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1527, May 211540-15981598, Sep 13
King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and during his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554–58), King of England and Ireland. He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" (&Philip the Prudent&), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age. The expression, "the empire on which the sun never sets," was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion.
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 Timeline (29)
03/09/1551-Emperor Charles V appoints son Philip II as heir to the throne 
07/25/1554-Queen Mary I of England marries Philip II of Spain, also becoming Queen of Naples and titular Queen of Jerusalem
10/25/1555-Emperor Charles V puts his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands/Naples/Milan
01/16/1556-Emperor Charles V appoints his son Philip II as king of Spain
02/05/1556-Kings Henry II and Philip II sign Treaty of Vaucelles
03/28/1556- Charles V's son Philip II crowned king of Spain 
11/23/1556-King Philip II confers with Dutch financial experts 
01/31/1560-Spanish king Philip II marries Elisabeth van Valois 
09/25/1560-Spanish king Philip II names Frederik Schenck van Toutenburg as first archbishop of Utrecht 
09/23/1561-King Philip II of Spain forbids Spanish settlements in Florida
03/11/1563-League of High Nobles routes second protest against King Philip II 
07/29/1563-League of High Nobles routes King Philip II 
02/21/1564- Philip II routes Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle to Franche-Comte 
08/18/1564-Spanish king Philip II joins Council of Trente 
11/13/1565-King Philip II's second set of "Letters from the Segovia Woods" reaches Brussels 
12/01/1566-Spanish king Philip II names Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva 
02/07/1569-King Philip II forms inquistion in South America 
03/04/1570-King Philip II bans foreign Dutch students 
07/28/1579-King Philip II arrests plotters Antonio Perez and princess van Eboli
03/15/1580-Spanish king Philip II puts 25,000 gold coins on head of prince William the Silent 
03/25/1581-Portugese Cortes calls Philip II king of Portugal 
04/01/1581-Portugese Cortes subjects himself on Philip II 
04/15/1581-Cortes van Thomar accepts Philip II as king of Portugal 
06/20/1582-Bishop Domingo de Salazar writes to Philip II imploring redress for the injustices inflicted on the Philippine natives
07/19/1590-King Philip II's secretary Antonio Perez escapes jail 
05/02/1595-King Philip II names Albert VII of Austria land guardian of Netherlands 
11/29/1596-King Philip II devalues Spanish currency 
06/30/1598-King Philip II moves to Escorial palace 
09/01/1598-Spanish king Philip II receives sacraments 
 Notes (1)
Supreme Governors:
Church of England

Henry VIII (1536-1547): King of England from 1509 until his death and Supreme Head of the Church of England from 1536 to 1547. He was the first English King of Ire...
Edward VI (1547-1553): King of England and Ireland (and Supreme Head of the Church of England) from 28 January 1547 until his death. Edward's reign was marked by ...
Jane Grey (1553): an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. When the 15-year-old king lay dying in Ju...
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King Philip II1527, May 211540
 
15981598, Sep 13

John Palsgrave1485 ca1513
 
15451554
 a priest of Henry VIII of England's court. He is known as a tutor in the royal household, and as...
Jeremias Iunknown1513
 
15461546, Jan 13
 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople two times, from 1522 to 1524 and from 1525 to 1546 for the...
David Beaton1494 ca1519
 
15461546, May 29
 Archbishop of St Andrews and the last Scottish Cardinal prior to the Reformation. n 1520, his unc...
Joannicius Iunknown1546
 
 
1546unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (1546)*Church of Constantinople
King Henry VIII1491, Jun 281509
 
15471547, Jan 28
  King of England from 1509 until his death and Supreme Head of the Church of England from 1536 to...
Pope Paul III1468, Feb 291491
 
15491549, Nov 10
  the Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the...
William Lamb [1]1493 ca1537
 
15501550
 a Scottish cleric, lawyer, and author. William Lamb wrote Ane Resonyng of ane Scottis and Inglis ...
Robert Wauchope [1]1500 ca1539
 
15511551
 the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh from 1539 to 1551. Wauchope worked as a theologian in Rom...
Edward VI1537, Oct 121547
 
 
15531553, Jul 6
  King of England and Ireland (and Supreme Head of the Church of England) from 28 January 1547 unt...
Lady Jane Grey1536/371553
 
 
15531554, Feb 12
 an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553...
Ignatius of Loyola1491, Oct 231508
 
15551556, Jul 31
 a Spanish priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jes...
Hugh Latimer1487 ca1515
 
15551555, Oct 16
 a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester before the Reformation, and later C...
Stephen Gardiner1483 ca1531
 
15551555, Nov 12
 English bishop and politician during the English Reformation period who served as Lord Chancellor...
Pope Marcellus II1501, May 61535
 
