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Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac

aka: de la Motte, Sieur de Cadillac
borndied
1658, Mar 51730, Oct 16
a French explorer and adventurer in New France, an area of North America that stretched from present-day Eastern Canada in the north to Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico in the south. Rising from a modest beginning in Acadia in 1683 as an explorer, trapper, and a trader of alcohol and furs, he achieved various positions of political importance in the colony. H...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Brother Francesco Maria Carafa

bornactivedied
unknown1669-1672 caunknown
an Italian nobleman, 5th Duke of Nocera, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece and was viceroy of Aragon and Navarre and a military commander who commanded troops loyal to King Philip IV of Spain. In 1639, Carafa was named viceroy and Captain General of Aragon and was named a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. The following year he was named vice...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Ottone Enrico del Caretto

aka: Marquis of Savona
borndied
16291685, Jun 15
an Imperial Army commander and political figure. He became a Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1678, Field Marshal of the Empire, Imperial embassador in Madrid and General Captain and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands in April 1682.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in NavalWriters

Christopher Carleill

bornactivedied
1551 ca1573-15931593
an English military and naval commander. In 1588, he was appointed constable of Carrickfergus, County Antrim, and later, he was governor of Ulster. In 1590, he wrote to Lord Burghley, requesting a commission from the queen to seize for lawful prize any goods which might be found in England belonging to Spanish subjects, and complaining of his monetary losses...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Ernest Casimir I

aka: Count of Nassau-Dietz
borndied
1573, Dec 221632, Jun 2
count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe. Ernst Casimir was primarily known as an outstanding military leader during the Eighty Years War. He served under Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange in the siege of the cities of Steenwijk and Oldenzaal, and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange during the Siege of Groenlo (1627) and the ...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

John Casimir of Simmern

borndied
1543, Mar 71592, Jan 6
a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine. A firm Calvinist, he was a leader of mercenary troops in the religious wars of the time, including the Dutch Revolt. From 1583–1592 he acted as regent for his nephew, Elector Palatine Frederick IV. ohn Casimir was in regular contact with Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and his nephe...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Lewis Cass

bornactivedied
1782, Oct 91806-18601866, Jun 17
an American military officer, politician, and statesman. He represented Michigan in the United States Senate and served in the Cabinet of Andrew Jackson and James Buchanan. He was also the 1848 Democratic presidential nominee and a leading spokesman for the Doctrine of Popular Sovereignty, which held that the people in each territory should decide whether to...
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Links (15)


Cross-listed in Writers

Miguel de Cervantes

bornactivedied
1547, Sep 291569-16161616, Apr 22
a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so ...
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Timeline (2)Links (20)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles II of Guelders

borndied
1467, Nov 91538, Jun 30
a member of the House of Egmond who ruled as Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1492 until his death. He was the son of Adolf of Egmond and Catharine of Bourbon. He had a principal role in the Frisian peasant rebellion and the Guelders Wars. He fought in several battles against the armies of Charles VIII of France, until he was captured in the Battle...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Charles III of Bourbon

aka: Duke of Bourbon, Constable of Bourbon
bornactivedied
1490, Feb 171515-15271527, May 6
a French military leader, the Count of Montpensier, Clermont and Auvergne, and Dauphin of Auvergne from 1501 to 1523, then Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Forez and La Marche, and Lord of Beaujeu from 1505 to 1521. He was also the Constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the Constable of Bourbon, he was the last of ...
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Timeline (2)Links (6)


Archduke Charles of Austria

aka: Duke of Teschen,Carl Ludwig Johann Joseph Laurentius von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen
bornactivedied
1771, Sep 51792-18091847, Apr 30
an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain. He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army. He was considered one of Napoleon's more formidable opponents. He began his career f...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles XII

bornactivedied
1682, Jun 171697-17181718, Nov 30
the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government, at the age of fifteen. Charles was an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactic...
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Timeline (9)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles XIV John

aka: Charles III John of Norway, Carl John, Jean Bernadotte
bornactivedied
1763, Jan 261818-18441844, Mar 8
King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in south-central Italy, from 1806 until 1810. He was born Jean Bernadotte in France and served a long career in the French Army. He subseque...
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Links (1)


