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1615, Mar 131652-17001700, Sep 27
Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 12 July 1691 to his death in 1700. He took a hard stance against nepotism in the church, continuing the policies of Pope Innocent XI, who started the battle against nepotism. To that end, he issued a papal bull strictly forbidding it. Immediately after his election on 12 July 1691, Innocent XII declared his opposition to the nepotism which had afflicted the reigns of previous popes. The following year he issued the papal bull, Romanum decet Pontificem, banning the curial office of the Cardinal-Nephew and prohibiting popes from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative. Further, only one relative (and only "if otherwise suitable") was to be raised to the cardinalate.
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06/12/1691-Pope Innocent XII succeeds Alexander VIII
07/12/1691-Antonio Pignatelli elected as Pope Innocent XII
 Notes (1)
Roman Catholic Popes:

Innocent VIII (1484-1492): Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Born into a prominent Genoese family he entered the church and was made bishop in 1467 befor...
Alexander VI (1492-1503): Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 11 August 1492 until his death. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partl...
Pius III (1503): the Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 22 September 1503 to his death on 18 October 1503. He had one of the shortest pontificates in pa...
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Pope Innocent XII1615, Mar 131652
 
17001700, Sep 27

Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin1602, Jul 141628
 
16531661, Mar 9
 an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the King of Fr...
Theodore Tronchin1582, Apr 171608
 
16551657, Nov 19
 a Swiss Calvinist theologian, controversialist and Hebraist. He studied theology at Geneva, Basel...
Pope Innocent X1574, May 61626
 
16551655, Jan 7
  Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 15 September 1644 to his death in 1655. Born in Rome of ...
Paisius Iunknown1640
 
1655unknown
 a two-time Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople (August 1, 1652-April 1653, Marc...
Joannicius IIunknown1624
 
16561659/1660
 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople four times from 1646 to 1656 (1646-1648; 1651-1652; 1653-1...
Pope Mark VIunknown1646
 
16561656, Apr 20
 the 101st Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark for the Coptic Orthodox Church. P...
David Pardo [1]1591 ca1610
 
16571657, Mar 15
 a Dutch rabbi and hakham. He was born at Salonica to Rabbi Joseph and Reina in the second half of...
Menasseh Ben Israel16041632
 
16571657, Nov 20
 a Portuguese rabbi, kabbalist, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebr...
Ioannikiosunknown1645
 
16571657, Sep 15
 Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria (1645-1657) for the Greek Orthodox Church. During his tenure as ...
Oliver Cromwell1599, Apr 251628
 
16581658, Sep 3
 an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England,...
Gabriel IIunknown1648
 
16591659, Dec 3
  the Ecumenical Patriarch of for the Church of Constantinople for one week in 1657. In 1659 he wa...
Cyril IIIunknown1650
 
1659unknown
  the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Church of Constantinople for two short terms in 1652 and 1654. T...
Richard Cromwell1626, Oct 41658
 
 
16591712, Jul 12
 Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and one of only two commoners to become the Engl...
Theophanes IIunknown1659
 
 
1659unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch (1659)*Church of Constantinople
Saul Levi Morteira1596 ca1616
 
16601660, Feb 10
 a Dutch rabbi of Portuguese descent. Morteira was the founder of the congregational school Keter ...
Lobsang Chökyi Gyalsten15701570
 
16621662
 the fourth Panchen Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat sect) school of Tibetan Buddhism from 1570-1662 ...
Robert Abbot [1]1588 ca1610
 
16621662 ca
 an English theologian who promoted puritan doctrines. He is sometimes mistakenly described as the...
William Aspinwallunknown1648
 
1662unknown
  a nonconformist English minister. He proceeded B.A. in 1657, but having obtained orders, went no...
William Juxon15821633
 
16631663, Jun 4
 an English churchman, Bishop of London from 1633 to 1649 and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1660 u...
Dionysius IIIunknown1662
 
 
1665unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch (1662-1665)*Church of Constantinople
Patriarch Nikon I1605, May 71652
 
16661681, Aug 17
 the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' of the Russian Orthodox Church, serving official...
Pope Alexander VII1599, Feb 131655
 
 
16671667, May 22
 Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667. Alexander VII disliked...
John Wilkins1614, Feb 141637
 
16681672, Nov 19
 an Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal S...
John Knowles [1]unknown1646
 
1668unknown
 an English antitrinitarian preacher, imprisoned in 1665. A short paper of arguments for the deity...
John Trapp1601, Jun 51622
 
