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Chronological

OBSERVATIONS

OF

AMERICA,

From the year of the World

to the year of Christ,

1673.

LONDON:

Printed for Giles Widdowes, at the Green-Dragon

in St. Paul’s Church-yard, 1674.

The Preface.


The Terrestrial World is by our learned Geographers divided into four parts, Europe, Asia, Africa and America so named from Americus Vespucius the Florentine, Seven years after Columbus; although Columbus and Cabota deserved rather the honour of being Godfathers to it: notwithstanding by this name it is now known to us, but was utterly unknown to the Ancient Europeans before their times, I will not say to the Africans and Asians, for Plato in his Timeus relateth of a great Island called Atlantis, and Philo the Jew in his book De mundo, that it was over-flowen with water, by reason of a mighty Earthquake; The like happened to it 600 years before Plato: thus was the Atlantick Ocean, caused to be a Sea, if you will believe the same Philosopher, who flourished 366 years before the Birth of our Saviour.

America is bounded on the South with the streight of Magellan, where there are many Islands distinguished by an interflowing Bay; the West with the pacifique Sea, or mare-del-zur, which Sea runs towards the North, separateing it from the East parts of Asia; on the East with the Atlantick, or our Western Ocean called mare-del-Nort; and on the North with the Sea that separateth it from Groveland, thorow which Seas the supposed passage to China lyeth; these North parts, as yet are but barely discovered by our voyagers.

The length of this new World between the streights of Anian and Magellan is 2400 German miles, in breadth between Cabo de fortuna near the Anian Streights is 1300 German miles. About 18 leagues from Nombre de dios, on the South-Sea lyeth Panama (a City having three fair Monasteries in it) where the narrowest part of the Countrey is, it is much less than Asia, and far bigger than Europe, and as the rest of the world divided into Islands and Continent, the Continent supposed to contain about 1152400000 Acres.

The Native people I have spoken of already: The discoverers and Planters of Colonies, especially in the North-east parts; together with a continuation of the proceedings of the English in New-England, from the first year of their settling there to purpose, to this present year of our Lord 1673. with many other things by the way inserted and worth the observing I present unto your view in this ensuing Table.

Anno Mundi, 3720.

BRitain known to the Græcians as appeared by Polybius the Greek Historian 265 years before the Birth of our Saviour, & after him Athenæus a Greek Author of good account 170 before Christ, relateth that Hiero sent for a mast for a great Ship that he had built to Britain.

3740.Hanno the Carthaginian flourished, who sent to discover the great Island Atlantis, i. e. America.

3873.Britain unknown to the Romans was first discovered to them by Julius Cæsar, 54 years before the Birth of Christ, who took it to be part of the Continent of France, and got nothing but the sight of that part called afterwards England, which is the South of Britain.

Anno Domini, 86.Britain discovered to be an Island, and conquered by Julius Agricola 136. years after Julius Cæsars entrance into it.

99.The Emperour Trajan flourished and stretched the Confines of the Roman Empire, unto the remotest Dominions of the East-Indies, who never before that time had heard of a Roman.

745.Boniface Bishop of Mens a City in Germany, was accused before Pope Zachary in the time of Ethelred King of of the East-Angles for Heresie, &c. in that he averred there were Antipodes. St. Augustine and Lactantius opinion was that there were none.

827.Egbert the Saxon Monarch changed the name of the people in England, and called them English-men.

844.The Turks or Scythians came from thence in the time of Ethelwolf King of the West-Saxons. If the Ottoman-line should fail, the Chrim Tartar is to succeed, being both of one Family.

959.Edgar Sirnamed the Peaceable, the 30 Monarch of the English, caused the Wolves to be destroyed by imposing a Tribute upon the Princes of Wales; and Sage Prince of North-Wales paid him yearly 300 Wolves, which continued three years space, in the fourth year there was not a Wolf to be found, and so the Tribute ceased.

1160.In the Emperours Frederick Barbarossa’s time, certain West-Indians came into Germany.

