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When you've got a lot of people together, it makes sense to pick someone to be in charge. As exploration expanded, individuals were chosen to oversee colonies and settlements. This section highlights those men (and some women), as well as the leaders and attendant ruling class -- nobles, peerage, wannabes and hangers-on --back home.
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Cross-listed in Legal

William Paca

bornactivedied
1740, Oct 311761-17911799, Oct 13
a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland, and later Governor of Maryland and a United States federal judge. Paca was elected to the Maryland legislature in 1771 and appointed to the Continental Congress in 1774. He was reelected, serving until 1779, when he became chief justice of the state of Maryland. In ...
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Links (16)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Richard Pace

borndied
1482 ca1536, Jun 28
an English diplomat of the Tudor period. In 1509, he accompanied Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge, Archbishop of York, to Rome, and he remained in the service of the Archbishop until that man's death by poisoning in 1514; he was instrumental in bringing the murderer to justice. In 1515, upon his return to England, he entered the service of Cardinal Wolsey whe...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

John Page

bornactivedied
1743, Apr 281763-18081808, Oct 11
a figure in early United States history. He served in the U.S. Congress and as the 13th Governor of Virginia. John Page graduated from the College of William and Mary in 1763, where he was a friend and closest college classmate of Thomas Jefferson, having exc...
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Links (5)


Charles Ferdinand Pahud

borndied
1803, Apr 181873, Aug 31
the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1856–1861. Cinchona pahudiana, the variety of C. calisaya introduced to the Dutch East Indies for cultivation as a source of quinine, was named in his honor.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Robert Treat Paine

bornactivedied
1731, Mar 111757-18041814, May 11
a Massachusetts lawyer and politician, best known as a signer of the Declaration of Independence as a representative of Massachusetts. He served as the state's first attorney general, and served as an associate justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, the state's highest court.
Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Arung Palakka

aka: La Tenritatta to Unru'
borndied
1634 ca1696
a 17th-century Bugis prince and warrior. He supported the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the Makassar War (1666–1669) against the Gowa Sultanate in his native South Sulawesi (today part of Indonesia). After the defeat of Gowa, he became the King of Bone and South Sulawesi's most powerful man. In 1660 Bone rose in rebellion against Gowa, and Palakka beca...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Patrick Paniter

aka: Paniter, Painter, Panter
bornactivedied
1470 ca1500s-15171519
Scottish churchman and principal secretary to James V. Paniter was born around 1470 at the village of Newmanswells. He was educated in Paris. On his return, without taking holy orders, he became Rector of Fetteresso in the Mearns and Vicar of Kilmany in Fife. James IV first made him the teacher of his illegitimate son Alexander Stewart, and shortly afterward...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

William Parker

bornactivedied
unknown1587-16171617
an English captain and privateer, and also Mayor of Plymouth. He was born near Plymouth and was a member of the lesser gentry but he became one of the owners of the Merchants house & in 1601 became mayor of Plymouth before becoming a privateer in the services of Queen Elizabeth. In 1587 he sailed in consort with Sir more
Links (3)Notes (1)


Catherine Parr

aka: Katherine, Katheryn
borndied
15121548, Sep 5
Queen of England and of Ireland (1543–47) as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, and the final queen consort of the House of Tudor. She was also the most-married English queen, with four husbands. Catherine enjoyed a close relationship with Henry's t...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Abraham Patras

borndied
1671, May 221737, May 3
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 11 March 1735 until 3 May 1737. He was born in Grenoble of a refugee French Huguenot family. In 1685, his family fled to the Netherlands. On the 10 March 1735 on the death of Governor-General Dirck van Cloon, Patras very surprisingly was nominated Governor-General. He had never been a full member of the Council...
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Links (1)Notes (1)


Paul I of Russia

borndied
1754, Sep 201801, Mar 11
reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III (reigned January to July 1762) (whom he resembled physically and by character) and of Catherine the Great (reigned 1762–96), though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who also had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first R...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Anna Pavlovna of Russia

borndied
1795, Jan 71865, Mar 1
a queen consort of the Netherlands. Anna was raised by her mother at the summer residence of the Romanovs, Tsarskoye Selo. She spent her childhood there with her two younger brothers, Nicholas (1796–1855) and Michael (1798–1849). Anna received a broad education, including foreign languages and mathematics. She was good at handicrafts and painting. In 180...
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Links (1)


