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Governance
bornactivedied
1755/57, Jan 111770s-18041804, Jul 12
an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U.S. Constitution, as well as the founder of the nation's financial system, the Federalist Party, the United States Coast Guard, and The New York Post newspaper. As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration. He took the lead in the funding of the states' debts by the Federal government, as well as the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs, and friendly trade relations with Britain. His vision included a strong central government led by a vigorous executive branch, a strong commercial economy, with a national bank and support for manufacturing, plus a strong military.
 Timeline (5)
03/14/1776-Alexander Hamilton is named captain of artillery company
10/27/1787-The "Federalist Papers" begins publication,the first in a series of 85 essays (published serially, until May 28, 1788) by "Publius," the pen name of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, appears in the New York Independent Journal , calls for ratification of Constitution
06/13/1789-Mrs. Alexander Hamilton serves ice cream for dessert to George Washington 
09/11/1789-Alexander Hamilton appointed first Secretary of Treasury
07/11/1804-Alexander Hamilton is killed in a duel by Aaron Burr in Weehawken, NJ
 Notes (7)
10 essential facts about Alexander Hamilton:
Constitution Daily
American politics at its most uncivil — in 1804:
The Spectator
Burr slays Hamilton in duel:
Jul 11, 1804
History.com
Duel At Dawn, 1804:
EyeWitness to History
How Alexander Hamilton’s friends grieved:
New York Post
Interview at Weehauken:
Fenimore Art Museum
What Eliza Hamilton Left Behind:
New York Public Library
 Mentions (4)
Thomas Jefferson
...organized the Democratic-Republican Party in opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party. He was elected the second...
Robert Morris Jr.
...Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Along with Alexander Hamilton and Albert Gallatin, he is widely regarded...
Gilbert du Motier
...Revolutionary War. A close friend of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson, Lafayette was a key figure...
Henry Sargent
...national army then being raised under the command of Alexander Hamilton. This service was brief, but it gave Sargent a...
 Quotes (100) • View in Quotations
A feeble executive implies a feeble execution of the government. A feeble execution is but another phrase for a bad execution; and a government ill executed, whatever may be its theory, must be, in practice, a bad government.
A fondness for power is implanted, in most men, and it is natural to abuse it, when acquired.
A government ought to contain in itself every power requisite to the full accomplishment of the objects committed to its care, and to the complete execution of the trusts for which it is responsible, free from every other control but a regard to the public good and to the sense of the people.
And it proves, in the last place, that liberty can have nothing to fear from the judiciary alone, but would have everything to fear from its union with either of the other departments.
As on the one hand, the necessity for borrowing in particular emergencies cannot be doubted, so on the other, it is equally evident that to be able to borrow upon good terms, it is essential that the credit of a nation should be well established.
As riches increase and accumulate in few hands, as luxury prevails in society, virtue will be in a greater degree considered as only a graceful appendage of wealth, and the tendency of things will be to depart from the republican standard. This is the real disposition of human nature; it is what neither the honorable member nor myself can correct. It is a common misfortunate that awaits our State constitution, as well as all others.
As to Taxes, they are evidently inseparable from Government. It is impossible without them to pay the debts of the nation, to protect it from foreign danger, or to secure individuals from lawless violence and rapine.
But as the plan of the convention aims only at a partial union or consolidation, the State governments would clearly retain all the rights of sovereignty which they before had, and which were not, by that act, EXCLUSIVELY delegated to the United States.
Constitutions of civil government are not to be framed upon a calculation of existing exigencies, but upon a combination of these with the probable exigencies of ages, according to the natural and tried course of human affairs. Nothing, therefore, can be more fallacious than to infer the extent of any power, proper to be lodged in the national government, from an estimate of its immediate necessities.
Energy in the executive is a leading character in the definition of good government. It is essential to the protection of the community against foreign attacks; it is not less essential to the steady administration of the laws; to the protection of property against those irregular and high-handed combinations which sometimes interrupt the ordinary course of justice; to the security of liberty against the enterprises and assaults of ambition, of faction, and of anarchy.
Experience is the oracle of truth; and where its responses are unequivocal, they ought to be conclusive and sacred.
Foreign influence is truly the Grecian horse to a republic. We cannot be too careful to exclude its influence.
Good constitutions are formed upon a comparison of the liberty of the individual with the strength of government: If the tone of either be too high, the other will be weakened too much. It is the happiest possible mode of conciliating these objects, to institute one branch peculiarly endowed with sensibility, another with knowledge and firmness. Through the opposition and mutual control of these bodies, the government will reach, in its regular operations, the perfect balance between liberty and power.
Government implies the power of making laws. It is essential to the idea of a law, that it be attended with a sanction; or, in other words, a penalty or punishment for disobedience.
Here sir, the people govern.
However weak our country may be, I hope we shall never sacrifice our liberties. .
I am persuaded that a firm union is as necessary to perpetuate our liberties as it is to make us respectable; and experience will probably prove that the National Government will be as natural a guardian of our freedom as the State Legislatures.
I go further, and affirm that bills of rights, in the sense and to the extent in which they are contended for, are not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution, but would even be dangerous. They would contain various exceptions to powers not granted; and on this very account, would afford a colorable pretext to claim more than were granted. For why declare that things shall not be done which there is no power to do?
I never expect to see a perfect work from imperfect man.
I trust that the proposed Constitution afford a genuine specimen of representative government and republican government; and that it will answer, in an eminent degree, all the beneficial purposes of society.
