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When you've got a lot of people together, it makes sense to pick someone to be in charge. As exploration expanded, individuals were chosen to oversee colonies and settlements. This section highlights those men (and some women), as well as the leaders and attendant ruling class -- nobles, peerage, wannabes and hangers-on --back home.
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Cross-listed in ExplorersMilitary

Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac

aka: de la Motte, Sieur de Cadillac
borndied
1658, Mar 51730, Oct 16
a French explorer and adventurer in New France, an area of North America that stretched from present-day Eastern Canada in the north to Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico in the south. Rising from a modest beginning in Acadia in 1683 as an explorer, trapper, and a trader of alcohol and furs, he achieved various positions of political importance in the colony. H...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


John C. Calhoun

borndied
1782, Mar 181850, Mar 31
an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina, and the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He is best remembered for being a strong defender of slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics, which he did in the context of defending Southern values from perceived Northern threats. He began h...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)Notes (1)


Benedict Calvert

aka: 4th Baron Baltimore
borndied
1679, Mar 211715, Apr 16
an English nobleman and politician. He was the second son of Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore (1637–1715) by Jane Lowe, and became his father's heir upon the death of his elder brother Cecil in 1681. The 3rd Lord Baltimore was a devout Roman Catholic, and had lost his title to the Province of Maryland shortly after the events of the Glorious Revolution...
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Cecil Calvert

aka: 2nd Baron Baltimore
borndied
1605, Aug 81675, Nov 30
the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and the colony of Avalon (in the southeast). His title was "Cecil Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore, First Lord Proprietary, Earl Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". He received the proprietorship aft...
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Charles Calvert [1]

aka: 3rd Baron Baltimore
borndied
1637, Aug 271715, Feb 21
inherited the colony in 1675 upon the death of his father, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, (1605–1675). He had been his father's Deputy Governor since 1661 when he arrived in the colony at the age of 24. However, Charles left Maryland for England in 1684 and would never return. The events following the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688 would cost ...
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Charles Calvert [2]

aka: 5th Baron Baltimore
borndied
1699, Sep 291751, Apr 24
a British nobleman and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. He inherited the title to Maryland aged just fifteen, on the death of his father and grandfather, when the colony was restored by the British Monarchy to the Calvert family's control, following its seizure in 1688. In 1721 Charles came of age and assumed personal control of Maryland, tr...
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Frederick Calvert

aka: 6th Baron Baltimore
borndied
1731, Feb 61771, Sep 4
an English nobleman and last in the line of Barons Baltimore. Although he exercised almost feudal power in the Province of Maryland, he never once set foot in the colony and, unlike his father, he took little interest in politics, treating his estates, including Maryland, largely as sources of revenue to support his extravagant and often scandalous lifestyle...
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George Calvert

aka: 1st Baron Baltimore
borndied
15791632, Apr 15
an English politician and coloniser. He achieved domestic political success as a Member of Parliament and later Secretary of State under King James I. He lost much of his political power after his support for a failed marriage alliance between Prince Charles and the Spanish House of Habsburg royal family. Rather than continue in politics, he resigned all of ...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Alvaro Caminha

aka: Álvaro
borndied
unknown1499, Apr 28
appointed by King John II of Portugal in 1492 Captain-major (governor) of the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe which had been discovered 22 years earlier. He was told to settle and "Christianize" the then deserted island with his family and friars, and was apparently given the children of Spanish Jewish refugees who were married to Black people ...
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Johannes Camphuys

borndied
1634, Jul 181695, Jul 18
the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1684 to 1691. Camphuys was born in Haarlem, in the Republic of the United Netherlands. In his youth he was a student at a silversmith in Amsterdam. He left on November 1, 1652 aboard the cargo carrier to India. The ship, however, suffered shipwreck on March 2, 1653 at the Shetland Islands. Camphuys survived ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Armand-Gaston Camus

borndied
1740, Apr 21804, Nov 2
French revolutionist, was a successful advocate before the French Revolution. He was the son of Pierre Camus, a lawyer in the Parlement of Paris. In 1789 he was elected by the Third Estate of Paris to the Estates-General, and attracted attention by his speeches against social inequalities. He was one of the National Assembly's earliest presidents (28 October...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Elias Canneman

aka: lord of the Mijle
borndied
1777, Jan 251861, Oct 6
Canneman began his career as deputy secretary of the General Lending Bank of the People of Holland from 1795, then he was from 1798 to 1801 chief of the office copy of the agent for Finance of the Batavian Republic; then head of the treasury titled clerk, secretary (1805-1806) respectively. Secretary-General of Finance (1806-1810). From 1810 to the end of 18...
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Timeline (2)