Joseph Pease

borndied
1799, Jun 221872, Feb 8
a proponent and supporter of the earliest public railway system in the world and was the first Quaker permitted to take his seat in Parliament. In 1832, Pease was elected Member of Parliament for South Durham. As a Quaker, he was not immediately allowed to take his seat, because he refused to take the oath of office. Having set a precedent, a special committ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Dom Pedro I

aka: the Liberator, Dom Pedro IV
borndied
1798, Oct 121834, Sep 24
the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned briefly over Portugal, where he also became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, and thus a member of the House of Braganza. When their country was i...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Pedro II

borndied
1825, Dec 21891, Dec 5
the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. His father's abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left a five-year-old Pedro II as ...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Sir Robert Peel

aka: 2nd Baronet
borndied
1788, Feb 51850, Jul 2
a British statesman and member of the Conservative Party, served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–1835 and 1841–1846) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–1827 and 1828–1830). He is regarded as the father of modern British policing and as one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party. The son of wealthy textile-manufacturer and...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Henry Pelham

borndied
1694, Sep 251754, Mar 6
a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death. He was the younger brother of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, who served in Pelham's government and succeeded him as Prime Minister....
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Thomas Pelham-Holles

aka: 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
borndied
1693, Jul 211768, Nov 17
a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle. A protégé of Sir Robert Walpole, he served under him for more than twenty years, until 1742. He held po...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

John Penn

bornactivedied
1741, May 171762-17841788, Sep 14
a signer of both the United States Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation as a representative of North Carolina. Penn was elected to the North Carolina Provincial Congress and elected by that body to the Continental Congress in 1775, serving until 1780. For the 1776 signing of the Declaration of Independence, he was part of the North C...
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Links (15)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Naval

William Penn [1]

borndied
1621, Apr 231670, Sept 16
an English admiral and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1670. He was the father of William Penn, founder of the Province of Pennsylvania. Penn was born in St. Thomas Parish, Bristol to Giles Penn and Joan Gilbert. He served his apprenticeship at sea with his father. In the First English Civil War of 1642–1646, he fought on the side o...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

William Penn [2]

bornactivedied
1644, Oct 141681-17121718, Jul 30
the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Na...
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Timeline (10)Links (14)


Cross-listed in NavalWriters

Samuel Pepys

borndied
1633, Feb 231703, May 26
an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament who is now most well known for the diary he kept for a decade while still a young man. His influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early development of the Royal Navy. Although he had no maritime experience, he rose by patronage, hard work, and his talent for administration to be th...
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Timeline (2)Links (6)


Cross-listed in Legal

Spencer Perceval

borndied
1762, Nov 11812, May 11
a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1809 until his assassination in May 1812. Perceval is the only British prime minister to have been murdered. He was also the only Solicitor General or Attorney General to become Prime Minister. The younger son of an Anglo-Irish earl, Perceval was educated at Harrow School and...
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Links (1)


Peter II of Russia

aka: Peter II Alexeyevich
borndied
1715, Oct 121730, Jan 19
reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. He was the only son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich (son of Peter I of Russia by his first consort Eudoxia Lopukhina) and of Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg. His mother died when he was only ten days old. His father, Prince Alexis, accused of treason by his own father, more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Peter III of Russia

aka: Pyotr III Fyodorovich
borndied
1728, Feb 211762, Jul 6
emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. He was born in Kiel as Karl Peter Ulrich, the only child of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Anna Petrovna, the elder surviving daughter of Peter the Great. The German Peter could hardly speak Russian...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Inventors

Peter the Great

aka: Peter I, Peter Alexeyevich
bornactivedied
1672, May 301682-17251725, Jan 28
ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalis...
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Timeline (21)Links (15)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Petar I Petrovic-Njegos

aka: Petrovic-Njegoš
bornactivedied
1747/481782-18301830, Oct 31
the ruler of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro as the Metropolitan (vladika) of Cetinje, and Exarch (legate) of the Serbian Orthodox Church throne. He was the most popular spiritual and military leader from the Petrovic dynasty. During his long rule, Petar strengthened the state by uniting the often quarreling tribes, consolidating his control over Monteneg...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyWriters

Petar II Petrovic-Njegos

aka: Petrovic-Njegoš
bornactivedied
1813, Nov 11830-18511851, Oct 19
a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro, poet and philosopher whose works are widely considered some of the most important in Montenegrin and Serbian literature. Njegoš was born in the village of Njeguši, near Montenegro's then-capital Cetinje. He was educated at several Montenegrin monasteries, and became the country's spiritual and political leader follo...
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Elizabeth Petrovna

aka: Elizabeth of Russia, Yelisaveta, Elizaveta
borndied
1709, Dec 181761, Dec 25
the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country into the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession (1740–48) and the Seven Years' War (1756–63). On the eve of her death Russia spanned almost 6,250,000 square miles (16,200,000 km2). Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local gove...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


William Petty [2]

aka: 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne
borndied
1737, May 21805, May 7
an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy. He was also well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyMilitary

Patriarch Philaret of Moscow

aka: Feodor Nikitich Romanov, Filaret
borndied
15631633, Oct 1
a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace rose to become patriarch of Moscow as Filaret, and became de facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich. On the death of the childless tsar, he was the popular candidate for the vacant throne; but he acquiesced in the election of Boris Godunov, and shared the disgrace of his too-powerfu...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Philibert of Baden

aka: Margrave of Baden-Baden
borndied
1536, Jan 221569, Oct 3
ruled the Margraviate of Baden-Baden from 1554 to 1569. Philibert was the son of the Margrave Bernhard III, Margrave of Baden-Baden and Franziska of Luxembourg. Philibert spent part of his youth at the court of Duke William IV of Bavaria in Munich. William, who later became his father-in-law, was known for his strict Catholic perspective and brought the Jesu...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Philibert of Chalon

borndied
1502, Mar 181530, Aug 3
the last Prince of Orange from the House of Chalon. Born at Nozeroy to John IV of Chalon-Arlay, Philibert served Emperor Charles V as commander in Italy, fighting in the War of the League of Cognac. He took part in the Sack of Rome and was killed during the final stages of the Siege of Florence (1530). An interesting exchange of letters during the siege betw...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Philip I of Castile

aka: Philip IV
borndied
1478, Jul 221506, Sep 25
the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, at the age of three Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (as Philip IV) from his mother, Mary, and at 27 briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna, who was also heir p...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Philip I of Hesse

aka: Landgrave of Hesse
borndied
1504, Nov 131567, Mar 31
nicknamed der Großmütige ("the magnanimous") was a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany. His father died when Philip was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regent on his behalf. The struggles ov...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

King Philip II

bornactivedied
1527, May 211540-15981598, Sep 13
King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and during his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554–58) King of England and Ireland. He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" (&Philip the Prude...
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Timeline (29)Links (1)Notes (1)


Philip IV

aka: Philip III
bornactivedied
1605, Apr 81621-16651665, Sep 17
King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Portuguese: Filipe III). He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the challenging ...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Philip of Cleves [1]

aka: van Kleef, Lord of Ravenstein, Wijnendale and Enghien
borndied
14591528, Jan 28
a prominent nobleman and general in the circle of counselors around Maximilian of Habsburg. In 1477 Philip of Cleves was appointed by Maria of Burgundy and her husband Maximilian of Habsburg as military commander-in-chief of French Flanders. In 1498 when he entered the service of the French King more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Philip V

aka: Philip of Anjou
borndied
16831746, Jul 9
King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he reassumed the throne upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King more
Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Naval

Arthur Phillip

borndied
1738, Oct 111814, Aug 31
a Royal Navy officer, the first Governor of New South Wales and led the colonisation of what is now Australia and founded the British penal colony that later became the city of Sydney, Australia. After much experience at sea, Phillip sailed with the First Fleet as Governor-designate of the proposed British penal colony of New South Wales. In January 1788, he...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


John Phillips [2]

borndied
1770, Nov 261823, May 29
an American politician, serving as the first mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1822 to 1823. In 1820, he was a member of the convention that met to consider the revision of the state constitution, and he took an active part in the proceedings of that body. Phillips was also active in the agitation for the adoption of a city government in Boston, and was ch...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Francis Phips

bornactivedied
unknown1720sunknown
a British colonial governor. He was Lieutenant Governor of Anguilla and the Virgin Islands from 1727 to 1729.
Links (1)


Spencer Phips

borndied
1685, Jun 61757, Apr 4
a British politician in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Born Spencer Bennett, he was adopted by Massachusetts Governor Sir William Phips, whose name he legally took. Phips served for many years in the provincial assembly, and on the governor's council, before receiving an appointment as lieutenant governor in 1732, a post he held until his death. He was t...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

