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John Joseph Abercrombie

borndied
1798, Mar 41877, Jan 3
a career United States Army officer who served in numerous wars, finally reaching the rank of brigadier general during the American Civil War. Abercrombie began his long military career with garrison duty at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, until 1825. He became the adjutant of the 1st U.S. Infantry and was assigned administrative duty at regimental headquarters. He ...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Sultan Agung of Mataram

aka: Adi Prabu Hanyakrakusuma
bornactivedied
15931613-16451645
A skilled soldier, he conquered neighbouring states and expanded and consolidated his kingdom to its greatest territorial and military power. Sultan Agung (literally, "Great Sultan" or "Majestic Sultan") is subject of a substantial amount of literature due to his legacy as a Javanese ruler, a fighter against the incursions of the Dutch East India Company, a ...
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Francisco Antonio de Agurto

aka: Francisco Antonio de Agurto y Salcedo, I Marqués de Gastañaga
borndied
16401702, Nov 2
aristocrat, viceroy and Spanish governor. Invested Marques de Gastañaga in 1676, was governor of the Netherlands of the Habsburg house , from 1685 to 1692, where he was at the head of the Spanish troops at the Battle of Fleurus, 1690. He was unsuccessful in defending Mons against the attack French. He promoted the construction of a royal chapel dedicated to...
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Kopruluzade Fazil Ahmed Pasha

aka: Köprülüzade
borndied
16351676, Nov 3
a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire. He served as a grand vizier from 1661 to 1676 after he inherited the title from his father, Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, the founder of the Köprülü political family. Prior to this appointment, he served as the Ottoman governor of the Da...
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Albert III of Saxony

aka: Duke of Saxony, Albert the Bold, Albert the Courageous
borndied
1443, Jan 271500, Sep 12
a Duke of Saxony. He founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. Regarded as a capable soldier by the emperor, Albert took a prominent part in the campaign against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1487 led an expedition against Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, which failed owing to lack of support on the part of the emperor. In 1488 he wa...
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Prince Albert of Prussia [2]

aka: Frederick Henry Albert
borndied
1809, Oct 41872, Oct 14
a Prussian colonel general. Albert was the fifth son and youngest child of King Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His parents had fled to East Prussia after the occupation of Berlin by Napoleon. Two of Albert's elder brothers were Frederick William IV, King of Prussia from 1840 till 1861, and William I, King of Prussia fro...
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Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

Afonso de Albuquerque

aka: Aphonso, Duke of Goa
bornactivedied
1453 ca1471-15151515, Dec 16
a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror," a statesman, and an empire builder. He is generally considered a military genius, and "probably the greatest naval commander of the age" given his successful strategy. During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the...
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Ramon Alcaraz

aka: Ramón
bornactivedied
unknown1840sunknown
an officer in the Mexican Army who wrote many books about the Mexican-American War, including 1848's Apuntes para la historia de la guerra entre México y los Estados Unidos (which in 1850 Albert C. Ramsey translated into English as The Other Side, or: Notes for the History of the War Between Mexico and the United States, Written in Mexico).
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Cross-listed in Governance

Alfonso II

aka: Alfonso of Aragon
borndied
1448, Nov 41495, Dec 18
King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem. As Duke of Calabria he was a patron of Renaissance poets and builders during his tenure as the heir to the throne of Naples. In 1463, when Alfonso was fifteen, his great-uncle Giovanni Antonio del Balzo Orsini, Prince of Taranto, died, and he obtained some l...
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Muhammad Ali

aka: Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, Mehmet Ali Pasha, Kavalal Mehmet Ali Pasa
borndied
1769, Mar 41849, Aug 2
an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wali, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted....
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Cross-listed in GovernanceWritersCommerce

Ethan Allen

bornactivedied
1737, Jan 101757-17891789, Feb 12
a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with more
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Fadrique Alvarez de Toledo [1]

aka: Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba
borndied
1460 ca1531, Oct 19
a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician. He participated in the conquest of Granada, and already as Duke, he led the Spanish army against the French in Roussillon in 1503. When Ferdinand II as regent of Castilla, decided to invade and conquer the Kingdom of Navarre, supported by a Papal bull, he put the Duke of Alva at the head of his army. Fadriq...
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Fadrique Alvarez de Toledo [2]

aka: Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Duke of Alba
borndied
1537, Nov 211583, Dec 11
a commander in the Spanish army during the Eighty Years' War. Don Fadrique, was commander of the Spanish troops during the most bloody phase of the war in the Netherlands. He was in charge of the Spanish troops that slaughered the populations of Mechelen, Zutphen and Naarden, as well as during the costly Siege of Haarlem. His army failed in the siege of Alkm...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryGovernance

Fernando Alvarez de Toledo

aka: Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Grand Duke of Alba, Iron Duke
borndied
1507, Oct 291582, Dec 11
a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquis of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. His motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He...
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Jeffery Amherst

aka: 1st Baron Amherst
borndied
1717, Jan 291797, Aug 3
an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. Amherst is best known as the architect of Britain's successful campaign to conquer the territory of New France during the Seven Years' War. Under his command, British forces captured the cities of Louisbourg, Quebec City and Montreal, as well as several major fortresses. He was also the...
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John Andre

aka: André
bornactivedied
1750, May 21770-17801780, Oct 2
a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. He was a great favorite in colonial society, both in P...
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Manuel Jose Arce

aka: Manuel José
borndied
1787, Jan 11847, Dec 14
a decorated General and president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1825 to 1829, followed by Francisco Morazán. He strongly opposed the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide. In April 1822 Manuel Arzú, in command of Guatemalan troops supporting Mexico, occupied the cities of Santa Ana, El Salvador, and Sonsonate. On June 3, 1822, Arzú ente...
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Hernando Arias de Saavedra

aka: Hernandarias
borndied
1561, Sep 101634
a soldier and politician of criollo ancestry. He was the first person born in the Americas to become a governor of a European colony in the New World, serving two terms as governor of Governorate of the Río de la Plata, 1597–1599 and 1602–1609, and one of the Governorate of Paraguay 1615–1617.
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Mariano Arista

aka: José Mariano Martín Buenaventura Ignacio Nepomuceno García de Arista Nuez
borndied
1802, Jul 261855, Aug 7
a noted veteran of many of Mexico's nineteenth-century wars. He served as president of Mexico from 15 January 1851 to 6 January 1853. In 1846, Arista was given command of the Army of the North and sent to expel American troops from territory claimed by Mexico in Texas. The resulting engagement ignited the bloody Mexican-American War of 1846–1848. Arista wa...
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Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg

aka: Johann
borndied
15831641, Apr 28
a German general. At different times during the Thirty Years' War, he was a Field Marshal for the Holy Roman Empire and Field Marshal for its opponent the Electorate of Saxony. He also pursued various diplomatic tasks. In 1626, although a Protestant, he was persuaded by Wallenstein to enter into the army of the Holy Roman Empire. he quickly rose to the rank ...
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Benedict Arnold

bornactivedied
1741, Jan 31757-17811801, Jun 14
a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fortifications at West Point, New York (future site of the U.S. Military Academy after 1802), overlooking the cliffs at the Hudson River (upriver from Britis...
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Cross-listed in InventorsPerformers

Philip Astley

bornactivedied
1742, Jan 81759-18141814, Jan 27
an English equestrian, circus owner, and inventor, regarded as being the "father of the modern circus". The circus industry, as a presenter of an integrated entertainment experience that includes music, domesticated animals, acrobats, and clowns, traces its heritage to Astley's Amphitheatre, a riding school that Astley founded in London following the success...
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David Atchison

borndied
1807, Aug 111886, Jan 26
a mid-19th century Democratic United States Senator from Missouri. He served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate for six years. Atchison served as a Major General in the Missouri State Militia in 1838 during Missouri's Mormon War and as a Confederate Brigadier General during the Civil War under Major General Sterling Price in the Missouri Ho...
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Henry Atkinson

borndied
17821842, Jun 14
a United States army officer. He was a native of Person County, North Carolina. He entered the United States Army in 1808 as a captain in the infantry, serving at various outposts on the Western frontier. He moved to New York and was promoted to colonel in the Regular Army, seeing considerable action during the War of 1812. He commanded the 6th U.S. Infantry...
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Aurangzeb

aka: Alamgir, Abu'l Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad
borndied
1618, Nov 31707, Mar 3
the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal Emperor. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign, which lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. During his lifetime, victories in t...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Diogo de Azambuja

bornactivedied
14321450s-15091518
a Portuguese noble. He was a knight of the Order of Aviz in the service of the Infante Dom Pedro, son of the Regent Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra. After Peter's defeat and death in the battle of Alfarrobeira (1449), he accompanied his master into exile. He was already over the age of 70 in 1506 when Manuel I placed him in charge of building a fortress calle...
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