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Cross-listed in Architects

Pierre Charles L'Enfant

aka: Peter
borndied
1754, Aug 21825, Jun 14
a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan. Despite his aristocratic origins, L'Enfant closely identified with the United States, changing his first name from Pierre to Peter. L'Enfant served on General more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Roger L'Estrange

bornactivedied
1616, Dec 171639-17021704, Dec 11
an English pamphleteer, author and staunch defender of Royalist claims. L'Estrange was involved in political controversy throughout his life. Perhaps his best known polemical pamphlet was An Account of the Growth of Knavery, which ruthlessly attacked the parliamentary opposition, placing them as "dissenting fanatics" and truly beyond the pale.
Links (7)


Cross-listed in Writers

Francois de la Noue

aka: François, Bras-de-Fer (Iron Arm)
borndied
15311591, Aug 14
one of the Huguenot captains of the 16th century. He was born near Nantes in 1531, of an ancient Breton family. He served in Italy under Marshal Brissac, and in the first Huguenot war, but his first great exploit was the capture of Orléans at the head of only fifteen cavaliers in 1567, during the second war. It was in captivity that he wrote his celebrated ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne [1]

aka: Duke of Bouillon
borndied
1555, Sep 281623, Mar 25
a member of the powerful (then Huguenot) House of La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince of Sedan and a marshal of France. After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572 he participated in the Siege of La Rochelle (1572-1573), but subsequently re-converted to Protestantism. Defeated at Doullens, Picardy in 1595 by Fuentes, governor of the Spanish Low Countries, he was...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne [2]

aka: Vicomte de Turenne
borndied
1611, Sep 111675, Jul 27
was the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family. He achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. He was one of six marshals who have been made Marshal General of France. Frederick Henry of Nassau, who succeeded his brother Maurice as Stadtholder and Prince of Orange in 1625, gave Turenne a captaincy in 1626. The young officer took ...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Charles Armand Rene de La Tremoille

aka: 6th duc de Thouars, Charles Armand René de La Trémoille
borndied
1708, Jan 141741, May 23
a French soldier and president of the States of Brittany. He joined the military at a young age and became a colonel of the Champagne regiment at the age of eighteen. Later, he became governor of Île-de-France. La Trémoille was the author of some works and was elected a member of the Académie française on 13 February 1738.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Pierre Gaultier de La Verendrye the Younger

aka: La Vérendrye
borndied
1714, Dec 11755, Sep 13
the second son of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye. An explorer and fur trader who served many years under the command of his father, he was born on Île aux Vaches, (Isle of Cows) near Sorel, New France. The young Pierre spent two years in the colonial regular troops las a cadet, doing garrison duty in Montreal. In 1731, when his father p...
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Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

borndied
1744, Aug 11829, Dec 18
a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology. In 1801, he published Système des animaux sans vert...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

John Lambert [1]

borndied
16191684, Mar
an English Parliamentary general and politician. He fought during the English Civil War and then in Oliver Cromwell's Scottish campaign (1650–51), becoming thereafter active in civilian politics until his dismissal by Cromwell in 1657. During this time he wr...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Lamoral of Egmont

aka: Count of Egmont
bornactivedied
1522, Nov 181542-15681568, Jun 5
a general and statesman in the Spanish Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands. In the service of the Spanish army, he defeated the French in the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558). Egmont was appointed stadthol...
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Timeline (3)Links (5)


Ebenezer Learned

borndied
1728, Apr 181801, Apr 1
a brigadier general in the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. On April 24, the Massachusetts committee of safety named him a colonel and authorized him to organize a regiment that was known as Learned's Regiment. His regiment was adopted into the Continental Army in June. In 1776 those who re-enlisted were augmented by men from Danielson...
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General Charles Lee

borndied
1731, Jan 261782, Oct 2
served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. He also served earlier in the British Army during the Seven Years War. He sold his commission after the Seven Years War and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus II. Lee moved to North America in 1773 and bought an estate in Virginia. When the fighting brok...
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Links (1)


Ezra Lee

bornactivedied
1749, Aug1776-1780s1821, Oct 29
an American colonial soldier, best known for commanding the Turtle submarine. Lee was born in Lyme, Connecticut. In August 1776 he was selected by brother-in-law Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons, also of Lyme, as one of several volunteers to learn to operate the Turtle, an early submarine invented by Saybrook, Connecticut, native more
Timeline (1)Links (5)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henry Lee III

borndied
1756, Jan 291818, Mar 25
an early American Patriot and politician who served as the ninth Governor of Virginia and as the Virginia Representative to the United States Congress. During the American Revolution, Lee served as a cavalry officer in the Continental Army and earned the nickname "Light-Horse Harry". Henry Lee was the father of Civil War-era Confederate general Robert E. Lee...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Francis Legge

borndied
1719 ca1783
a British military officer and colonial official in Nova Scotia during the 18th century. He served as Governor of Nova Scotia from 1772-1776. During the American Revolution, Legge raised the Royal Nova Scotia Volunteer Regiment. Legge had served in the territory during the Seven Years' War "without distinction or promotion". However, Legge happened to be a r...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Walter Leslie

borndied
16071667, Mar 4
a Scottish Soldier and diplomat. He gained the positions of Imperial Field Marshal, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, Governor on the Croatian-Slavonian Military Frontier, Imperial Ambassador to Naples, Rome in 1645 and to Constantinople in 1665-1666. In 1624, Walter Leslie crossed the North Sea to fight with the Protestant Army of the United Provinces. By 162...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Morgan Lewis

borndied
1754, Oct 161844, Apr 7
an American lawyer, politician, and military commander. The second son of Francis Lewis, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Lewis fought in the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. He served in the New York State Assembly (1789, 1792) and the New York State Senate (1811–1814) and was New York State Attorney General (1791–1801) and go...
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Links (4)