David Hendrik Chasse

aka: Chassé
borndied
1765, Mar 181849, May 2
a Dutch soldier who fought both for and against Napoleon. He commanded the Third Netherlands Division that intervened at a crucial moment in the Battle of Waterloo. In 1830 he bombarded the city of Antwerp as commander of Antwerp Citadel during the Belgian Revolution. Chassé entered the Dutch army as a ten-year-old cadet in his father's regiment in 1775. He...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henri Christophe

aka: Henry Christopher, Henry I, King of Haiti
borndied
1767, Oct 61820, Oct 8
a former slave of Bambara ethnicity, and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804. In 1805 he took part under Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the capturing of Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic), against French forces who acquired the colony from Spain in the Treaty of Basel. After Dessalines was assassi...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Elijah Churchill

borndied
17551841
a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Born in Enfield, Connecticut, a carpenter, he entered the 8th Connecticut Regiment as a private on 7 July 1775. On 7 May 1777, he re-enlisted for the duration of the war as a corporal in the 2nd Continental Light Dragoons, later the 2nd Legionary Corps, and was promoted to sergeant on ...
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Links (1)


John Churchill [1]

aka: 1st Duke of Marlborough
borndied
1650, May 261722, Jun 16
an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he served James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill.
Timeline (6)Links (1)


George Rogers Clark

bornactivedied
1752, Nov 191774-18091818, Feb 13
a surveyor, soldier, and militia officer from Virginia who became the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the militia in Kentucky (then part of Virginia) throughout much of the war. Clark is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia (1778) and Vincennes...
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Timeline (1)Links (16)


Cross-listed in ExplorersGovernance

William Clark [2]

bornactivedied
1770, Aug 11789-18291838, Sep 1
an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the U...
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Timeline (18)Links (15)Notes (5)


Cross-listed in Writers

Carl von Clausewitz

borndied
1780, Jun 11831, Nov 16
a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege (On War), was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist in many different senses and, while in some respects a romantic, also drew heavily on the rationalist ideas of the European ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Moses Cleaveland

borndied
1754, Jan 291806, Nov 16
a lawyer, politician, soldier and surveyor, from Connecticut who founded the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, while surveying the Western Reserve in 1796. He studied law at Yale University, graduating in 1777. That same year, with the American Revolutionary War in progress, he was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

William Cleland

borndied
1661 ca1689, Aug 21
a Scottish poet and soldier. Immediately on leaving college he joined the army of the Covenanters, and was present at the Battle of Drumclog, where, says Robert Wodrow, some attributed to Cleland the manoeuvre which led to the victory. He also fought at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. His Collection of several Poems and Verses composed upon various occasions ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

George Clinton [2]

borndied
1739, Jul 151812, Apr 20
an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795, and again from 1801 to 1804, then served as the fourth Vice President of the United States from 1805 to 1812, under Presidents more
Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Henry Clinton

borndied
1730, Apr 161795, Dec 23
a British army officer and politician, best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many y...
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Timeline (3)Links (16)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Robert Clive

aka: 1st Baron Clive, Clive of India
borndied
1725, Sep 291774, Nov 22
a British officer and adventurer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan) and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process he also turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren...
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Timeline (3)Links (19)


Cross-listed in Governance

John Clopton

bornactivedied
1756, Feb 71776-18161816, Sep 11
a United States Representative from Virginia. He served as first lieutenant and as captain in the Virginia militia during the American Revolutionary War, and was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine. Clopton was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1789 to 1791, and was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, serving...
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Links (3)


Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Coningsby

borndied
unknown1625
an English soldier and Member of Parliament, notable for his diary of military action in France in 1591. Coningsby went to Normandy in attendance on the Earl of Essex in 1591, and took part in the siege of Rouen, fighting against the forces of the league. He acted as muster-master to the English detachment, was in frequent intercourse with Henry of Navarre b...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PiratesWriters