William Phips

aka: Phipps
bornactivedied
1651, Feb 21673-16951695, Feb 18
a shepherd boy born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a shipwright, ship's captain, treasure hunter, a major general, and the first royally appointed governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. He is perhaps best remembered for establishing, and later over-ruling and disbanding, the court associated with the infamous Salem Witch Trials.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


John Pickering

borndied
1737, Sep 221805, Apr 11
served as chief justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature, and as judge for the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire. He was the first federal official to be removed from office upon conviction by impeachment. On February 3, 1803, President more
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Timothy Pickering

bornactivedied
1745, Jul 171768-18161829, Jan 29
a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and more
Timeline (1)Links (12)


Franklin Pierce

bornactivedied
1804, Nov 231853-18571869, Oct 8
the 14th President of the United States (1853–1857). Pierce was a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation. His polarizing actions in championing and signing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act failed to stem intersectional conflict, setting the stage for Southern sece...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (2)


Cross-listed in Military

William Pierce

bornactivedied
17531775-17891789, Dec 10
an army officer during the American Revolutionary War and a member of the United States Constitutional Convention of 1787. He was born in York County, Virginia in 1753, the third and youngest son of Matthew and Elizabeth Pierce. As a young man, he studied art under Charles Willson Peale in Maryland and returned to Williamsburg, Virginia to accept commissions...
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Elizabeth Pierrepont

aka: Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston-upon-Hull, Duchess of Kingston, Countess of Bristol
borndied
1721, Mar 81788, Aug 26
the daughter of Colonel Thomas Chudleigh (died 1726), and was appointed maid of honour to Augusta, Princess of Wales, in 1743, probably through the good offices of her friend, William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath. She was found guilty of bigamy at a trial by her peers at Westminster Hall that attracted 4,000 spectators.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Robert Pierrepont

aka: 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull
borndied
1584, Aug 61643, Jul 25
an English nobleman who joined the Royalist side in the English Civil War after some delay and became lieutenant-general of the counties of Lincoln, Rutland, Huntingdon, Cambridge and Norfolk. He was killed in a friendly fire incident after being captured by Parliamentary forces. He was Member of Parliament for Nottinghamshire in 1601, became a JP for Nottin...
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Links (1)


William Pierrepont

borndied
1607 ca1678, Jul 17
an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1660. He supported the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War. In April 1640, Pierrepont was elected Member of Parliament for Shropshire in the Short Parliament. He was elected MP for Great Wenlock in the Long Parliament in November 1640. He threw his influence on t...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Job Pierson

borndied
1791, Sep 231860, Apr 9
a U.S. Representative from New York. He studied law in Salem and Schaghticoke. He was admitted to the bar in 1815 and commenced practice in Rensselaer County. He served as district attorney from 1824-1833. Pierson was elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-second and Twenty-third Congresses (March 4, 1831 – March 3, 1835). After an unsuccessful campaign for...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryLegal

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

borndied
1746, Feb 251825, Aug 16
an early American statesman of South Carolina, Revolutionary War veteran, and delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was twice nominated by the Federalist Party as its presidential candidate in 1804 and 1808, losing both elections. Pinckney was born into a powerful family of aristocratic planters. He practiced law for several years and was elected to ...
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William Pitt the Elder

aka: 1st Earl of Chatham
borndied
1708, Nov 151778, May 11
a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt of Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder to distinguish from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a ...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


William Pitt the Younger

borndied
1759, May 281806, Jan 23
a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24. He left office in 1801, but was Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was also the Chancellor of the Exchequer throughout his premiership. The younger Pitt's prime ministerial tenure, which came during the reign...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Francisco Pizarro

borndied
14751541
a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire. Reports of Peru's riches and Cortés's success in Mexico tantalized Pizarro and he undertook two expeditions to conquer the Incan Empire in 1524 and in 1526. Both failed as a result of native hostilities, bad weather, and lack of provisions. In April 1528, he reached northern Peru and found the natives r...
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Timeline (8)Links (17)