I will venture to assert that no combination of designing men under heaven will be capable of making a government unpopular which is in its principles a wise and good one, and vigorous in its operations.
If a well-regulated militia be the most natural defense of a free country, it ought certainly to be under the regulation and at the disposal of that body which is constituted the guardian of the national security. If standing armies are dangerous to liberty, an efficacious power over the militia in the same body ought, as far as possible, to take away the inducement and the pretext to such unfriendly institutions. If the federal government can command the aid of the militia in those emergencies which call for the military arm in support of the civil magistrate, it can the better dispense with the employment of a different kind of force. If it cannot avail itself of the former, it will be obliged to recur to the latter. To render an army unnecessary will be a more certain method of preventing its existence than a thousand prohibitions upon paper.
If duties are too high, they lessen the consumption; the collection is eluded; and the product to the treasury is not so great as when they are confined within proper and moderate bounds. This forms a complete barrier against any material oppression of the citizens by taxes of this class, and is itself a natural limitation of the power of imposing them.
If it be asked, What is the most sacred duty and the greatest source of our security in a Republic? The answer would be, An inviolable respect for the Constitution and Laws -- the first growing out of the last.... A sacred respect for the constitutional law is the vital principle, the sustaining energy of a free government.
If mankind were to resolve to agree in no institution of government, until every part of it had been adjusted to the most exact standard of perfection, society would soon become a general scene of anarchy, and the world a desert.
If the federal government should overpass the just bounds of its authority and make a tyrannical use of its powers, the people, whose creature it is, must appeal to the standard they have formed, and take such measures to redress the injury done to the Constitution as the exigency may suggest and prudence justify.
In all very numerous assemblies, of whatever character composed, passion never fails to wrest the sceptre from reason. ... Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob.
In disquisitions of every kind there are certain primary truths, or first principles, upon which all subsequent reasoning must depend.
In politics, as in religion, it is equally absurd to aim at making proselytes by fire and sword. Heresies in either can rarely be cured by persecution.
In the first place, there is not a syllable in the plan under consideration which directly empowers the national courts to construe the laws according to the spirit of the Constitution, or which gives them any greater latitude in this respect than may be claimed by the courts of every State.
Industry is increased, commodities are multiplied, agriculture and manufacturers flourish: and herein consists the true wealth and prosperity of a state.
It is a just observation that the people commonly intend the Public Good. This often applies to their very errors. But their good sense would despise the adulator who should pretend they always reason right about the means of promoting it.
It is a singular advantage of taxes on articles of consumption that they contain in their own nature a security against excess. They prescribe their own limit, which cannot be exceeded without defeating the end purposed -- that is, an extension of the revenue.
It is an unquestionable truth, that the body of the people in every country desire sincerely its prosperity. But it is equally unquestionable that they do not possess the discernment and stability necessary for systematic government. To deny that they are frequently led into the grossest of errors, by misinformation and passion, would be a flattery which their own good sense must despise.
It is evident from the state of the country, from the habits of the people, from the experience we have had on the point itself, that it is impracticable to raise any very considerable sums by direct taxation.
It is one thing to be subordinate to the laws, and another [for the Executive] to be dependent on the legislative body. The first comports with, the last violates, the fundamental principles of good government; and, whatever may be the forms of the Constitution, unites all power in the same hands.
It seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend for their political constitutions on accident and force. If there be any truth in the remark, the crisis at which we are arrived may with propriety be regarded as the era in which that decision is to be made; and a wrong election of the part we shall act may, in this view, deserve to be considered as the general misfortune of mankind.
It was remarked yesterday that a numerous representation was necessary to obtain the confidence of the people. This is not generally true. The confidence of the people will easily be gained by a good administration. This is the true touchstone.
It will be of little avail to the people, that the laws are made by men of their own choice, if the laws be so voluminous that they cannot be read, or so incoherent that they cannot be understood; if they be repealed or revised before they are promulgated, or undergo such incessant changes that no man, who knows what the law is to-day, can guess what it will be to-morrow.
It will not be too strong to say, that there will be a constant probability of seeing the station [of President] filled by characters pre-eminent for ability and virtue.
Law is defined to be a rule of action; but how can that be a rule, which is little known, and less fixed?
Let the thirteen States, bound together in a strict and indissoluble Union, concur in erecting one great American system, superior to the control of all transatlantic force or influence, and able to dictate the terms of the connection between the old and the new world!
Let us recollect that peace or war will not always be left to our option; that however moderate or unambitious we may be, we cannot count upon the moderation, or hope to extinguish the ambition of others.
Measures which serve to abridge the free competition of foreign Articles, have a tendency to occasion an enhancement of prices.
No government, any more than an individual, will long be respected without being truly respectable; nor be truly respectable, without possessing a certain portion of order and stability.
No man in his senses can hesitate in choosing to be free, rather than a slave.
Of all the cares or concerns of government, the direction of war most peculiarly demands those qualities which distinguish the exercise of power by a single hand. The direction of war implies the direction of the common strength; and the power of directing and employing the common strength, forms a usual and essential part in the definition of the executive authority.
Of those men who have overturned the liberties of republics, the greatest number have begun their career by paying an obsequious court to the people, commencing demagogues and ending tyrants