Canonchet

aka: Cononchet
borndied
unknown1676
a Narragansett Sachem and leader of Native American troops during the Great Swamp Fight and King Philip's War. He was a son of Miantonomo. In 1676, having been surprised and captured, his life was offered him on condition of making peace with the English, but he spurned the proposition. When informed that he was to be put to death, he said: “I like it well...
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Canonicus

borndied
1565 ca1647, Jun 4
a Native American chief of the Narragansett people. Although wary of the European newcomers, he bowed before superior armaments and surrendered a portion of the territory of his people to the immigrants without war. He ultimately proved to be a firm friend of Roger Williams and other English settlers. In the words of historian Benjamin Lossing, Canonicus "re...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Ottone Enrico del Caretto

aka: Marquis of Savona
borndied
16291685, Jun 15
an Imperial Army commander and political figure. He became a Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1678, Field Marshal of the Empire, Imperial embassador in Madrid and General Captain and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands in April 1682.
Links (1)


Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau

aka: Wilhelmine Carolina
borndied
1743, Feb 281787, May 6
a Dutch regent. She was the daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and Anne, Princess Royal. She was regent of the Netherlands from 1765 until 1766 during the minority of her brother. Princess Carolina was born in Leeuwarden. In 1747, it was declared that the position of Stadtholder could be inherited by females, thus makin...
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Charles Carroll III

aka: of Carrollton
bornactivedied
1737, Sep 191772-18281832, Nov 14
a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and Confederation Congress and later as first United States Senator for Maryland. He was the only Catholic and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying 56 yea...
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George Carteret

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
1610 ca1680, Jan 18
a royalist statesman in Jersey and England, who served in the Clarendon Ministry as Treasurer of the Navy. He was also one of the original Lords Proprietor of the former British colony of Carolina and New Jersey. Carteret, New Jersey, as well as Carteret County, North Carolina, both in the United States, are named after him. He acquired the manor of Haynes, ...
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John Carteret

aka: 2nd Earl Granville, 7th Seigneur of Sark, Bailiff of Jersey, Lord Carteret
borndied
1690, Apr 221763, Jan 2
a British statesman and Lord President of the Council from 1751 to 1763; he worked extremely closely with the Prime Minister of the country, Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington in order to manage the various factions of the Government. Throughout life Carteret not only showed a keen love of the classics, but a taste for and knowledge of modern languages and ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Naval

Luis de Carvajal

aka: Luis de Carabajal y de la Cueva
borndied
1537 ca1591
governor of the Spanish province of Nuevo León in present-day Mexico, an alleged slave trader, and the first Spanish subject known to have entered Texas from Mexico across the lower Rio Grande. The territory granted to Carvajal included some portions in the south that had been settled by other Spaniards who refused to accept the terms of the grant and sued ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

John Carver

borndied
1584 ca1621, Apr
credited with writing the Mayflower Compact, was its first signer, and was the first governor of New Plymouth Colony. Carver was a Leiden Separatist instrumental in organizing the Pilgrim's Mayflower voyage in 1620, on which he was a passenger, and which resulted in the creation of Plymouth Colony in America.
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Cross-listed in Military

Ernest Casimir I

aka: Count of Nassau-Dietz
borndied
1573, Dec 221632, Jun 2
count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe. Ernst Casimir was primarily known as an outstanding military leader during the Eighty Years War. He served under Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange in the siege of the cities of Steenwijk and Oldenzaal, and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange during the Siege of Groenlo (1627) and the ...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