16691669, Oct 16
 an English Anglican Bible commentator. His large five-volume commentary is still read today and i...
Edward Boys [2]15991630
 
16691667
 an English divine. Educated at Eton, he was elected a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Cambridg...
Clementunknown1660
 
 
1669unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch (1667)*Church of Constantinople
Pope Clement IX1600, Jan 281667
 
 
16691669, Dec 9
 Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669. Nothing remarkable occ...
Ascanio II Piccolomini15901629
 
16711671
 the archbishop of Siena from 1629 to 1671. Ascanio was a mathematics pupil of Bonaventura Cavalie...
William Broughunknown1630
 
16711671
 an English royalist churchman, Dean of Gloucester from 1643. Brough was a supporter of William La...
Ingen Ryuki1592, Dec 71620
 
16731673, May 19
 a Chinese Linji Chán Buddhist monk, poet, and calligrapher. He is most known for founding the Ob...
Giacomo Carissimi1605, Apr1623
 
16741674, Jan 12
 an Italian composer. He is one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accur...
Robert Herrick1591, Aug1623
 
16741674, Oct
 a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric. He is best known for Hesperides, a book of poems. T...
Gerasimus IIunknown1673
 
 
1674unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch (1673-1674)*Church of Constantinople
Matthew IVunknown1660
 
 
16751675, Aug 15
 the 102nd Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark for the Coptic Orthodox Church. H...
Pope Clement X1590, Jul 131670
 
 
16761676, Jul 22
  Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676. On 29 April 1670, th...
Paisios Ligaridesunknown1657
 
 
1677unknown
 Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria for the Greek Orthodox Church (1657-1677). He went to Moscow fol...
Gilbert Sheldon1598, Jun 191663
 
 
16771677, Nov 9
 the English Archbishop of Canterbury for the Church of England from 1663 until his death in 1677....
Methodius IIIunknown1646
 
16791679
 the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople in 1668–1671. Descended from Crete, ...
Thomas Watson [2]1620 ca1646
 
16791686
 an English, Nonconformist, Puritan preacher and author. He showed strong Presbyterian views durin...
Athanasius IVunknown1679
 
 
1679unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch (1679)*Church of Constantinople
Celio Piccolomini16091658
 
 
16811681, May 24
 a man of the Italian Church, created cardinal by Pope Alexander VII at the Consistory of 14 Janua...
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso16171642
 
16821682
 the Fifth Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. Gyatso is credited with unifyin...
Parthenius IVunknown1655
 
 
1685unknown
 a 5-time Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople (1657–1659, 1665–1667, 1671, 1...
Charles II of England1630, May 291660
 
 
16851685, Feb 6
 the monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Supreme Governor of the ...
Mehmed IV1642, Jan 21648
 
16871693, Jan 6
 the Sultan and Caliph of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. Taking the throne at age six, his ...
Parthenios I [1]unknown1678
 
 
16881688, Jun 30
 Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria for the Greek Orthodox Church (1678-1688). He served as Metropol...
Jamesunknown1679
 
 
16881700
 a 3-time Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (1679-1682, 1685-1686, 1687-1688). He was previou...
King James II1633, Oct 141685
 
 
16881701, Sep 6
 King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, and Supreme Governor o...
Neophytus IVunknown1688
 
 
1688unknown
 Ecumenical Patriarch (1688)*Church of Constantinople
Pope Innocent XI1611, May 161650
 
16891689, Aug 12
 Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 21 September 1676 to his death in 1689. He is known as th...
David Pardo [2]unknown1680
 
 
1689unknown
 a 17th-century rabbi. He was born in Amsterdam. His father was Rabbi Joseph Pardo, hazzan in Lond...
William Sancroft1617, Jan 301663
 
 
16901693, Nov 24
 the 79th Archbishop of Canterbury (1678-1690) of the Church of England, and was one of the Seven ...
Suleiman II1642, Apr 151687
 
 
16911691, Jun 22/23
 the Sultan and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Empire/Caliphate from 1687 to 1691. Immediatel...
Pope Alexander VIII1610, Apr 221689
 
 
16911691, Feb 1
 Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. He is the last pope ...
Isaac Aboab da Fonseca1605, Feb 11623
 
16931693, Apr 4
 a rabbi, scholar, kabbalist and writer. In 1656, he was one of several elders within the Portugue...
John Tillotson1630, Oct1661
 