Responsibility, in order to be reasonable, must be limited to objects within the power of the responsible party, and in order to be effectual, must relate to operations of that power, of which a ready and proper judgment can be formed by the constituents.
States, like individuals, who observe their engagements, are respected and trusted: while the reverse is the fate of those who pursue an opposite conduct.
The aim of every political constitution is, or ought to be, first to obtain for rulers men who possess most wisdom to discern, and most virtue to pursue, the common good of the society; and in the next place, to take the most effectual precautions for keeping them virtuous whilst they continue to hold their public trust.
The best we can hope for concerning the people at large is that they be properly armed.
The circumstances that endanger the safety of nations are infinite, and for this reason no constitutional shackles can wisely be imposed on the power to which the care of it is committed.
The citizens of America have too much discernment to be argued into anarchy. and I am much mistaken if experience has not wrought a deep and solemn conviction in the public mind that greater energy of government is essential to the welfare and prosperity of the community.
The Constitution ought to be the standard of construction for the laws, and that wherever there is an evident opposition, the laws ought to give place to the Constitution. But this doctrine is not deducible from any circumstance peculiar to the plan of convention, but from the general theory of a limited Constitution.
The fabric of American empire ought to rest on the solid basis of the consent of the people. The streams of national power ought to flow immediately from that pure, original fountain of all legitimate authority.
The fundamental source of all your errors, sophisms and false reasonings is a total ignorance of the natural rights of mankind. Were you once to become acquainted with these, you could never entertain a thought, that all men are not, by nature, entitled to a parity of privileges. You would be convinced, that natural liberty is a gift of the beneficent Creator to the whole human race, and that civil liberty is founded in that; and cannot be wrested from any people, without the most manifest violation of justice.
The great desiderata are a free representation and mutual checks. When these are obtained, all our apprehensions of the extent of powers are unjust and imaginary.
The great leading objects of the federal government, in which revenue is concerned, are to maintain domestic peace, and provide for the common defense. In these are comprehended the regulation of commerce that is, the whole system of foreign intercourse; the support of armies and navies, and of the civil administration.
The history of ancient and modern republics had taught them that many of the evils which those republics suffered arose from the want of a certain balance, and that mutual control indispensable to a wise administration. They were convinced that popular assemblies are frequently misguided by ignorance, by sudden impulses, and the intrigues of ambitious men; and that some firm barrier against these operations was necessary. They, therefore, instituted your Senate.
The idea of restraining the legislative authority in the means of providing for the national defense is one of those refinements which owe their origin to a zeal for liberty more ardent than enlightened.
The ingredients which constitute energy in the Executive are, first, unity; secondly, duration; thirdly, an adequate provision for its support; fourthly, competent powers. ... The ingredients which constitute safety in the republican sense are, first, a due dependence on the people, secondly, a due responsibility.
The injury which may possibly be done by defeating a few good laws, will be amply compensated by the advantage of preventing a number of bad ones.
The instrument by which it [government] must act are either the AUTHORITY of the laws or FORCE. If the first be destroyed, the last must be substituted; and where this becomes the ordinary instrument of government there is an end to liberty!
The Judiciary...has no influence over either the sword or the purse; no direction either of the strength or of the wealth of the society, and can take no active resolution whatever. It may truly be said to have neither force nor will, but merely judgment; and must ultimately depend upon the aid of the executive arm even for the efficacy of its judgments.
The local interest of a State ought in every case to give way to the interests of the Union. For when a sacrifice of one or the other is necessary, the former becomes only an apparent, partial interest, and should yield, on the principle that the smaller good ought never to oppose the greater good.
The natural cure for an ill-administration, in a popular or representative constitution, is a change of men.
The present Constitution is the standard to which we are to cling. Under its banners, bona fide must we combat our political foes -- rejecting all changes but through the channel itself provides for amendments.
The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Senate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power. This fully corresponds, in every rational import of the terms, with the idea of a federal government.
The propriety of a law, in a constitutional light, must always be determined by the nature of the powers upon which it is founded.
The prosperity of commerce is now perceived and acknowledged by all enlightened statesmen to be the most useful as well as the most productive source of national wealth, and has accordingly become a primary object of its political cares.
The regular distribution of power into distinct departments; the introduction of legislative balances and checks; the institution of courts composed of judges holding their offices during good behavior; the representation of the people in the legislature by deputies of their own election... They are means, and powerful means, by which the excellences of republican government may be retained and its imperfections lessened or avoided.
The republican principle demands that the deliberate sense of the community should govern the conduct of those to whom they entrust the management of their affairs; but it does not require an unqualified complaisance to every sudden breeze of passion or to every transient impulse which the people may receive from the arts of men, who flatter their prejudices to betray their interests.
The rights of neutrality will only be respected when they are defended by an adequate power. A nation, despicable by its weakness, forfeits even the privilege of being neutral.
The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for, among old parchments, or musty records. They are written, as with a sun beam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself; and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.
The standard of good behavior for the continuance in office of the judicial magistracy is certainly one of the most valuable of the modern improvements in the practice of government.