John Casimir of Simmern

borndied
1543, Mar 71592, Jan 6
a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine. A firm Calvinist, he was a leader of mercenary troops in the religious wars of the time, including the Dutch Revolt. From 1583–1592 he acted as regent for his nephew, Elector Palatine Frederick IV. ohn Casimir was in regular contact with Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and his nephe...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


John II Casimir Vasa

borndied
1609, Mar 221672, Dec 16
King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and commonly referred as Jan Kazimierz. His parents were Sigismund III Vasa (1566–1632) and Constance of Austria (1588–1631). His older brother, and predecessor ...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryWriters

Lewis Cass

bornactivedied
1782, Oct 91806-18601866, Jun 17
an American military officer, politician, and statesman. He represented Michigan in the United States Senate and served in the Cabinet of Andrew Jackson and James Buchanan. He was also the 1848 Democratic presidential nominee and a leading spokesman for the Doctrine of Popular Sovereignty, which held that the people in each territory should decide whether to...
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Cross-listed in Legal

Richard Caswell

bornactivedied
1729, Aug 31750-17891789, Nov 10
the first and fifth governor of the U.S. State of North Carolina, serving from 1776 to 1780 and from 1785 to 1787. A lawyer and surveyor by training, Caswell represented North Carolina in the Continental Congress of 1774 and 1775. When the Revolutionary War broke out, Caswell was the commander of the district of New Bern, NC Minutemen. As a Patriot officer i...
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Catherine of Aragon

borndied
1485, Dec 161536, Jan 7
Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur. The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They marr...
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Catherine of Braganza

borndied
1638, Nov 251705, Dec 31
Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1662 to 1685, by marriage to King Charles II. She also served as regent of Portugal during the absence of her brother in 1701 and 1704-05, after her return to Portugal as widow. Catherine was born into the House of Braganza, the most senior noble house of Portugal, which became Portugal's royal house after Catherin...
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Catherine the Great

aka: Catherine II
borndied
1729, Apr 211796, Nov 6
a Russian monarch. She was the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67, and arguably the most renowned. She came to power following a coup d'état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Russia was revitalised under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognised as o...
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Timeline (6)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Elizabeth Cavendish

aka: Duchess of Devonshire, Lady Elizabeth Foster
borndied
1758, May 131824, Mar 30
an English novelist and duchess. She is best known as Lady Elizabeth Foster, the close friend of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. Elizabeth supplanted the Duchess, gaining the affections of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, and later marrying him. Known as Bess, she was born Elizabeth Christiana Hervey in a small house in Horringer, St Ed...
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William Cavendish

aka: 5th Duke of Devonshire
borndied
1748, Dec 141811, Jul 29
a British nobleman, aristocrat, and politician. He was the eldest son of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, by his wife, the heiress Lady Charlotte Boyle, suo jure Baroness Clifford, who brought in considerable money and estates to the Cavendish family. He was invited to join the Cabinet on three occasions, but declined each offer. He was Lord High T...
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Chairachathirat

bornactivedied
unknown1534-15461546
King of the Ayutthaya kingdom of Siam. His reign was remarkable for the influx of Portuguese traders, mercenaries, and early Modern warfare technology. Prince Chairachathirat was a son of King Ramathibodi II. In 1533, following the death of his brother Borommaracha IV, his nephew Prince Ratsadathirat (Borommaracha IV's son) succeeded the Ayutthayan throne. C...
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Maha Chakkraphat

aka: Prince Thianracha, Prince Tien
bornactivedied
15091548-15691569
king of the Ayutthaya kingdom from 1548 to 1564 and 1568 to 1569. Originally called Prince Thianracha, or Prince Tien, he was put on the throne by Khun Phiren Thorathep and his supporters of the Sukhothai clan, who had staged a coup by killing the usurper King Worawongsathirat and Sudachan. His half-brother Prince Chairachathirat, which had been crowned King...
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Chan I

bornactivedied
unknown1516-15661566
one of the most illustrious Cambodian kings (reigned 1516–66) of the post-Angkor era. He successfully defended his kingdom against Cambodia’s traditional enemies, the Thais, invaded Siam (Thailand), and brought peace to Cambodia. Chan succeeded his uncle, King Dharmarajadhiraja (Thommoreachea). After quelling rebellions inspired by a pretender to the thr...
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Ang Chan II

aka: Otey Reachea II, Udaraja III
borndied
17921834, Dec
king of Cambodia from 1806 to his death in 1834. He reign under the name of Udaraja III.
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles I

bornactivedied
1600, Nov 191625-16491649, Jan 30
was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Supreme Governor of the Church of England (1625–1649). Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to...
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Timeline (34)Links (1)Notes (1)


