaert

aka: Marten, Maerten, Rijckaert
borndied
1587, Dec1631, Oct 11
a Flemish painter who was known for his small, usually imaginary landscapes in an Italianate style. His work mainly depicts imaginary landscapes with forests, often with waterfalls, rocks, ruins, architecture and small human figures. According to the early Dutch biographer Arnold Houbraken, Martin Ryckaert’s work was similar to that of the Antwerp painter ...
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