15551555, May 1
 Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 9 April 1555 until his death 22 days later on 1 May 1555. ...
Nicholas Ridley1500 ca1538
 
15551555, Oct 16
 an English Bishop of London. Ridley was burned at the stake, as one of the Oxford Martyrs, during...
Dionysius IIunknown1546
 
 
1555unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (1546-1555)*Church of Constantinople
Pope Julius III1487, Sep 101550
 
 
15551555, Mar 23
 Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. Distinguished as an...
Mikael Agricola1510 ca1537
 
15571557, Apr 9
 a clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the ...
Reginald Pole1500, Mar 121518
 
15581558, Nov 17
 an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the last Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canter...
Queen Mary I1516, Feb 181553
 
 
15581558, Nov 17
 the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her executions of Protestants le...
Pope Paul IV1476, Jun 281505
 
15591559, Aug 18
 the Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559. While serving as pa...
John Angelunknown1550
 
 
1559unknown
 a chaplain to King Philip and Queen Mary I, is said to have been a 'person of singular zeal and l...
Alessandro Piccolomini [1]unknown1528
 
1563unknown
 a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Pienza (1535-1563) and Bishop of Montalcino (152...
Robert of Berghesunknown1557
 
 
15631564
 87th Prince-bishop of Liège (1557–1563). He was forced to resign the see on 30 March 1563, due...
Petrus Follingiusunknown1558
 
 
15631565
 a Finnish Lutheran bishop. He was the Bishop of Turku for the Lutheran Finish Church from 1558 to...
Pope Pius IV1499, Mar 311546
 
 
15651565, Dec 9
 the Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565. He is known fo...
Joasaph IIunknown1556
 
 
1565unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (1555-1565)*Church of Constantinople
Suleiman I1494, Nov 61520
 
15661566, Sep 7
  the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Empire/Caliphate, ...
Joachim I Pany1448 ca1480
 
15671567
 served as Patriarch for the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria between 1486 and 1567. A virtuou...
Pedro de la Gasca1485, Jun1542
 
 
15671567, Nov 13
 a Spanish bishop, diplomat and the second (acting) viceroy of Peru, from April 10, 1547 to Januar...
Sunan Gunungjati14481479
 
15681568, Sep 19
  one of the Wali Songo, or nine saints of Islam revered in Indonesia. He founded the Sultanate of...
John Barthletunknown1560
 
 
1569unknown
 an English theological writer. Barthlet was a minister of the Church of England, and held strongl...
John Rollandunknown1560
 
 
1569unknown
 a Scottish poet who appears to have been a priest of the diocese of Glasgow, and to have been kno...
Arthur ap Huwunknown1555
 
 
1570unknown
 a clergyman, patron of Welsh poets, and a translator of religious literature into Welsh. He was a...
Pope Pius V1504, Jan 171528
 
15721572, May 1
  the Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated...
John Knox1513 ca1546
 
 
15721572, Nov 24
 a Scottish clergyman, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the Protestant Reformation and i...
Donald Monrounknown1526
 
1574unknown
 a Scottish clergyman, who wrote an early and historically valuable description of the Hebrides an...
Selim II1524, May 281566
 
 
15741574, Dec 12/15
  the Sultan and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Empire/Caliphate from 1566 until his death in...
Matthew Parker1504, Aug 61559
 
 
15751575, May 17
  the Archbishop of Canterbury for the Church of England from 1559 until his death in 1575. He was...
Paulus Juusten1516/201563
 
 
15751575, Aug 22
 the first bishop of Viipuri, and later, bishop of Turku for the Lutheran Finish Church from 1563 ...
Francis Fletcher15551578
 
 
15781619 ca
 a clergyman of the Church of England who accompanied Sir Francis Drake on his circumnavigation of...
Metrophanes III15201546
 
 
15801580, Aug 9
 the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople two times, from 1565 to 1572 and from 1...
Frederik Schenck van Toutenburg1503 ca1559
 
 
15801580, Aug 25
 the first archbishop of Utrecht (previously only a bishopric). He became the first and last Archb...
Edmund Grindal1519 ca1575
 
 
15831583, Jul 6
 an English Protestant leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of London, Archbishop of Y...
Pope Gregory XIII1502, Jan 71572
 
 
15851585-Apr 10
 Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for com...
Pachomius IIunknown1580
 
 
1585unknown
  Ecumenical Patriarch of the Church of Constantinople from 1584 to 1585. He is sometimes consider...
Pope John XIVunknown1571
 
 
15861586, Sep 6
  the 96th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark for the Armenian Apostolic Church...
Theoleptus IIunknown1585
 
 
1586unknown
 the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1585 to 1586. Theoleptus was a nephew of Patriarc...
Bertrand de Loqueunknown1580
 