1170.Madoc the Son of Owen Gwineth Prince of North-Wales his voyage to the West-Indies, he planted a Colony in the Western part of the Countrey, in our Henry the Seconds Raign.

1300.Flavio of Malphi in Naples invented the Compass in our Edward the firsts time.

1330.The Canaries difcovered by an English Ship.

1337.In Edward the third's time a Comet appeared, continuing 30 days.

1344.Machan an English-man accidentally discovered Madera-Island.

1350.Estotiland discovered by fishermen of Freez-land, in Edward the third’s Raign.

1360.The Franciscan-Fryer Nicholas de Linno, who is said to discover the Pole by his black Art, went thither in the Raign of Edward the Third.

1372.Sir John Mandivel, the Great Traveller dyed at Leige a City in the Netherland Provinces in Edward the Third's Raign.

1380.Nicholas and Antonio Zeni, two Noble Gentlemen of Venice were driven by Tempest upon the Island of Estotiland or Gronland, in our Edward the Third's Raign.

1417.The Canaries conquered by Betan-Court a Frenchman.

1420.The Island of Madera discovered in our Henry the Fifth's time.

1428.The Island Puerto Santo, or Holy-port distant from Madera 40 miles, discovered by Portingal Mariners on All-hallowes-day, and therefore called Holy-port, it is in compass 150 miles, in Henry the Sixth's Raign.

1440.The Island of Cape de verd discovered.

1452.The Marine parts of Guinea discovered by the Portingals in Henry the Sixth's Raign.

1478.Ferdinando first Monarch of all Spain.

1485.Henry the Seventh began to Raign.

1486.The Kingdom of Angola and Congo, with the Islands of St. George, St. James and St. Helens discovered.

1488.Christopher Columbus a Genouese offered the discovery of the West-Indies to Henry the Seventh.

1492.Christopher Columbus sent to discover the West-Indies by Ferdinando King of Arragon, and Isabella Queen of Castile, who descended from Edward the Third King of England.

The Caribby-Islands the Antilles or Canibal, or Camerean-Islands now discovered by Christopher Columbus, who took possession of Florida and Hispaniola for the King of Spain.

1493.Alexander the Sixt Pope of Rome a Spaniard, took upon him to divide the world by his Bull, betwixt the Portingal and the Spaniard, bearing date the fourth of May, giving to the one the East, and to the other the West-Indies.

St. Jean Porto Rico discovered by Christopher Columbus, Cuba and Jamaica discovered by him, this was his second voyage.

1495.Sebastian Cabota the first that attempted to discover the North-west passage at the charge of Henry the Seventh.

1497.Christopher Columbus his third voyage to the West-Indies, and now he discovered the Countreys of Paria and Cumana, with the Islands of Cubagua and Margarita.

John Cabota and his Son Sebastian Cabota sent by Henry the Seventh, to discover the West-Indies, which they performed from the Cape of Florida to the 67 degree and a half of Northerly latitude, being said by some to be the first that discovered Florida, Virginia, and New-foundland.

Vasques de Gama his voyage to Africa.

1500.Christopher Columbus his fourth and last voyage to the West-Indies.

Jasper Corteriaglis a Portugal, his voyage to discover the North-West passage, he discovered Greenland, or Terra Corteriaglis, or Terra di Laborodoro.

1501.Americus Vesputius a Florentine imployed by the King of Castile and Portingal, to discover the West-Indies, named from him Seven year after Columbus, America.

1506.Christopher Columbus dyed.

1508.Henry the Seventh dyed August the Two and twentieth.

Henry the Eighth King of England.

1514.Sebastian Cabota, the Son of John made further discovery of all the North-east coasts from Cape Florida to New-foundland and Terra Laborador.

1516.The voyage of Sir Thomas Pert Vice-Admiral of England, and Sebastian Cabota, the Eighth of Henry the Eighth to Brasil, St. Domingo, and St. Juan de puerto rico.