The State governments possess inherent advantages, which will ever give them an influence and ascendancy over the National Government, and will for ever preclude the possibility of federal encroachments. That their liberties, indeed, can be subverted by the federal head, is repugnant to every rule of political calculation.
The tendency of a national bank is to increase public and private credit. The former gives power to the state, for the protection of its rights and interests: and the latter facilitates and extends the operations of commerce among individuals. Industry is increased, commodities are multiplied, agriculture and manufacturers flourish: and herein consists the true wealth and prosperity of a state.
The true principle of government is this -- make the system compleat in its structure; give a perfect proportion and balance to its parts; and the powers you give it will never affect your security.
The truth is, after all the declamations we have heard, that the Constitution is itself, in every rational sense, and to every useful purpose, A BILL OF RIGHTS.
There are certain social principles in human nature, from which we may draw the most solid conclusions with respect to the conduct of individuals and of communities. We love our families more than our neighbors; we love our neighbors more than our countrymen in general. The human affections, like solar heat, lose their intensity as they depart from the centre... On these principles, the attachment of the individual will be first and for ever secured by the State governments. They will be a mutual protection and support.
There is a certain enthusiasm in liberty, that makes human nature rise above itself, in acts of bravery and heroism.
There is no part of the administration of government that requires extensive information and a thorough knowledge of the principles of political economy, so much as the business of taxation. The man who understands those principles best will be least likely to resort to oppressive expedients, or sacrifice any particular class of citizens to the procurement of revenue. It might be demonstrated that the most productive system of finance will always be the least burdensome.
There is nothing absurd or impracticable in the idea of a league or alliance between independent nations for certain defined purposes precisely stated in a treaty regulating all the details of time, place, circumstance, and quantity; leaving nothing to future discretion; and depending for its execution on the good faith of the parties.
There is something so far-fetched and so extravagant in the idea of danger to liberty from the militia that one is at a loss whether to treat it with gravity or with raillery; whether to consider it as a mere trial of skill, like the paradoxes of rhetoricians; as a disingenuous artifice to instill prejudices at any price; or as the serious.
This balance between the National and State governments ought to be dwelt on with peculiar attention, as it is of the utmost importance. It forms a double security to the people. If one encroaches on their rights they will find a powerful protection in the other. Indeed, they will both be prevented from overpassing their constitutional limits by a certain rivalship, which will ever subsist between them.
This process of election affords a moral certainty that the office of President will seldom fall to the lot of any many who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications.
To cherish and stimulate the activity of the human mind, by multiplying the objects of enterprise, is not among the least considerable of the expedients, by which the wealth of a nation may be promoted.
To grant that there is a supreme intelligence who rules the world and has established laws to regulate the actions of his creatures; and still to assert that man, in a state of nature, may be considered as perfectly free from all restraints of law and government, appears to a common understanding altogether irreconcilable. Good and wise men, in all ages, have embraced a very dissimilar theory. They have supposed that the deity, from the relations we stand in to himself and to each other, has constituted an eternal and immutable law, which is indispensably obligatory upon all mankind, prior to any human institution whatever. This is what is called the law of nature....Upon this law depend the natural rights of mankind.
To judge from the history of mankind, we shall be compelled to conclude that the fiery and destructive passions of war reign in the human breast with much more powerful sway than the mild and beneficent sentiments of peace; and that to model our political systems upon speculations of lasting tranquility would be to calculate on the weaker springs of human character.
To model our political system upon speculations of lasting tranquility, is to calculate on the weaker springs of the human character.
War, like most other things, is a science to be acquired and perfected by diligence, by perseverance, by time, and by practice.
Were the pictures which have been drawn by the political jealousy of some among us faithful likenesses of the human character, the inference would be, that there is not sufficient virtue among men for self-government; and that nothing less than the chains of despotism can restrain them from destroying and devouring one another.
When occasions present themselves, in which the interests of the people are at variance with their inclinations, it is the duty of the persons whom they have appointed to be the guardians of those interests, to withstand the temporary delusion, in order to give them time and opportunity for more cool and sedate reflection.
When you assemble from your several counties in the Legislature, were every member to be guided only by the apparent interest of his county, government would be impracticable. There must be a perpetual accommodation and sacrifice of local advantage to general expediency.
Wherever indeed a right of property is infringed for the general good, if the nature of the case admits of compensation, it ought to be made; but if compensation be impracticable, that impracticability ought to be an obstacle to a clearly essential reform.
While the constitution continues to be read, and its principles known, the states, must, by every rational man, be considered as essential component parts of the union; and therefore the idea of sacrificing the former to the latter is totally inadmissible.
Whoever attentively considers the different departments of power must perceive, that, in a government in which they are separated from each other, the judiciary, from the nature of its functions, will always be the least dangerous to the political rights of the Constitution; because it will be least in a capacity to annoy or injure them.
Why has government been instituted at all? Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice without constraint.
Wise politicians will be cautious about fettering the government with restrictions that cannot be observed, because they know that every break of the fundamental laws, though dictated by necessity, impairs that sacred reverence which out to be maintained in the breast of rulers towards the constitution of a country.
 Contemporaries
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Alexander Hamilton1755/57, Jan 111770
 