Charles II of Austria

bornactivedied
1540, Jun 31564-15901590, Jul 10
an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. Unlike his brother, Emperor Maximilian II, Charles was a religious Catholic and promoted the Counter-Reformation, e.g. by inviting the Jesuits to his territory. However, in 1572, he had to make significant concessions to the...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Charles II of England

bornactivedied
1630, May 291660-16851685, Feb 6
the monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Supreme Governor of the Church of England (1660–1685). Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religio...
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Timeline (43)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Charles II of Guelders

borndied
1467, Nov 91538, Jun 30
a member of the House of Egmond who ruled as Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1492 until his death. He was the son of Adolf of Egmond and Catharine of Bourbon. He had a principal role in the Frisian peasant rebellion and the Guelders Wars. He fought in several battles against the armies of Charles VIII of France, until he was captured in the Battle...
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Charles II of Spain

borndied
1661, Nov 61700, Nov 1
the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado), he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule. He died in 1700, childless and h...
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Charles III of Spain

aka: Charles I
borndied
1716, Jan 201788, Dec 14
the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.
Timeline (3)Links (1)


Charles IX

bornactivedied
1550, Jun 271560-15741574, May 30
a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death from tuberculosis. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II. After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered ...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


HRE Charles V

aka: Charles I of Spain
bornactivedied
1500, Feb 241506-15561558, Sep 21
ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, a...
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Timeline (61)Links (2)


HRE Charles VI

aka: Charles III
bornactivedied
1685, Oct 11711-17401740, Oct 20
he succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700. He married ...
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Timeline (21)Links (1)


HRE Charles VII

borndied
1697, Aug 61745, Jan 20
the prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death, in 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was notably the only person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries although he was married to the younger daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and was descended fr...
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Charles VIII

borndied
1470, Jun 301498, Apr 7
a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498. He succeeded his father Louis XI at the age of 13. His elder sister Anne of France acted as regent jointly with her husband Peter II, Duke of Bourbon until 1491 when the young king turned 21 years of age. During Anne's regency, the great lords rebelled against royal...
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Timeline (7)Links (1)


Charles X

bornactivedied
unknown1824-1830unknown
King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois (in French, comte d'Artois). An uncle of the uncrowned King Louis XVII, and younger brother to reigning Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him. His rule of almost six years ended in the J...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Charles X Gustav

aka: Carl Gustav
bornactivedied
1622, Nov 81654-16601660, Feb 13
King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he also succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden a...
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Timeline (5)Links (4)


Charles XI

borndied
1655, Nov 241697, Apr 5
King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718). Charles was the only son of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden and Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp. His father died when he was five years old, so Charles was educated by his governors until his coronation at the age of seventeen. Soon after,...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Charles XII

bornactivedied
1682, Jun 171697-17181718, Nov 30
the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government, at the age of fifteen. Charles was an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactic...
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Timeline (9)Links (1)


Charles XIII of Sweden

aka: Carl, Karl, Charles II of Norway
bornactivedied
1748, Oct 71814-18181818, Feb 5
King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death. Though known as King Charles XIII in Sweden, he was actually the seventh Swedish king by that name, as Charles IX (reigned 1604–1611) had adopted his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden. Charles was described as dependent and easily in...
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Cross-listed in Military