 
16941694, Nov 22
 the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury from 1691 to 1694 for the Church of England. He devoted him...
Athanasios IIIunknown1686
 
 
1694unknown
 1st time; Patriarch (1686-1694)* Patriarchate of Antioch -*Church of Constantinople
Queen Mary II1662, Apr 301689
 
 
16941694, Dec 28
 joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland and Supreme Governor of the Church of England w...
Ahmed II1643, Feb 251691
 
 
16951695, Feb 6
 the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Caliphate from 1691 to 1...
Charles Albanel16161649
 
16961696, Jun 11
 a French missionary explorer in Canada, and a Jesuit priest. In 1649, he arrived in Canada at Tad...
Dionysius IV Muselimesunknown1662
 
 
16961696, Sep 23
  Ecumenical Patriarch of the Church of Constantinople for five times, in 1671–73, 1676–79, 16...
Theodosios [2]unknown1697
 
 
1697unknown
 Metropolitan of Turnovo (1697-?)* Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Richard Duckworthunknown1690
 
 
1699unknown
 an English campanologist. Duckworth, a native of Leicestershire, is probably identical with the R...
Carlo Giuseppe Imbonatiunknown1690
 
 
1699unknown
 a Cistercian scholar who was active during the last half of the 17th century. He spent much of hi...
Eliyya X Yohannan Maroginunknown1660
 
1700unknown
 Patriarch (1660-1700)* Assyrian Church of the East
Olaus Swebilius1624, Jan 11681
 
17001700, Jun 29
 Archbishop of Uppsala (1681-1700)* Lutheran Swedish Church
Adrian I1627, Oct 21686
 
17001700, Oct 16
 he last pre-revolutionary Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia from 1690 to 1700 for the Church of ...
Shimoun XIII Dinkhaunknown1692
 
1700unknown
 Patriarch (1692-1700)* Assyrian Church of the East
Ioan VIIunknown1696
 
17001700
 Catholicos-Patriarch of Iberia (1696-1700) for the Orthodox Church of Georgia.
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet1627, Sep 271643
 
17011704, Apr 12
 a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses. He has been conside...
Eremia IIunknown1676
 
1701unknown
 Catholicose of Aluank' (1676-1701)* Oriental Orthodoxy
Philipp Spener1635, Jan 131653
 
17021705, Feb 5
 a German Christian theologian known as the "Father of Pietism." Highly influenced by Johann Arndt...
Ioannikios Iunknown1671
 
1702unknown
 Archbishop of Sinai (1671-1702)* Orthodox Church of Mount Sinai
Callinicus IIunknown1688
 
1702unknown
 the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople for three terms (1688, 1689-93, 1694-17...
King William III1650, Nov 41689
 
17021702, Mar 8
 sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and ...
Kosmasunknown1694
 
1702unknown
 Metropolitan of Durrë (1694-1702)* Orthodox Church of Albania
Kosmasunknown1694
 
1702unknown
 Metropolitan of Durrë (1694-1702)* Orthodox Church of Albania
Yair Bacharach16391699
 
17021702
 a German rabbi and major 17th century posek, who lived first in Koblenz and then remainder of his...
Raphailunknown1699
 
1702unknown
 Archbishop of Ohrid (1699-1702)* Orthodox Church of Macedonia
Mustafa II1664, Feb 61695
 
17031703, Dec 28/30
 the Sultan and Caliph of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edir...
Kyrillos IIunknown1699
 
1703unknown
 Metropolitan of Athens (1699-1703)* Orthodox Church of Greece
Estephan El Douaihy1630, Aug 21670
 
17041704, May 3
 He was the 57th Patriarch of the Maronite Church from 1670 to 1704. He is considered one of the m...
Nahabed Iunknown1691
 
1705unknown
 Catholicose of All Armenian (1691-1705)* Oriental Orthodoxy......Catholicos Nahabed I of Edessa w...
Germanos IIunknown1694
 
1705unknown
 Archbishop of Nea Justiniana and All Cypru (1694-1705)* Orthodox Church of Cyprus
Matevos I [1]unknown1694
 
1705unknown
 Catholicose of Cilicia (1694-1705)* Armenian Apostolic Church
Arsenije III Carnojevic16331674
 
17061706, Oct 27
 the Archbishop of Pec and Patriarch of Serbs from 1674 to 1691 and Metropolitan of Sentandreja fr...
Tsangyang Gyatso1683, Mar 11697
 