18041804, Jul 12

Adolf Frederick1710, May 141751
 
17711771, Feb 12
 King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. The first king from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adol...
Empress Go-Sakuramachi 1740, Sep 231762
 
17711813, Dec 24
 the 117th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Go-Sakuramachi's re...
Louis XV1710, Feb 151715
 
17741774, May 10
 a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 u...
Mustafa III1717, Jan 18/281757
 
17741774, Jan 21
  the Sultan and Caliph of the Ottoman Empire from 1757 to 1774. He was a son of Sultan Ahmed III ...
John Morton [2]17251756
 
17771777, Apr 1
 a farmer, surveyor, and jurist from the Province of Pennsylvania and a Founding Father of the Uni...
Button Gwinnett17351765
 
17771777, May 19
 a British-born American founding father who, as a representative of Georgia to the Continental Co...
Thomas Lynch Jr.1749, Aug 51772
 
 
17771779
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of South Carolina; ...
Philip Livingston1716, Jan 151737
 
17781778, Jun 12
 an American merchant and statesman from New York City. He was a delegate for New York to the Cont...
John Hart [2]1710 ca1750
 
17781779, May 11
 a public official and politician in colonial New Jersey who served as a delegate to the Continent...
Stephen Hopkins1707, Mar 71730
 
17791785, Jul 13
 a governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, a Chief Justice of the Rhode...
Robert Rogers1731, Nov 71746
 
17791795, May 18
 an American colonial frontiersman. Rogers served in the British army during both the French and I...
George Ross Jr.1730, May 101756
 
17791779, Jul 14
 a signer of the Continental Association and the United States Declaration of Independence as a re...
Cornstalk1720 ca1760
 
17791777
 a prominent leader of the Shawnee nation just prior to the American Revolution. Cornstalk opposed...
Joseph Hewes1730, Jan 231763
 
17791779, Nov 10
 Hewes attended Princeton but there is no evidence that he actually graduated. What is known is th...
Chief Logan1725 ca1770
 
17791780
 a Native American orator and war leader born in the Iroquois Confederacy. Although he was of the ...
Emperor Go-Momozono 1758, Aug 51771
 
 
17791779, Dec 16
 the 118th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Go-Momozono's reign...
Francis Lightfoot Lee1734, Oct 141774
 
 
17791797, Jan 11
 a member of the House of Burgesses in the Colony of Virginia. As an active protester regarding is...
Reynier de Klerck1710, Nov1730
 
17801780, Sep 1
  Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1778 until 1780. De Klerk's date of birth is not ...
Francis Lewis1713, Mar 211734
 
17801802, Dec 31
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New York. He was...
Maria Theresa1717, May 131740
 
17801780, Nov 29
 the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was th...
George Taylor1716 ca1736
 
17811781, Feb 23
 a Colonial ironmaster and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a represen...
John Witherspoon1723, Feb 51745
 
17811794, Nov 15
  a Scots Presbyterian minister and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence a...
Richard Stockton1730, Oct 11754
 