Charles XIV John

aka: Charles III John of Norway, Carl John, Jean Bernadotte
bornactivedied
1763, Jan 261818-18441844, Mar 8
King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in south-central Italy, from 1806 until 1810. He was born Jean Bernadotte in France and served a long career in the French Army. He subseque...
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Charles XV

aka: Carl, Karl, Charles IV of Norway
bornactivedied
1826, May 31859-18721872, Sep 18
King of Sweden (Charles XV) and Norway (Charles IV) from 1859 until his death. Though known as King Charles XV in Sweden (and also on contemporary Norwegian coins), he was actually the ninth Swedish king by that name, as his predecessor Charles IX (reigned 1604–1611) had adopted a numeral according to a fictitious history of Sweden. Charles XV attained so...
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Balthasar Charles

borndied
1629, Oct 171646, Oct 9
Prince of Asturias, Prince of Girona, Duke of Montblanc, Count of Cervera, and Lord of Balaguer, Prince of Viana was heir apparent to all the kingdoms, states and dominions of the Spanish monarchy until his death. The only son of King Philip IV of Spain and his first wife, Elisabeth of France, he was baptized on November 4, 1629 in the Parish of San Juan, M...
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Charles Albert of Sardinia

borndied
1798, Oct 21849, Jul 28
also called "The Hesitant" for his variable political lines, was the King of Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. His name is bound up with the first Italian constitution, the Albertine Statute, and the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849). He abdicated after his forces were defeated by the Imperial Austrian army at the Battle of Novara (1849), and died in...
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Charles Alexander

aka: Karl Alexander
borndied
1818, Jun 241901, Jan 5
he ruler of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach as its grand duke from 1853 until his death. Karl Alexander renovated Wartburg Castle, and left his traces in many places in Eisenach. He was the protector of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt, retained the tradition of Weimar's classical period, and gave the old part of Weimar a new and better appearance with the establishment ...
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Charlotte of Bourbon

borndied
1546/471582, May 5
a Princess consort of Orange as the third spouse of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish. The plan for Charlotte was to renounce her inheritance and succeed her aunt. This plan was carried out upon the aunt's death, against Charlotte's wishes, and despite her being only 12. While abbess, Charlotte was ...
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Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

aka: Queen Charlotte
borndied
1744, May 191818, Nov, 17
the wife of King George III. She served as Queen of Great Britain and Queen of Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801, after which she was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1818. She was also the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to ...
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Job Charnock

borndied
1630 ca1692/93
an employee and administrator of the English East India Company, and traditionally regarded as the founder of the city of Kolkata. However, after the landmark Calcutta High Court ruling on 16 May 2003, his name has been purged from all official documents as the founder of Kolkata. Charnock was described as a silent morose man, not popular among his contempor...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Samuel Chase

bornactivedied
1741, Apr 171761-18111811, Jun 19
an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. Early in life, Chase was a "firebrand" states-righter and revolutionary. His political views changed over his lifetime, and, in the last decades of his career, he became well known as a staunch ...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)Notes (1)


Germain Louis Chauvelin

aka: marquis de Grosbois
borndied
1685, Mar 261762, Apr 1
a French politician, serving as garde des sceaux and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under Louis XV. On 1 November 1706, Germain Louis Chauvelin was given the joint offices of councillor to the Grand Conseil and of "grand rapporteur et correcteur des lettres de chancellerie". On 31 May 1711, he gained the post of maître des requêtes. On the death of...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Christian II

aka: Christian the Tyrant
bornactivedied
1481, Jul 11513-15231559, Jan 25
a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union. He reigned as King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 until 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 until 1521. From 1513 to 1523, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig and Holstein in joint rule with his uncle Frederick. He came into conflict with the Danish nobility when he was forced to sign a charter, more strict than any...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Christian III

bornactivedied
1503, Aug 121537-15591559, Jan 1
reigned as king of Denmark from 1534 until his death and Norway from 1537 until his death. During his reign, Christian established Lutheranism as the state religion within his realms as part of the Protestant Reformation. After his father's death, in 1533, Christian was proclaimed king at an assembly in Rye, a town in eastern Jutland, in 1534. The Danish Sta...
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Timeline (5)Links (6)