Cross-listed in Naval

James Hanway Plumridge

borndied
1788 ca1863, Nov 29
a British naval officer whose career extended from Trafalgar to the Crimean War, and a Liberal Party Member of Parliament (MP). In 1854, during the Crimean War, he was assigned to the fleet headed by Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Napier for operations in the Baltic, commanding a detached "flying squadron" of steamships. Flying his flag in the frigate Leopard, Plu...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Pocahontas

aka: Matoaka, Matoika, Amonute, Rebecca Rolfe
borndied
1596 ca1617, Ma
a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of a network of tributary tribal nations in the Tsenacommacah, encompassing the Tidewater region of Virginia. In a well-known historical anecdote, she saved the life of a captive of the Native A...
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Yolande de Polastron

aka: Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, Duchess of Polignac
borndied
1749, Sep 81793, Dec 9
the favourite of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met when she was presented at the Palace of Versailles in 1775, the year after Marie Antoinette became the Queen of France. She was considered one of the great beauties of pre-Revolutionary society, but her e...
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Links (1)


Jules de Polignac

aka: Count of Polignac, 3rd Duke of Polignac
borndied
1780, May 141847, Mar 2
a French statesman, ultra-royalist politician after the Revolution and prime minister under Charles X, just before the 1830 July Revolution which overthrew the senior line of the Bourbon dynasty. In 1789, the outbreak of the French Revolution, Jules's mother and her circle were forced to flee abroad due to threats against their lives. Gabrielle had been one ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyWriters

Melchior de Polignac

bornactivedied
1661, Oct 111683-17421742, Nov 20
a French diplomat, Cardinal and neo-Latin poet. During the last years of Louis XIV, Abbé de Polignac enjoyed the position of Master of the King's Chapel (1713-1716). But during the Regency Polignac became involved in the Cellamare Conspiracy, which attempted to ...
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Links (5)


James K. Polk

bornactivedied
1795, Nov 21845-18491849, Jun 15
the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849). Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. He later lived in and represented Tennessee. A Democrat, Polk served as the 17th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1835–1839) and Governor of Tennessee (1839–1841). Polk was the surprise (dark horse) candidate for president in 1844, defeatin...
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Timeline (7)Links (17)Notes (2)


Cross-listed in Inventors

Oliver Pollock

borndied
17371823, Dec 17
a merchant and financier of the American Revolutionary War, of which he has long been considered a historically undervalued figure. He is often attributed with the creation of the U.S. Dollar sign in 1778. In 1777 he was appointed "commercial agent of the United States at New Orleans", making him the representative of the colonies in the city. He used his fo...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Pomare II

aka: Tu Tunuieaiteatua Pomare II
borndied
1782 ca1821, Dec 7
the second king of Tahiti between 1782 and 1821. He was installed by his father Pomare I at Tarahoi, February 13, 1791. He ruled under regency from 1782 to 1803. Pomare II believed that he lost favor with the god 'Oro, and, aided by the missionary Henry Nott, he began paying more attention to the God of the Christians. He was baptised May 16, 1819 at the Roy...
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Pomare III

aka: Teri'itari'a Pomare III
borndied
1820, Jun 251827, Jan 8
the king of Tahiti between 1821 and 1827. He ruled under the regency of his mother Queen Teriiitoioterai Tere-moe-moe, his aunt and stepmother Teriiitariia Ari'ipaeavahine, and the five principal chiefs of Tahiti due to his minority. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his father 7 December 1821. He was crowned at Papa'oa, 'Arue, 21 April 1824. Pomar...
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Links (1)


Pomare I

aka: Tu-nui-ea-i-te-atua-i-Tarahoi Vaira'atoa Taina Pomare I
bornactivedied
1753 ca1788-17911803, Sep 3
the unifier and first king of Tahiti and founder of the Pomare dynasty and the Kingdom of Tahiti between 1788 and 1791. He abdicated in 1791, but remained in power as the guardian regent during the minority of his successor Pomare II from 1791 until 1803. As king, Pomare succeeded in uniting the different chiefdoms of Tahiti into a single kingdom, composed o...
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Pomare IV

aka: Aimata Pomare IV Vahine-o-Punuatera'itua
borndied
1813, Feb 281877, Sep 17
the Queen of Tahiti between 1827 and 1877. She was the fourth monarch of the Kingdom of Tahiti. Pomare was the daughter of Pomare II and Teri'ito'oterai Tere-moe-moe, his second wife. Her grandfather was Pomare I. She succeeded as ruler of Tahiti after the death of her brother P?mare III when she was only 14 years old. In December 1822, Pomare married the fu...
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Stanislaw August Poniatowski