17811781, Feb 28
 an American lawyer, jurist, legislator, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Stockton...
Thomas Gage1718/19, Mar 101741
 
17821787, Apr 2
 a British general best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role a...
Jack Jouett1754, Dec 71776
 
 
17821822, Mar 1
 a politician and a hero of the American Revolution, known as the "Paul Revere of the South" for h...
Charles Edward Stuart1720, Dec 311743
 
17831788, Jan 31
 the second Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland from the de...
John Hanson1721, Apr 31750
 
17831783, Nov 15
 a merchant and public official from Maryland during the era of the American Revolution. In 1779, ...
Caesar Rodney1728, Oct 71755
 
17841784, Jun 25
 an American lawyer and politician from St. Jones Neck in Dover Hundred, Kent County, Delaware, ea...
Silas Deane1737, Dec 241759
 
17841789, Sep 23
 an American merchant, politician, and diplomat, and a supporter of American independence. Deane s...
John Penn1741, May 171762
 
17841788, Sep 14
 a signer of both the United States Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation ...
Joseph Reed [2]1741, Aug 271770
 
17841785, Mar 5
 a lawyer, military officer and statesman of the Revolutionary Era who lived the majority of his l...
James Smith [2]1719, Sep 171740
 
17851806, Jul 11
 an American lawyer and a signer to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representat...
William Whipple Jr.1730, Jan 141751
 
17851785, Nov 28
 a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire...
Thomas Stone17431764
 
17851787, Oct 5
 an American planter and lawyer who signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a dele...
Matthew Thornton1713, Mar 171740
 
17861803, Jun 24
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire. I...
Jean Sylvain Bailly1736, Sep 151759
 
17871793, Nov 12
 a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the Fren...
Arthur Middleton1742, Jun 261764
 
17871787, Jan 1
 a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence. He was educated in Britain, at Harr...
Juan Bautista de Anza1736, Jul 6/71752
 
17881788, Dec 19
 a New-Spanish explorer of Basque descent, and Governor of New Mexico for the Spanish Empire. In 1...
Henry Laurens1723, Feb 241757
 
17881792, Dec 8
 an American merchant, slave trader, and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political l...
Lewis Morris1726, Apr 81760
 
17881798, Jan 22
 an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. He signed the U.S. Declaration of ...
William Hooper1742, Jun 281764
 
17881790, Oct 14
 an American lawyer, politician, and a member of the Continental Congress representing North Carol...
Benjamin Franklin1705, Jan 61718
 
17891790, Apr 17
 one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading aut...
Richard Caswell1729, Aug 31750
 
17891789, Nov 10
 the first and fifth governor of the U.S. State of North Carolina, serving from 1776 to 1780 and f...
Ethan Allen1737, Jan 101757
 
17891789, Feb 12
 a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolut...
Thomas Nelson Jr.1738, Dec 261761
 
17891789, Jan 4
 an American planter, soldier, and statesman from Yorktown, Virginia. He represented Virginia in t...
Michael Hillegas1729, Apr 221765
 
17891804, Sep 29
 a merchant, sugar refiner, and iron magnate who used his wealth to assist the American revolution...
Abdul Hamid I1725, Mar 201774
 
 
17891789, Apr 7
 the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate (Islam), reigning over ...
William Pierce17531775
 
 
17891789, Dec 10
 an army officer during the American Revolutionary War and a member of the United States Constitut...
Mohammed III1710 ca1748
 
17901790, Apr 9
 Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite dynasty. He was the governor of Marrakech ...
Lyman Hall1724, Apr 121749
 
17901790, Oct 19
  physician, clergyman, and statesman, was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independen...
Josiah Bartlett1729, Nov 211750
 
17901795, May 19
 an American physician and statesman, delegate to the Continental Congress for New Hampshire, and ...
HRE Joseph II1741, Mar 131765
 
17901790, Feb 20
  Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was t...
David Brearley1745, Jun 111776
 
 
17901790, Aug 16
 a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signed the U.S. Constitution on behalf of Ne...
Benjamin Harrison V1726, Apr 51745
 
17911791, Apr 24
 an American politician, planter, and merchant, a revolutionary leader and a Founding Father of th...
James De Lancey [2]17321758
 
17911800
 a colonial politician, turfman, and the son of Lieutenant Governor James De Lancey and Anne Heath...
Francis Hopkinson1737, Sep 211761
 
17911791, May 9
 designed the first official American flag. He was an author, a composer, and one of the signers o...
William Paca1740, Oct 311761
 
17911799, Oct 13
 a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland, and...
Pomare I1753 ca1788
 
 
17911803, Sep 3
 the unifier and first king of Tahiti and founder of the Pomare dynasty and the Kingdom of Tahiti ...
Hamengkubuwono Iunknown1755
 