17061706, Nov 15
 the sixth Dalai Lama of the Gelug (Yellow Hat Buddhism) of Tibet. He was a Monpa by ethnicity and...
Dositheos IIunknown1669
 
1707unknown
 Patriarch (1669-1707)* Patriarchate of Jerusalem -*Church of Constantinople
Gabriel IIIunknown1688
 
17071707, Oct 25
 the Ecumenical Patriarch for the Church of Constantinople from 1702 to 1707. Gabriel was born in...
Varlaam Iunknown1690
 
1707unknown
 Metropolitan of Kiev (1690-1707)* Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Theodosios [1]unknown1679
 
1708unknown
 Metropolitan of Hungaro-Walachia (1679-1708)* Romanian Orthodox Church
Ignatius George IIunknown1687
 
1708unknown
 Patriarch of Antioch and All the East (1687-1708)* Syrian Orthodox Church
Gerasimos II Palladasunknown1688
 
1710unknown
 Pope and Patriarch (1688-1710) of the Patriarchate of Alexandria for the Church of Constantinople...
Kalinik I Skopljanacunknown1693
 
1710unknown
 Patriarch of Serbia (1693-1710)*Serbian Orthodox Church -*Church of Constantinople
Samuel Parris16531673
 
17111720, Feb 27
 the Puritan minister in Salem, Massachusetts during the Salem witch trials. He was also the fathe...
Duchod Labrangpa Jamgon Kungaunknown1685
 
1711unknown
 1685-1711, Sakya sect, Throne holder; Buddhism
Syedna Musa Kalimuddinunknown1692
 
1711unknown
 Islam; Dai al-Mutlaq Leader (1692-1711)* Dawoodi Bohra
Haquin Spegel1645, Jun 141670
 
17141714, Apr 17
 a religious author and hymn writer who held several bishop's seats for the Lutheran Swedish Churc...
Hayim Kamhiunknown1677
 
1715unknown
 Chief Rabbi (1677-1715)* Ottoman Empire
Thomas Tenison1636, Sep 291695
 
17151715, Dec 14
 an English church leader, Archbishop of Canterbury for the Church of England from 1694 until his ...
Markosunknown1694
 
1716unknown
 Metropolitan of Ethiopia (1694-1716)* Ethiopian Church
Abraham ben Saul Broda1640 ca1693
 
17171717, Apr 11
 a Bohemian Talmudist (Talmudforscher). when the office of chief rabbi of Prague became vacant abo...
Pope John XVIunknown1676
 
17181718, Jun 15
 Abba Youannis XVI), 103rd Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark for the Coptic Or...
Naphtali Cohen16491690
 
17181718
 a Russo-German rabbi and kabalist born in Ostrowo in Ukraine. He belonged to a family of rabbis i...
Samuel Schotten16441685
 
17191719, Jul 5
  He became Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1685. Shmuel Schotten HaCohen was born ...
Ignatius Isaac Azar16471675
 
17221724, Jul 18
 the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1709 until his resignation ...
Zanabazar Ondur gegeen Luvsadambiyjaltsanunknown1635
 
1723unknown
 1635-1723, Tibetan Buddhism, Mongolia; Buddhism
Pope Innocent XIII1655, May 131695
 
17241724, Mar 7
  Pope for the Roman Catholic Church from 8 May 1721 to his death in 1724. He is the last pope to ...
Cotton Mather1663, Feb 121685
 
17261728, Feb 13
 a socially and politically influential New England Puritan minister, prolific author, and pamphle...
Matthias Steuchius1644, Oct 261690
 
17301730, Aug 2
 the Bishop of the Diocese of Lund, 1694 to 1714 and Archbishop of Uppsala in the Lutheran Swedish...
Lobsang Yeshe16631671
 
17371737
 the fifth Panchen Lama of the Buddhist Gelug (Yellow Hat sect) of Tibet from 1663-1737. He was bo...
Melchior de Polignac1661, Oct 111683
 
17421742, Nov 20
 a French diplomat, Cardinal and neo-Latin poet. During the last years of Louis XIV, Abbé de Poli...
Andre-Hercule de Fleury1653, Jun 22/261679
 
17431743, Jan 29
 a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was sent to Paris as a child t...
Lancelot Blackburne1658, Dec 101680
 
17431743, Mar 23
 an English clergyman, who became Archbishop of York, and – in popular belief – a pirate. He w...
Aaron Hart16701692
 
17561756
 the first chief rabbi of the United Kingdom and the rabbi of the Great Synagogue of London from 1...
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