Cross-listed in Governance

Li Zicheng

aka: Li Hongji
borndied
1606, Sep 221645
a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later. According to folklore, in 1630, Li was put on public display in an iron collar and shackles for his failure to repay loans to a usurious magistrate, Ai. Ai struck a guard who offered shade an...
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Benjamin Lincoln

borndied
1733, Jan 131810, May 9
an American army officer. He served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln is notable for being involved in three major surrenders during the war: his participation in the Battles of Saratoga (sustaining a wound shortly afterward) contributed to more
Links (18)


Sir George Lisle [1]

borndied
1610 ca1648, Aug 28
a Royalist leader in the English Civil War. Lisle's execution without trial, following the siege of Colchester, came to be regarded as a serious miscarriage of justice and Lisle himself was seen as a martyr to the Royalist cause. He gained military experience in the army of the Prince of Orange during the 1630s. He served under Prince Rupert in the Dutch War...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Francis de Lorraine

aka: Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale
borndied
1519, Feb 171563, Feb 24
a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots. In 1545, he was seriously wounded at the Second Siege of Boulogne, but recovered. He was struck with a lance through the bars of his helmet. The steel head pierced both cheeks, and 15 cm (6 in) of the shaft we...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Louis II of Hungary

borndied
1506, Jul 11526, Aug 29
King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526. He was killed during the Battle of Mohács fighting the Ottomans, whose victory led to the Ottoman annexation of Hungary. He had no legitimate issue. Born prematurely in Buda on 1 July 1506, the court doctors kept him alive by slaying animals and wrapping him in their warm carcasses as a primitive incub...
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Links (1)


Louis of Bourbon

aka: Duke of Montpensier
borndied
1513, Jun 101582, Sep 23
the second Duke of Montpensier. He took part in a number of wars against Charles V. He fought again at the Battle of St. Quentin (1557) where his horse was killed under him and where he was taken prisoner. His involvement in the French Wars of Religion reflected his opportunist character. He was initially favourable to the Protestants, under the influence of...
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Links (1)


Louis de Bourbon [1]

aka: Prince of Condé
borndied
1530, May 71569, Mar 13
a prominent Huguenot leader and general, the founder of the House of Condé, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. As a soldier in the French army, Condé fought at the Siege of Metz in 1552, when Francis, Duke of Guise successfully defended the city from the forces of Emperor Charles V, and again at the Battle of St. Quentin in 1557.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Louis de Bourbon [2]

aka: Prince of Condé, Duc d'Enghien
borndied
1621, Sep 81686, Dec 11
a French general and the most famous representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon. Prior to his father's death in 1646, he was styled the Duc d'Enghien. For his military prowess he was renowned as le Grand Condé. In 1643 Enghien was appointed to command against the Spanish in northern France. He was opposed by experienced generals, and the ve...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Louis Philippe I

borndied
1773, Oct 61850, Aug 26
King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party. As a member of the cadet branch of the Royal House of France and a cousin of King Louis XVI of France by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII and more
Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Toussaint Louverture

aka: Francois-Dominique, François-Dominique, Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint L'Ouverture
borndied
1743, May 201803, Apr 7
the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military and political acumen saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791. He first fought for the Spanish against the French; then for France against Spain and Great Britain; and finally, for Saint-Domingue against Napoleonic France. He then helped transform the insurgency into a revo...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Sybil Ludington

borndied
1761, Apr 51839, Feb 26
celebrated as a heroine of the American Revolutionary War. She reportedly rode to alert militia forces in the villages of Putnam County, New York and Danbury, Connecticut on the night of April 26, 1777 at age 16, warning of the approach of the British regular forces. The ride was similar to those performed by William Dawes, Paul Revere (Massachusetts, April ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Roger Ludlow

borndied
1590, Mar 71664/65/66
an English lawyer, magistrate, military officer, and colonist. He was active in the founding of the Colony of Connecticut, and helped draft laws for it and the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony. Under his and John Mason's direction, Boston's first fortification, later known as Castle William and then Fort Independence was built on Castle Island in Boston harbo...
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Timeline (1)Links (5)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Kazimierz Lux

bornactivedied
17801795-18461846
an officer of the Polish Legions and a pirate in the Caribbean Sea during the early 19th century. In 1803 on Napoleaon's order, his semibrigade, commanded by general Charles Leclerc, was sent to San Domingo to restore French rule over the island which rebelled in 1801. After pacifying the rebellion, Lux started a career of piracy - shooting and boarding an A...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Matthew Lyon

borndied
1749, Jul 141822, Aug 1
an Irish-born American printer, farmer, soldier and politician, who served as a United States Representative from both Vermont and Kentucky. Lyon represented Vermont in Congress from 1797 to 1801, and represented Kentucky from 1803 to 1811. His tenure in Congress was tumultuous. He brawled with one Congressman, and was jailed on charges of violating the Sedi...
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Timeline (1)Links (4)Notes (1)

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