17921792
 the first sultan of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.He ruled from February 13, 1755 to March 24, 1792. As a...
Richard Henry Lee1732, Jan 201757
 
17921794, Jun 19
 an American statesman from Virginia best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress ...
James Wilson [2]1742, Sep 141766
 
17921798, Aug 21
 one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration...
Nguyen Hue17531788
 
 
17921792, Sep 16
 the second emperor of the Tay Son dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the ...
HRE Leopold II1747, May 51790
 
 
17921792, Mar 1
 Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Gra...
John Hancock1736, Jan 121754
 
17931793, Oct 8
 an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as p...
Roger Sherman1721, Apr 191754
 
17931793, Jul 23
 an early American lawyer and statesman, as well as a Founding Father of the United States. He ser...
Israel Jacobs1726, Jun 91770
 
17931796, Dec 10
 a colonial Pennsylvania Legislator and United States Representative from Pennsylvania. In 1790, J...
King Louis XVI1754, Aug 231774
 
 
17931793, Jan 21
  King of France from 1774 until his deposition in 1792, although his formal title after 1791 was ...
Carter Braxton1736, Sep 101760
 
17941797, Oct 10
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, as well as a merchant, planter, and Vi...
Abraham Clark1726, Feb 151775
 
 
17941794, Sep 15
 an American politician and Revolutionary War figure. He was delegate for New Jersey to the Contin...
Artemas Ward1727, Nov 261751
 
17951800, Oct 28
 an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts....
John Rutledge1739, Sep 171760
 
17951800, Jul 23
 the second Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. A lawyer and a judge, Rutledg...
Samuel Huntington1731, Jul 51754
 
17961796, Jan 5
 a jurist, statesman, and Patriot in the American Revolution from Connecticut. As a delegate to th...
George Clymer1739, Mar 161765
 
17961813, Jan 23
 an American politician and Founding Father of the United States. He was one of the first Patriots...
Anthony Wayne1745, Jan 11775
 
 
17961796, Dec 15
 a United States Army officer, statesman, and member of the United States House of Representatives...
Horace Walpole1717, Sep 241737
 
17971797, Mar 2
 an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. He had Strawberry Hill...
Oliver Wolcott1726, Nov 201747
 
17971797, Dec 1
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and also the Articles of Confederation ...
Martha Washington1731, Jun 21789
 
 
17971802, May 22
 the wife of George Washington, the first President of the United States. Although the title was n...
George Washington1732, Feb111789
 
 
17971799, Dec 14
 the first President of the United States (1789–97), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental A...
Samuel Adams1734, Jan 201750
 
17981806, May 8
 an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United State...
Robert Morris Jr.1734, Jan 201750
 
17981806, May 8
 a Founding Father of the United States, was a Liverpool-born American merchant who financed the A...
George Read1733, Sep 181753
 
17981798, Sep 21
 an American lawyer and politician from New Castle in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a signer...
Thomas Heyward Jr.1746, Jul 281775
 
 
17981809, Mar 6
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and of the Articles of Confederation as...
Patrick Henry1736, May 291760
 
17991799, Jun 6
 an American attorney, planter and politician who became known as an orator during the movement fo...
John Mare Jr.17391765
 
17991802/03
 an American painter, businessman, and public figure. Not much is known of Mare's training, althou...
Tipu Sultan1750, Nov 101766
 
17991799, May 4
  a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. Tipu intr...
Red Jacket1750 ca1770
 
17991830
 a Native American Seneca orator and chief of the Wolf clan. He negotiated on behalf of his nation...
Daniel Morgan1736, Jul 61775
 
 
17991802, Jul 6
 an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. One of the most gif...
Fisher Ames1758, Apr 91774
 
 
18001808, Jul 4
 a Representative in the United States Congress from the 1st Congressional District of Massachuset...
Edward Rutledge1749, Nov 231774
 
 
18001800, Jan 23
 an American politician, and youngest signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. He ...
Frederick Muhlenberg1750, Jan 11770
 
18011801, Jun 4
 an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Repre...
John Adams [2]1735, Oct 301797
 
 
18011826, Jul 4
 an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat. He served as the second President of the Uni...
John Wattsunknown1788
 
 
18021802
 one of the leaders of the Chickamauga Cherokee (or "Lower Cherokee") during the Cherokee-American...
Robert Treat Paine1731, Mar 111757
 
18041814, May 11
 a Massachusetts lawyer and politician, best known as a signer of the Declaration of Independence ...
George Walton17491774
 
18041804, Feb 2
 signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia and also serv...
George Wythe17261746
 
18061806, Jun 8
 the first American law professor, a noted classics scholar, and a Virginia judge. The first of th...
Selim III1761, Dec 241789
 
