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Before the advent of photography, if you wanted a picture of something or someone, you had to draw it yourself -- or hire someone to do it for you. Artists (at least the good ones) could make a good living painting portraits, cityscapes, scenes of commoners, or still lifes; and also preserving for us the particulars of their lives, the styles of their clothes and houses and the details of their world. Here are some whose works have lived beyond their lifetimes.
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Andrea Lopez Caballero

aka: Andrea López
bornactivedied
16471660s-1670s caunknown
a Spanish painter. He was born in Naples, but studied in Madrid under Antolinez. He devoted himself chiefly to portrait painting, though in Madrid is a picture of Christ with Virgin Mother and Mary Magdalen.
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Alexandre Cabanel

bornactivedied
1823, Sep 281844-18891889, Jan 23
a French painter who painted historical, classical and religious subjects in the academic style. He was also well known as a portrait painter (Napoleon III's preferred painter).
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Adriaen van der Cabel

aka: Kabel, Ary van der Touw
borndied
16311705, Jun 16
a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter active in France and Italy. His work is sometimes confused with that of his brother Engel van der Cabel (1641-after 1695), also known as Ange or Angelo. Engel accompanied his brother on his travels and they both married on the same day. Like his brother, Engel became a member of the Bentvueghels with the nickname Corydon,...
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Engel van der Cabel

bornactivedied
1641/421665 - 16951700 ca
Brother of Adriaen van der Kabel. Painted fruit still lifes and other subjects.


Juan Martin Cabezalero

aka: Juan Martín
borndied
16331673
a Spanish draftsman and painter. Born in Almadén, he studied under Juan Carreño de Miranda, court painter to Charles II of Spain; Cabezalero lived at Carreño de Miranda's house until 1666. Both he and Carreño were influenced by Van Dyck. Few works by Cabezalero have survived. His surviving works include his St Jerome (1666, Meadows Museum, Southern Metho...
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Daniel Caffe

aka: Caffé
bornactivedied
1750, Jul 211770s-18151815, Jan 16
a German pastel painter of portraits. Caffé was born in Küstrin, and began his career as a painter of architectural decoration. He traveled to Dresden, where he became a portrait artist. In this way gained access into the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts under Casanova. He was influenced by the neoclassical work of Mengs. After ten years in Dresden, he moved t...
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Guido Cagnacci

bornactivedied
1601, Jan 191627-16631663
an Italian painter of the Baroque period, belonging to the Forlì painting school and to the Bolognese School. Particularly noteworthy are his altarpieces of the Virgin and Child with Three Carmelite Saints (c. 1631) and Christ with Saints Joseph and Eligius (1635)
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Cross-listed in Writers

Benjamin Calau

bornactivedied
17241743-17851785
a German portrait painter, who used an encaustic technique. He painted some portraits for Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim's "Temple of Friendship", a collection of paintings of the poet's friends (totalling more than 120 by the time of his death) that he kept in two rooms in his home in Halberstadt. Lambert published the results of his researches in 1772 as Besc...
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Jan van Calcar

borndied
1499 ca1546
a German-born Italian painter. Giorgio Vasari, Carel van Mander, and others credit Calcar with the eleven large woodcut illustrations of anatomical studies which accompanied Andreas Vesalius's work on anatomy. Calcar is also said to have drawn the portraits of ...
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Moritz Calisch

bornactivedied
18191834-1860s1870
a 19th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands. In 1834 he won 150 guilders from the Drawing society of Rotterdam and a double silver medal for two paintings. He is known for portraits of the Jewish elite of Amsterdam, but also for historical genre works in the romantic style of the 19th century.
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Jan van Call

bornactivedied
16551670s-17031703
a Dutch artist born in Nijmegen. His drawings are more esteemed than his pictures; they are purchased at considerable prices in the Netherlands, where they are found in the choicest collections. It is believed that he occasionally worked in conjunction with Bakhuisen. A series of views from his drawings, chiefly representing scenes on the Rhine, have been pu...
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Augustus Wall Callcott

bornactivedied
1779, Feb 201799-18431844, Nov 2
an English landscape painter. His preference for landscape, including river and coast scenery, soon showed itself, and after 1804 he exhibited nothing but landscapes for many years. The skill of his execution, the elegance of his design, and the charming tone of his works caused his reputation to rise steadily. In 1806 he was elected an associate of the Roya...
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Andres de la Calleja

aka: Andrés
bornactivedied
1705, Dec 61740s-17851785, Jan 2
a Spanish painter, born at Rioja. He was so successful in his early efforts that he was soon appointed by King Philip V to a post of honour. Ferdinand VI in 1752 made him first Director of the newly founded Academy at Madrid, and he established a school of some repute. His best works are in the churches of Santa Cruz and of San Felipe el Real at Madrid. He d...
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Jacques Callot