1520.Ferdinando Magellano a noble Portingal set forth to sail about the world, but was 1521 unfortunately slain.

1522.The Bermuduz-Isle 400 in number, being 500 miles distant from Virginia, and 3300 miles from the City of London in the latitude 32 degrees and 30 minutes, discovered now accidentally by John Bermuduz a Spaniard.

1523.Stephen Gomez his voyage to discover the North-west passage, some will have it in Twenty five.

1527.New-found-land discovered by one Andrew Thorn, the Southern part but 600 leagues from England.

John de Ponce for the Spaniard took possession of Florida.

1528.Nevis or Mevis planted now according to some writers.

1534.Califormia questioned, whether Island or Continent, first discovered by the Spaniard.

Nova Francia lying between the 40 and 50 degree of the Artic-poles Altitude discovered by Jaques Carthier in his first voyage, the first Colony planted in Canada.

1536.The Puritan-Church policy began now in Geneva.

1542.Monsieur du Barvals voyage to Nova Francia, sent to inhabite those parts.

1548.Henry the Eighth dyed.

Edward the Sixth King of England began to Raign.

Sebastian Cabota made grand Pilot of England by Edward the Sixth.

1550.The sweating sickness in England.

1553.Edward the Sixth dyed.

Mary Queen of England began to Raign.

Sir Hugh Willoughby, and all his men in two Ships in his first attempt to discover the North-east passage, were in October frozen to death in the Haven called Arzima in Lapland.

1558.Queen Mary dyed.

Elizabeth Queen of England began to Raign November the Seventeenth.

1560.Salvaterra a Spaniard his voyage to the North-west passage.

1562.Sir John Hawkins first voyage to the West-Indies.

The first expedition of the French into Florida, undertaken by John Ribald.

Tobacco first brought into England by Sir John Hawkins, but it was first brought into use by Sir Walter Rawleigh many years after.

1566.The Puritans began to appear in England.

1569.Anthony Jenkinson the first of the English that sailed through the Caspian-Sea.

1572.Private Presbyteries now first erected in England Sir Francis Drake’s first voyage to the West-Indies.

1573.The Hollanders seek for aid from Queen Elizabeth.

1576.Sir Martin Frobisher the first in Queen Elizabeths days that fought for the North-west passage, or the streight, or passage to China, and meta incognita, in three several voyages, others will have it in 1577.

1577.November the 17 Sir Francis Drake began his voyage about the world with five Ships, and 164 men setting sail from Plimouth, putting off Cape de verde. The beginning of February, he saw no Land till the fifth of April, being past the line 30 degrees of latitude, and in the 36 degree entered the River Plates, whence he fell with the streight of Magellan the 21 of August, which with three of his Ships he passed, having cast off the other two as impediments to him, and the Marigold tossed from her General after passage was no more seen. The other commanded by Capt. Winter shaken off also by Tempest, returned thorow the Streights and recovered England, only the Pellican, whereof himself was Admiral, held on her course to Chile, Coquimbo, Cinnama, Palma, Lima, upon the west of America, where he passed the line 1579 the first day of March, and so forth until he came to the latitude 47. Thinking by those North Seas to have found passage to England, but fogs, frosts and cold winds forced him to turn his course South-west from thence, and came to Anchor 38 degrees from the line, where the King of that Countrey presented him his Net-work Crown of many coloured feathers, and therewith resigned his Scepter of Government unto his Dominion, which Countrey Sir Francis Drake took possession of in the Queens name, and named it Nova Albion, which is thought to be part of the Island of Califormia.

Sir Martin Frobisher’s second voyage.

1578.Sir Humphrey Gilbert a Devonshire Knight attempted to discover Virginia, but without success.

Sir Martin Frobisher’s third voyage to Meta incognita. Freezeland now called West-England, 25 leagues in length, in the latitude of 57.

Sir Francis Drake now passed the Streights of Magellan in the Ship called the Pellican.

Source: Overview by Bryan Wright

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John Josselyn

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