Christian IV

aka: Christian Firtal, Christian Kvart, Christian Quart
bornactivedied
1577, Apr 121588-16481648, Feb 28
king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies. A member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious, and proactive Danish kin...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Christian V

bornactivedied
1646, Apr 151670-16991699, Aug 25
king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. Well-regarded by the common people, he was the first king anointed at Frederiksborg Castle chapel as absolute monarch since the decree that institutionalized the supremacy of the Danish king, he fortified the absolutist system against the aristocracy by accelerating his father’s practice of allo...
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Christian VI

bornactivedied
1699, Nov 301730- 17461746, Aug 6
the King of Denmark and Norway from 1730 to 1746. The eldest surviving son of King Frederick IV and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, he is considered one of Denmark's more anonymous kings, but he was a skilled politician, best known for his authoritarian regime. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war. He was married...
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Christian VII

bornactivedied
1749, Jan 291766-18081808, Mar 13
a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death. For his motto he chose: "Gloria ex amore patriae" ("glory through love of the fatherland"). Christian VII's reign was marked by mental illness and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His half-brother Frederick ...
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Christian VIII

aka: Christian Frederick
bornactivedied
1786, Sep 1818141848, Jan 20
the King of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814. In May 1813, as the heir presumptive of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, Christian was sent as stattholder (the Danish king's highest representative in overseas territories) to Norway to promote the loyalty of the Norwegians to the House of Oldenburg, which had been...
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Cross-listed in Military

Henri Christophe

aka: Henry Christopher, Henry I, King of Haiti
borndied
1767, Oct 61820, Oct 8
a former slave of Bambara ethnicity, and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804. In 1805 he took part under Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the capturing of Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic), against French forces who acquired the colony from Spain in the Treaty of Basel. After Dessalines was assassi...
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Abraham Clark

bornactivedied
1726, Feb 151775-17941794, Sep 15
an American politician and Revolutionary War figure. He was delegate for New Jersey to the Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence and later served in the United States House of Representatives in both the Second and Third United States Congress, from March 4, 1791, until his death in 1794. Two of Clark's sons were officers in th...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersMilitary

William Clark [2]

bornactivedied
1770, Aug 11789-18291838, Sep 1
an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the U...
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Timeline (18)Links (15)Notes (5)


Cross-listed in ClergyWritersPhysicians

John Clarke

borndied
1609, Oct1676, Apr 20
a physician, Baptist minister, co-founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas. All of the other New England colonies were hostile to Rhode Island, and both Massachusetts and Connecticut had made incursions into Rhode Island territory. After th...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Henry Clay

bornactivedied
1777, Apr 121797-18521852, Jun 29
an American lawyer and planter, statesman, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. He served three non-consecutive terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and served as Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams from 1825 to 1829. Clay ran for the presidency in 1824, 1832 a...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in MilitaryLegal

Moses Cleaveland

borndied
1754, Jan 291806, Nov 16
a lawyer, politician, soldier and surveyor, from Connecticut who founded the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, while surveying the Western Reserve in 1796. He studied law at Yale University, graduating in 1777. That same year, with the American Revolutionary War in progress, he was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army...
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Chauncey Fitch Cleveland

borndied
1799, Feb 161887, Jun 6
an American politician, a United States Representative and the 31st Governor of Connecticut. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1819 and commenced practice in Hampton. Cleveland was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1826 to 1829, 1832, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1847, and 1848, and served as its speaker in 1836 and 1838. He was State's...
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DeWitt Clinton

borndied
1769, Mar 21828, Feb 11
an American politician and naturalist who served as a United States Senator, Mayor of New York City and sixth Governor of New York. In this last capacity, he was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton was a major candidate for the American presidency in the election of 1812, challenging incumbent James Madison. Clinton believed t...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Naval

George Clinton [1]

bornactivedied
1686 ca1720s-17611761, Jul 10
a Royal Navy officer and politician. Benefiting from the patronage of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle he served as a naval captain during the 1720s and 1730s. Clinton went on to be Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland, Commodore and Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet and then Governor of the Province of New York where he had to deal ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

George Clinton [2]

borndied
1739, Jul 151812, Apr 20
an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795, and again from 1801 to 1804, then served as the fourth Vice President of the United States from 1805 to 1812, under Presidents more
Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Henry Clinton

borndied
1730, Apr 161795, Dec 23
a British army officer and politician, best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many y...
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Cross-listed in MilitaryWriters