bornactivedied
15921610s-16331635
a baroque printmaker and draftsman from the Duchy of Lorraine. He is an important person in the development of the old master print. He made more than 1,400 etchings that chronicled the life of his period, featuring soldiers, clowns, drunkards, Gypsies, beggars, as well as court life. He also etched many religious and military images, and many prints feature...
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Abraham van Calraet

aka: Kalraat
bornactivedied
16421642, Oct 7-121722, Jun 11
a Dutch Golden Age painter and engraver. He resided throughout his life in Dordrecht, and may have been a pupil of Aelbert Cuyp, who was a generation older. Cuyp's signature was often forged on top of Calraet's paintings. Calraet is known today for still life pieces with fruit, and recently also for landscapes with horses. He was the teacher of his younger b...
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Denis Calvaert

aka: Denys, Dionisio Fiammingo, Il Fiammingo (the Fleming)
bornactivedied
15401560s-16191619, Apr 16
a Flemish painter born at Antwerp, who lived in Italy for most of his life. Calvaert was a profound student of architecture, anatomy, and history, his works are characterized by their advanced composition and colouring. Calvaert typically used chiaroscuro techniques to set stylized foreground figures derived from Correggio against northern European landscape...
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Edward Calvert

borndied
17991883
an English printmaker and painter. His early visionary work was greatly inspired by William Blake, and he become a member of the Blake-influenced group known as The Ancients which met at Samuel Palmer's in Shoreham, Kent in the later 1820s and early 1830s. Amongst Calvert's finest works are exquisite miniature wood engravings which date from this early perio...
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Jose Camaron y Bononat

aka: José Camarón y Bononat
borndied
17311803
a Spanish painter, mainly active in Valencia, where he became director of the Academy of San Carlos. He was born in Segorbe and received his first instruction from his father, Nicolás, who was a sculptor and architect; he died in Valencia.
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Luca Cambiasi

aka: Lucchetto da Genova
borndied
15271585
painter and draughtsman. He was the outstanding Genoese painter of the 16th century. Cambiasi had an ardent fancy, and was a bold designer in a Raphaelesque mode. His main influences are said to have been Correggio and the Late Renaissance Venetian school. His extreme facility astonished the Spanish painters.
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Francisco Camilo

borndied
16101671
a Spanish painter. Primarily a painter of religious works, Camilo did paintings for the monasteries of Madrid, Toledo, Alcalá, and Segovia. He painted and draped some of the statuary of Manuel Pereyra.
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Alexandre-François Caminade

borndied
17831862
a French painter. Not much is known of his life. Caminade was born and died in Paris. He was a portraitist and a religious painter. He was Jacques-Louis David's pupil.
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Pedro Campana

aka: Campaña, Pieter de Kempener, Peter van de Velde
borndied
15031580
a Flemish painter of the Renaissance period, mainly active in Italy and Spain. Between 1537 and 1562 he was associated with Luis de Vargas and the Italian sculptor Torregiano in establishing a school of painting in Seville, which eventually became the academy of the place. He painted for the monastery of St. Mary of Grace, Church of Santa Cruz, in the city, ...
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Wilhelm Camphausen

borndied
unknownunknown
a German painter, was born and died at Düsseldorf. As an historical and battle painter he rapidly became popular, and in 1859 was made professor of painting at the Düsseldorf Academy, together with other later distinctions. His Flight of Tilly (1841), Prince Eugene of Savoy at the Battle of Belgrade (1843), Flight of Charles II after the Battle of Worceste...
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Govert Dircksz Camphuysen

borndied
16241672
a Dutch animal painter, whose style was influenced by Paulus Potter. Born in Dokkum and died in Amsterdam. In 1643 he painted portraits. He portrayed queen Hedvig Eleonora in Stockholm, but Camphuyzen is most famous for his stables, with farmers and farmers' wiv...
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Pedro de Campolargo

borndied
16051675
a Spanish painter and engraver, active during the Baroque period in Seville. His engravings are held in higher estimation than are his paintings. In 1660 he received an apprentice, and from that date until 1663 among the academy members promoted the Seville Bartolomé Esteban Murillo drawing style.
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Vincenzo Camuccini

borndied
17711844
an Italian painter of Neoclassic histories and religious paintings. He was considered the premier academic painter of his time in Rome. His many drawings reveal a fluid technique and lively artistic imagination.As a portrait painter he attained considerable eminence.
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Canaletto