 
15891600+
 a Protestant minister, said to be the same person as François de Saillans, who was born in Valen...
Pope Urban VII1521, Aug 41553
 
 
15901590, Sep 27
 Pope (Roman Catholic Church) from 15 to 27 September 1590. His twelve-day papacy was the shortest...
Sylvester of Alexandriaunknown1560
 
 
1590unknown
 Silvester served as Patriarch for Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria between 1569 and 1590. He c...
Pope Sixtus V1521, Dec 131585
 
 
15901590, Aug 27
 Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined ...
Pope Innocent IX1519, Jul 201544
 
 
15911591, Dec 30
  Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 29 October to 30 December 1591. Prior to his short papac...
Pope Gregory XIV1535, Feb 111590
 
 
15911591, Oct 16
 Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591. Gregory XIV's brief ...
Domingo de Salazar15121579
 
 
15941594, Dec 4
 a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Bishop of Manila (1579–84) which was then newl...
Jeremias II Tranosunknown1572
 
 
1595unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (1572-1579, 1580-1584, 1587-1595)*Church of Constantinople
Murad III1546, Jul 41574
 
 
15951595, Jan 15/16
 the emperor and Caliph of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595. Murad's reign is ...
Ascanio I Piccolominiunknown1579
 
 
15971597, May 13
 On 3 Jul 1579, Ascanio Piccolomini was appointed during the papacy of Pope Gregory XIII as Coadju...
Nicolas de Thou15281547
 
15981598, Nov 5
 an eminent French cleric, Bishop of Chartres, and in politics a figure instrumental in the corona...
Gabriel I [1]unknown1590
 
1599unknown
 the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for the Church of Constantinople from March to August ...
Robert Gwinunknown1590
 
1599unknown
 a Welsh Roman Catholic priest and author. Gwin, who appears to have been alive in 1591, wrote sev...
Theophanes Iunknown1590
 
15991597, Mar 26
 the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for the Church of Constantinople from August 1596 to F...
Meletios I Pegas15491590
 
16011601, Sep 12
 served as Greek Patriarch of Alexandria between 1590 and 1601. Simultaneously from 1597 to 1598 h...
Queen Elizabeth I1533, Sep 71558
 
16031603, Mar 24
 Queen of England and Ireland (and Supreme Governor of the Church of England ) from 17 November 15...
Gabriel VIIIunknown1587
 
16031603, May 14
 the 97th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. Gabriel VIII was originally fro...
Mehmed III1566, May 261595
 
16031603, Dec 21/22
  the Sultan and Caliph of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death in 1603. His reign is most...
Matthew IIunknown1596
 
16031603
  the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople three times, shortly in 1596, from 1598 to 1602 and f...
John Whitgift1530 ca1583
 
16041604, Feb 29
  the Archbishop of Canterbury for the Church of England from 1583 to his death. Noted for his hos...
Pope Clement VIII1536, Feb 241592
 
16051605, Mar 3
  Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. He was made Cardin...
Matthew Hutton I1529159
 
16061606
  the archbishop of York for the Church of England from 1595 to 1606. He became a sizar at Trinity...
Sebastian de Vivanco15511570
 
16101622, Oct 26
 a Spanish priest and composer of the Renaissance. The bulk of Vivanco's surviving work was publis...
Thomas Bell15511573
 
1610unknown
 an English Roman Catholic priest, and later an anti-Catholic writer. He was mentioned in 1592 as ...
Richard Bancroft15441584
 
16101610, Nov 2
 an English churchman, who became Archbishop of Canterbury (1604-1610) for the Church of England a...
David Fabricius1564, Mar 91584
 
16171617, May 7
 a German pastor who made two major discoveries in the early days of telescopic astronomy, jointly...
John Thornborough15511593
 
16171641
 an English bishop. In a long ecclesiastical career, he was employed as a chaplain by the Earl of ...
Pope Paul V1552, Sep 171597
 
16211621, Jan 28
 the Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621. He is best remember...
Pedro Paez15641589
 
16221622, May 25
 a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia. Páez is considered by many experts on Ethiopia to be th...
Robert Bruce15541587
 
16241631, Jul 27
 Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland which was called on 6 February 1588 t...
Ericus Erici Sorolainen15461583
 
16251625
  a Finnish Lutheran bishop, a Bishop of Turku from 1583 to 1625 as the successor to Paulus Juuste...
Oliver Almondunknown1590
 
1629unknown
 a Roman Catholic priest and writer, born in the diocese of Oxford. He is believed by Foley to hav...
Pope Urban VIII1568, Apr 51592
 
16441644, Jul 29
  Pope (Roman Catholic Church) from 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by ...
Lobsang Chökyi Gyalsten15701570
 
16621662
 the fourth Panchen Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat sect) school of Tibetan Buddhism from 1570-1662 ...
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