18071808, Jul 28
 the reform-minded Sultan and Islam Caliph of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807. The Janissarie...
John Page1743, Apr 281763
 
18081808, Oct 11
 a figure in early United States history. He served in the U.S. Congress and as the 13th Governor ...
Christian VII1749, Jan 291766
 
18081808, Mar 13
 a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Hols...
Aaron Burr1756, Feb 61775
 
18081836, Sep 14
 an American politician. He was the third Vice President of the United States (1801–1805), servi...
Jean-Nicolas Demeunier1751, Mar 151789
 
18081814, Feb 2
 a French author and politician. It was as a member of the Constitutional Committee that Démeunie...
Joseph Brant1743 ca1750
 
18091807
 a Mohawk military and political leader, based in present-day New York, who was closely associated...
Blue Jacket1743 ca 1770
 
18091810 ca
 a war chief of the Shawnee people, known for his militant defense of Shawnee lands in the Ohio Co...
Buckongahelas1720 ca1770
 
18091805
 a regionally and nationally renowned Lenape chief, councilor and warrior. He was active from the ...
Tecumseh1768 ca1800
 
18101813
 a Native American leader of the Shawnee who attempted to organize a vast alliance of Native Ameri...
Samuel Chase1741, Apr 171761
 
18111811, Jun 19
 an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United...
William Williams [3]1731, Apr 231771
 
18111811, Aug 2
 a merchant, and a delegate for Connecticut to the Continental Congress in 1776, and a signatory o...
Thomas McKean1734, Mar 191755
 
18121817, Jun 24
 an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware and Philadelphi...
Benjamin Rush1745, Dec 241769
 
18121813, Apr 19
 a Founding Father of the United States. Rush was a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a p...
Elbridge Gerry1744, Jul 61765
 
18141814, Nov 23
 an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he was selected as the fifth Vice ...
Napoleon Bonaparte1769, Aug 151799
 
18151821, May 5
 a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and le...
Timothy Pickering1745, Jul 171768
 
18161829, Jan 29
 a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third Unite...
John Clopton1756, Feb 71776
 
18161816, Sep 11
 a United States Representative from Virginia. He served as first lieutenant and as captain in the...
Emperor Kokaku 1771, Sep 231780
 
18171840, Dec 11
 Given name, Tomohito, the 119th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of successio...
Jesse Fellunknown1800
 
1819unknown
 an early political leader in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He was the first to successfully burn an...
William Ellery1727, Dec 21748
 
18201820, Feb 15
 a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Rhode Island. In...
King George III1738, Jun 41760
 
18201820, Jan 29
 King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 ...
William Floyd1734, Dec 171774
 
18201821. Aug 4
 an American politician from New York, and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independen...
Joseph Bloomfield1753, Oct 181775
 
18231823, Oct 3
 the fourth Governor of New Jersey. The township of Bloomfield, New Jersey is named for him. He at...
Thomas Jefferson1743, Apr 21767
 
18241826, Jul 4
 an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and ...
William Hull1753, Jun 241775
 
18251825, Nov 29
 an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolution and was appointed as Gov...
Charles Carroll III1737, Sep 191772
 
18281832, Nov 14
 a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from the Kingdom of Great Britai...
Hamengkubuwono II1750, Mar 71792
 
18281828, Jan 3
 the second sultan of Yogyakarta 1792–1810, 1811–12 and finally 1826–28 during the Java War....
Manuel Quimper17571770
 
18291844, Apr
 a Spanish Peruvian explorer, cartographer, naval officer, and colonial official. He participated ...
William Clark [2]1770, Aug 11789
 
18291838, Sep 1
 an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. Along with Meriwether Lewi...
Petar I Petrovic-Njegos1747/481782
 
18301830, Oct 31
 the ruler of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro as the Metropolitan (vladika) of Cetinje, and Exa...
William Wirt1772, Nov 81792
 
18341834, Feb 18
 an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attor...
HRE Francis II1768, Feb 121792
 
18351835, Mar 2
 the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Rom...
Major Ridge1771 ca1790
 
18391839
 a Cherokee leader, a member of the tribal council, and a lawmaker. As a warrior, he fought in the...
Tenskwatawa17751800
 
18391834
 a Native American religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, known as The Prophet or th...
Noah Webster1758, Oct 161781
 
18431843, May 28
 an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer...
Artemas Ward Jr.1762, Jan 91783
 
18441847, Oct 7
 like his father, Artemas Ward, he was a United States Representative from Massachusetts. He serve...
Albert Gallatin1761, Jan 291788
 
18491849, Aug 12
 a Swiss-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. He was an important leader of th...
Richard M. Johnson1780, Oct 171802
 
18501850, Nov 19
 the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren ...
Henry Clay1777, Apr 121797
 
18521852, Jun 29
 an American lawyer and planter, statesman, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both th...
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