aka: Giovanni Antonio Canal
borndied
16971768
an Italian painter of landscapes, or vedute, of Venice. He was also an important printmaker in etching. Canaletto, together with Giambattista Pittoni, Giovan Battista Tiepolo, Giovan Battista Piazzetta, Giuseppe Maria Crespi and Francesco Guardi forms the ultimate group of Venetian old master painters. He is noted particularly for his highly detailed paintin...
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Peter Candid

aka: Peter de Witte, Peter de Wit, Pieter de Witte, Peter Candido, Pietro Candido
borndied
1548 ca1628
a Flemish-born Mannerist painter, tapestry designer and draughtsman active in Italy and Bavaria where he worked for many courts. Candid painted history paintings, portraits, mythological scenes and allegories. He completed many fresco's and oil paintings in Italy and also made tapestry designs and other works for Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
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Cross-listed in SculptorsArchitects

Alonzo Cano

bornactivedied
1601, Mar 191629-16561667, Sep 3
a Spanish painter, architect and sculptor. He was made first royal architect, painter to Philip IV, and instructor to the prince, Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias. He was notorious for his ungovernable temper; and it is said that once he risked his life by c...
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Battistello Caracciolo

borndied
15781635
an Italian artist and important Neapolitan follower of Caravaggio. Caracciolo, only five years younger than Caravaggio, was among the first there to adopt the startling new style with its sombre palette, dramatic tenebrism, and sculptural figures in a shallow pict...
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Caravaggio

aka: Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
borndied
15711610
an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting. His influential works, such as The Entombment of Christ (1602-1603) are marked by intense realism and revolutionary ...
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Polidoro da Caravaggio

aka: Polidoro Caldara
borndied
1499 ca1543
an Italian painter of the Mannerist period, "arguably the most gifted and certainly the least conventional of Raphael's pupils", who was best known for his now-vanished paintings on the facades of Roman houses. Also considered one of the most original and innovative artists of the mid-16th century, his works are very individual in style, extremely free in t...
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Luis de Carbajal

borndied
15341613
a Spanish painter of the Renaissance period. He was named painter for King Phillip II of Spain. He painted some lesser works for the monastery in the Escorial. In 1570, for the church of the Escorial, he painted seven large canvases pairing different saints. Among his works there include a portrait of the Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza.
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Bartolome de Cardenas

aka: Bartolomé de Cárdenas, Bartolomé Bermejo
borndied
15751628
a Spanish painter who adopted Flemish painting techniques and conventions. Beyond his skill in oil glaze painting, Bermejo's distinctive style can be seen in his physical types, a lively sense of drama in his narrative scenes, and above all in his attention to landscape. Bermejo's distinctive style had a considerable influence, particularly in Aragon, where ...
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Jose Cardero

aka: José
borndied
17661811 ca
a Spanish draughtsman and artist. He was born in 1766 in Écija, Spain. He is most remembered for his work on the expedition of Alessandro Malaspina and the related expedition of Dionisio Alcalá Galiano. During the Galiano voyage Cordero Channel was named in his honor. Other places in British Columbia were later named in his honor as well, including Dibuxan...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Ludovico Cardi

aka: Cigoli
bornactivedied
1559, Sep 211581-16101613, Jun 8
an Italian painter and architect of the late Mannerist and early Baroque period, trained and active in his early career in Florence, and spending the last nine years of his life in Rome. He was one of the most influential artists in 17th-century Florence. Cigoli's fame and influence, even prior to coming to Rome, was of such a degree that the Florentine amba...
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Anthony Cardon

borndied
17721813
a Flemish engraver who made his career in England. He became known by his engravings for book illustration. He was a stipple engraver with a high reputation. He died London.
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Antoine Cardon

aka: Cardon the elder
borndied
17721813
a Belgian painter, portraitist and engraver. He was born in Brussels and was the father of artist Anthony Cardon. He was a highly enthusiastic member of Freemasonry, then having great success in the nobility of the Austrian Netherlands - his name is among the first initiates of the "loge de l'Union", and he engraved several Masonic diplomas and emblems. Card...
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Bartolomeo Carducci

aka: Bartolome Carducho
borndied
15601608
an Italian painter. He was born in Florence, where he studied architecture and sculpture under Bartolomeo Ammanati, and painting under Federico Zuccari. He ...
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Vicente Juan Carducho

aka: Vincenzo Carducci
borndied
15781638
an Italian painter. He Initially painted some works at Valladolid and helped his brother in painting at the Escorial for Philip II of Spain. When finished, he was employed for four years by the monks of the Chartreuse of el Paular to decorate their monastery with 54 canvases of historical figures the great cloister. He worked a great deal for the subsequent ...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Agostino Carlini