Robert Clive

aka: 1st Baron Clive, Clive of India
borndied
1725, Sep 291774, Nov 22
a British officer and adventurer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan) and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process he also turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren...
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Cross-listed in Military

John Clopton

bornactivedied
1756, Feb 71776-18161816, Sep 11
a United States Representative from Virginia. He served as first lieutenant and as captain in the Virginia militia during the American Revolutionary War, and was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine. Clopton was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1789 to 1791, and was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, serving...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

George Clymer

bornactivedied
1739, Mar 161765-17961813, Jan 23
an American politician and Founding Father of the United States. He was one of the first Patriots to advocate complete independence from Britain. As a Pennsylvania representative, Clymer was, along with five others, a signatory of both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He attended the Continental Congress, and served in political off...
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Links (19)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Commerce

Richard Cobden

borndied
1804, Jun 31865, Apr 2
an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty. As a young man, Cobden was a successful commercial traveller who became co-owner of a highly profitable calico printing factory in Manchester, a city with which he would become strongly identif...
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William Coddington

borndied
1601 ca1678, Nov 1
an early magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and later of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He served as the judge of Portsmouth and Newport, governor of Portsmouth and Newport, deputy governor of the four-town colony, and then governor of the entire colony. Coddington was born and raised in Lincolnshire, England. He accompanied t...
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Jan Pieterszoon Coen

borndied
1587, Jan 81629, Sep 21
an officer of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He was the founder of Batavia, the capital city of the Dutch East Indies. Renowned for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies, he was long conside...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)Notes (1)


Charles Colbert

aka: Marquis de Croissy
borndied
16251696, Jul 28
a French statesman and diplomat. In 1656 he bought a counsellorship at the parlement of Metz, and in 1658 was appointed intendant of Alsace and president of the newly created sovereign council of Alsace. In this position he had to re-organise the territory recently annexed to France. The steady support of his brother at court gained for him several diplomati...
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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

borndied
1619, Aug 291683, Sep 6
a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy. Historians note that, despi...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersPerformers

Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois

borndied
1749, Jun 191796, Jun 8
a French actor, dramatist, essayist, and revolutionary. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror and, while he saved Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, he administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon. May 1794 saw assassination attempts on both Collot and Maximilien Robespierre. As Collot was a...
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Mangas Coloradas

bornactivedied
1793 ca1820s-1850s1863
an Apache tribal chief and a member of the Mimbreño (Tchihende) division of the Central Apaches, whose homeland stretched west from the Rio Grande to include most of what is present-day southwestern New Mexico. He was the father-in-law of the Chiricahua (Tsokanende) Chief Cochise, the Mimbreño Chief Victorio and the Mescalero (Sehende) Chief Kutbhalla (pro...
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Concino Concini

aka: 1st Marquis d'Ancre
borndied
1575 ca1617, Apr 24
an Italian politician, best known for being a minister of Louis XIII of France, as the favourite of Louis's mother, Marie de Medici, Queen of France. A Florentine nobleman, Concini was born in Terranuova Bracciolini, a small village near Arezzo. He went to France with Maria de Medici, wife of Henri IV, and married the queen's lady-in-waiting, Leonora Dori, k...
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Anthony Ashley Cooper

aka: 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Lord Ashley, 2nd Baronet
borndied
1621, Jul 221683, Jan 21
a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. A founder of the Whig party, he is also remembered as the patron of John Locke. As a member of the Council of State, Cooper opposed the New Model Army's attempts to rule ...
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Timeline (7)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba [1]

aka: Francisco Hernández de Córdoba
borndied
1475 ca1526
reputed as the founder of Nicaragua, and in fact he founded two important Nicaraguan cities, Granada and León. The currency of Nicaragua is named the córdoba in his memory. Cordoba was an officer of Pedro Arias Dávila, known also as Pedrarias Dávila. Hernán Cortés and Hernan Ponce de Leon supported Cordoba during the conquest of Nicaragua in 1524. in r...
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Cornplanter

bornactivedied
1750s ca1816-18311831
a Seneca war chief and diplomat. As a chief warrior, Cornplanter fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. In both wars, the Seneca and three other Iroquois nations were allied with the British. After the war Cornplanter led negotiations with the United States and was a signatory of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784). He helped g...
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Cornstalk

aka: Hokoleskwa, Colesqua, Keigh-tugh-qua, Wynepuechsika
bornactivedied
1720 ca1760s-1770s1777
a prominent leader of the Shawnee nation just prior to the American Revolution. Cornstalk opposed European settlement west of the Ohio River in his youth, but he later became an advocate for peace after the Battle of Point Pleasant. His murder by American militiamen at Fort Randolph during a diplomatic visit in November 1777 outraged both American Indians an...
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Cross-listed in Military