borndied
1732, Jan 171798, Feb 12
the last King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and the last monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–95). He remains a controversial figure in Polish history. Recognized as a great patron of the arts and sciences and an initiator and firm supporter of progressive reforms, he is also remembered as the last king of the Commonwealth whos...
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Chief Pontiac

aka: Obwandiyag
bornactivedied
1720 ca1760s1769
an Ottawa war chief who became noted for his role in Pontiac's War (1763–1766), an American Indian struggle against British military occupation of the Great Lakes region and named for him. It followed the British victory in the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War. Pontiac's importance in the war that bears his name has b...
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Powhatan

aka: Wahunsenacawh, Wahunsenacah, Wahunsunacock, Wahunsonacock
borndied
1545, Jun 171618, Apr
the paramount chief of Tsenacommacah, an alliance of Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians in the Tidewater region of Virginia at the time English settlers landed at Jamestown in 1607. Powhatan, alternately called "King" or "Chief" Powahatan by the English, led the main political and military power facing the early colonists, was probably the older brother of...
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Cross-listed in Military

Edward Poynings

borndied
14591521, Oct 22
an English soldier, administrator and diplomat, and Lord Deputy of Ireland under King Henry VII of England. In 1493 Poynings was acting as deputy or governor of Calais. In July he was sent with Warham on a mission to Archduke Philip to gain Perkin Warbeck's ex...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryLegal

Sterling Price

borndied
1809, Sep 141867, Sep 29
an American soldier, lawyer, planter, and politician from the U.S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He also served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, and a Confederate Army major general in the American Civil War. Price is best known for his victories in New Mexico and ...
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Cross-listed in Military

Sir Thomas Pride

borndied
unknown1658, Oct 23
a parliamentarian commander in the Civil War, best known as one of the Regicides of King Charles I and as the instigator of "Pride's Purge". At the beginning of the Civil War he served as a captain in the New Model Army under Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex and was eventually promoted to the rank of colonel. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Prest...
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Daniel Pulteney

borndied
1684 ca1731, Sep 7
an English government official and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1721 to 1731. Pulteney was the son of John Pulteney (d. 1726), MP for Hastings and Commissioner of Customs, and Lucy Colville. He studied at Christ Church, Oxford, matriculating in 1699. He was one of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations between July 1717 and October 17...
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Cross-listed in Legal

John Pulteney

borndied
1668 ca1726, May 2
an English lawyer and Whig politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons from 1695 to 1710. He studied the law and was called to the Bar in 1682. Pulteney was nominated as deputy-lieutenant of Middlesex. He was then appointed by Lord Shrewsbury as an under-secretary. Pulteney joined the staff of Lord Sydney, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and l...
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William Pulteney [1]

bornactivedied
1624, Mar 251679-16911691, Sep 6
an English Member of Parliament. He represented Westminster from February 1679 to March 1681 and then from January 1689 until his death.
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William Pulteney [2]

aka: 1st Earl of Bath
borndied
1684, Mar 221764, Jul 7
an English Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1707 to 1742 when he was created the first Earl of Bath by King George II. He is sometimes stated to have been Prime Minister, for the shortest term ever (two days) in 1746, although most modern sources reckon that he cannot be considered to have held the office. Pulteney was secretary of war fr...
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William Pulteney [3]

aka: 5th Baronet, William Johnstone
borndied
1729, Oct1805, May 30
a Scottish advocate, landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1768 and 1805. He was reputedly the wealthiest man in Great Britain. He invested in lands in North America, and in developments in Great Britain, including the Pulteney Bridge and other buildings in Bath, buildings on the sea-front at Weymouth in Dorset, and roads in his na...
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Cross-listed in Military

William Pulteney [4]

aka: Viscount Pulteney
borndied
1731, Jan 91763, Feb 12
a British Whig politician and soldier. He was the only son of William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath and his wife Anna Maria Gumley, daughter of John Gumley. Pulteney was educated at Westminster School from 1740 to 1747 and began his Grand Tour in the following year. He traveled with John Douglas first to Leipzig, met his parents in Paris in 1749 and went then t...
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John Pym

borndied
15841643, Dec 8
an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of Kings James I and then Charles I. He was one of the Five Members whose attempted arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War. In addition to this Pym went ahead and started to accuse William Laud (the king's adviser) of trying to ...
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