Alonso de Contreras

bornactivedied
unknown1580 caunknown
a Spanish sailor (captain of a frigate), soldier (captain of infantry and then of cavalry), privateer, adventurer and writer, best known as the author of his autobiography; one of the very few autobiographies of Spanish soldiers under the Spanish Habsburgs and possibly one of the finest, together with the True History of the Conquest of New Spain (Historia V...
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Links (1)


Thomas Conway

borndied
1735, Feb 271800 ca
served as a major general in the American Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He became involved with the alleged Conway Cabal with Horatio Gates. Conway was born in Ireland, but was educated in France. With twenty years experience in the French Army, he rose to Colonel. He later served with Émigré forces during the French Revolutionary...
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Timeline (1)Links (2)


Cross-listed in Governance

Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba [1]

aka: Francisco Hernández de Córdoba
borndied
1475 ca1526
reputed as the founder of Nicaragua, and in fact he founded two important Nicaraguan cities, Granada and León. The currency of Nicaragua is named the córdoba in his memory. Cordoba was an officer of Pedro Arias Dávila, known also as Pedrarias Dávila. Hernán Cortés and Hernan Ponce de Leon supported Cordoba during the conquest of Nicaragua in 1524. in r...
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Links (1)


Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba [2]

aka: Francisco Hernández de Córdoba
bornactivedied
unknown1510s1517
a Spanish conquistador, known to history mainly for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the first European accounts of the Yucatán Peninsula were compiled. Together with some 110 discontented Spanish settlers in early colonial Cuba, Hernández de Córdoba petitioned the governor, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, for permission to la...
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Gonzalo de Cordoba

aka: Córdoba, Duke of Terranova and Santangelo, Andria, Montalto and Sessa
borndied
1453, Sep 11515, Dec 2
a Spanish general who fought in the Conquest of Granada and the Italian Wars. He reorganized the emerging Spanish army and its tactics, and was regarded as the "father of trench warfare". He was also called "The Great Captain" (Spanish: El gran capitán). Many influential men fought under him (including Francisco Pizarro's father), and he was admired by the ...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Charles Cornwallis [2]

aka: 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Viscount Brome, The Earl Cornwallis
borndied
1738, Dec 311805, Oct 5
a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a civil and mi...
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Timeline (7)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Edward Cornwallis

borndied
1713, Mar 51776, Jan 14
a British military officer who was the first Governor of Nova Scotia at Halifax, Nova Scotia. He later served as the Governor of Gibraltar. He was also the twin brother of Frederick Cornwallis.
Links (1)


Stephen Cornwallis

borndied
1703, Dec 231743, May 12
a British Army officer who served as Member of Parliament for Eye from 1727 to his death. He was the third son of Charles Cornwallis, 4th Baron Cornwallis; his elder brother was Charles Cornwallis, 1st Earl Cornwallis, and his younger brothers were Edward Cornwallis, and Frederick Cornwallis. His nephews were Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Jame...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

William Cosby

bornactivedied
16901710-17361736
an Irish soldier who served as the British royal governor of New York from 1732 to 1736. During his short term as governor, Cosby was portrayed as one of the most oppressive royal placeholders in British Colonial America. In 1735, Cosby accused publisher John Peter Zenger of sedition and libel for publishing unflattering reports about Cosby. In spite of Cosb...
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Links (5)


William Crawford

bornactivedied
1722, Sep 21749-17821782, Jun 11
an American soldier and surveyor who worked as a western land agent for George Washington. Crawford fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. He was tortured and burned at the stake by American Indians in retaliation for the Gn...
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Timeline (1)Links (5)


Cross-listed in Governance

Davy Crockett

bornactivedied
1786, Aug 171813-18361836, Mar 6
a 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician. He is commonly referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier". He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives and served in the Texas Revolution. During his last term in Congress, Crockett collaborated with Kentucky Congressman Thomas Chilton t...
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Timeline (2)Links (20)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyGovernance

Oliver Cromwell

bornactivedied
1599, Apr 251628-16581658, Sep 3
an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and the Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1653 until his death in1658. Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagu family of Hinchingbrooke House. He made ...
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Timeline (10)Links (22)

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