Edward Cornwallis

borndied
1713, Mar 51776, Jan 14
a British military officer who was the first Governor of Nova Scotia at Halifax, Nova Scotia. He later served as the Governor of Gibraltar. He was also the twin brother of Frederick Cornwallis.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

William Cosby

bornactivedied
16901710-17361736
an Irish soldier who served as the British royal governor of New York from 1732 to 1736. During his short term as governor, Cosby was portrayed as one of the most oppressive royal placeholders in British Colonial America. In 1735, Cosby accused publisher John Peter Zenger of sedition and libel for publishing unflattering reports about Cosby. In spite of Cosb...
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Cosimo I de' Medici

aka: Duke of Florence,
borndied
1519, Jun 121574, Apr 21
the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany. Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548 he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence, assassinated in Venice. Cosimo also was an active builder of military ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Georges Couthon

borndied
1755, Dec 221794, Jul 28
a French politician and lawyer known for his service as a deputy in the Legislative Assembly during the French Revolution. Couthon was elected to the Committee of Public Safety on 30 May 1793 and served as a close associate of Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just until his arrest and execution in 1794 during the period of the Reign of Terro...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Robert Cowan

borndied
unknown1737, Feb 21
an Irish colonial administrator and the East India Company's Governor of Bombay from 1729 to 1734. Cowan was descended from Ulster Scots Presbyterian stock, and his father, John Cowan, was an Alderman of the city of Derry. He entered the service of the East India Company some time before 1720 and retired in 1735, two years before his death. In 1721, he was i...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Tench Coxe

borndied
1755, May 221824, Jul 17
an American political economist and a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress in 1788-1789. He wrote under the pseudonym "A Pennsylvanian," and was known to his political enemies as "Mr. Facing Bothways." After Patriots took power, Coxe left Philadelphia for a few months, only to return when British General Howe occupied the city in September 1...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyCommerceEducators

Elijah Craig

borndied
1740 ca1808, May 8
a Baptist preacher in Virginia, who became an educator and capitalist entrepreneur in the area of Virginia that later became the state of Kentucky. He has sometimes, although rather dubiously, been credited with the invention of bourbon whiskey. Craig became politically active as the legislative liaison of the general convention and general association to Vi...
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Links (1)


William H. Crawford

borndied
1772, Feb 241834, Sep 15
an American politician and judge during the early 19th century. He served as United States Secretary of War from 1815 to 1816 and United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1816 to 1825, and was a candidate for President of the United States in 1824.
Timeline (1)Links (13)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Davy Crockett

bornactivedied
1786, Aug 171813-18361836, Mar 6
a 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician. He is commonly referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier". He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives and served in the Texas Revolution. During his last term in Congress, Crockett collaborated with Kentucky Congressman Thomas Chilton t...
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Timeline (2)Links (20)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in ClergyMilitary

Oliver Cromwell

bornactivedied
1599, Apr 251628-16581658, Sep 3
an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and the Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1653 until his death in1658. Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagu family of Hinchingbrooke House. He made ...
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Timeline (10)Links (22)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Richard Cromwell

bornactivedied
1626, Oct 41658-16591712, Jul 12
Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the position. He also acted as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1658 until 1659.
Timeline (7)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Thomas Cromwell [1]

aka: 1st Earl of Essex
borndied
1485 ca1540, Jul 28
an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540. Cromwell was one of the strongest and most powerful advocates of the English Reformation. He helped to engineer an annulment of the king's marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon so that Henry could lawfully marry Anne Boleyn. Henry failed to obtain th...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)

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