bornactivedied
1718 ca1760-17901790, Aug 15
an Italian sculptor and painter, who settled in England and became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. He worked, with fellow Italian sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi at Somerset House, and on statues at Custom House in Dublin. He is particularly noted for various church monuments
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Antonio Carnicero

borndied
17481814
a Spanish painter of the Neoclassical style. In addition to his paintings, over the course of his career he also produced prints and engravings as well as creating theatrical decorations. In 1796, Carnicero was named chamber painter for King Charles IV of Spain.
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Francisco Caro

borndied
16271667
a Spanish Baroque painter. He received his initial artistic education from his father, but later went to Madrid, where he studied under of Alonso Cano. His most important works were the Life of the Virgin, in the chapel of San Isidoro in the church of St. Andrew, and the celebrated Porciuncula, for the church of San Francisco at Segovia, now in the collecti...
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Antoine Caron

borndied
15211599
a French master glassmaker, illustrator, Northern Mannerist painter and a product of the School of Fontainebleau. He is one of the few French painters of his time who had a pronounced artistic personality. His work reflects the refined, although highly unstable, atmosphere at the court of the House of Valois during the French Wars of Religion of 1560 to 1598...
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Vittore Carpaccio

borndied
1460 ca1525/1526
a Venetian painter of the Venetian school, who studied under Gentile Bellini. He is best known for a cycle of nine paintings, The Legend of Saint Ursula. His style was somewhat conservative, showing little influence from the Humanist trends that transformed Italian Renaissance painting during his lifetime. He was influenced by the style of Antonello da Messi...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux

bornactivedied
1827, May 111854-18731875, Oct 12
a French sculptor and painter during the Second Empire under Napoleon III. Carpeaux entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1844 and won the Prix de Rome in 1854, and moving to Rome to find inspiration, he there studied the works of Michelangelo, Donatello and Verr...
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Agostino Carracci

borndied
1557, Aug 161602, Mar 22
an Italian painter and printmaker. He was the brother of the more famous Annibale and cousin of Lodovico Carracci. He posited the ideal in nature, and was the founder of the competing school to the more gritty view of nature as expressed by Caravaggio. He was one ...
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Annibale Carracci

borndied
1560, Nov 31609, Jul 15
an Italian Baroque painter. In 1587–88, Annibale is known to have had travelled to Parma and then Venice, where he joined his brother Agostino. From 1589 to 1592, the three Carracci brothers completed the frescoes on the Founding of Rome for Palazzo Magnani in Bologna. By 1593, Annibale had completed an altarpiece, Virgin on the throne with St John and St ...
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Ludovico Carracci

bornactivedied
1555, Apr 211584-15921619, Nov 13
an Italian, early-Baroque painter, etcher, and printmaker born in Bologna. His works are characterized by a strong mood invoked by broad gestures and flickering light that create spiritual emotion and are credited with reinvigorating Italian art, especially fresco art, which was subsumed with formalistic Mannerism. He died in Bologna.
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Juan Carreno de Miranda

aka: Carreño de Miranda
borndied
1614, Mar 251685, Oct 3
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. He trained in Madrid during the late 1620s as an apprentice to Pedro de las Cuevas and Bartolomé Román. In 1658 Carreño was hired as an assistant on a royal commission to paint frescoes in the Alcázar of Madrid;...
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Rosalba Carriera

borndied
1673, Jan 121757, Apr 15
a Venetian Rococo painter. In her younger years, she specialized in portrait miniatures. She later became known for her pastel work, a medium appealing to Rococo styles for its soft edges and flattering surfaces. As snuff-taking became popular, Carriera began painting miniatures for the lids of snuff-boxes, and was the first painter to use ivory for this pur...
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Asmus Jacob Carstens

aka: Jakob Reefsen
borndied
1754, May 101798, May 25
a Danish-German painter, one of the most committed artists of German Neoclassicism. His career was erratic, partly because of his difficult personality, and the majority of his large projects were left incomplete, or subsequently destroyed. Much of what survives is in the form of drawings, many using "a schematic, pale colouring as a timid and humble accesso...
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Carl Gustav Carus

borndied
1789, Jan 31869, Jul 28
a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era. A friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he was a many-sided man: a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist, a psychologist, and a landscape painter who studied under Caspar David Friedrich.
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Luis de Carvajal

borndied
15311618 ca
a Spanish painter of the Renaissance period. He painted some lesser works for the monastery in the Escorial. In 1570, for the church of the Escorial, he painted seven large canvases pairing the following saints: Cosme and Damián; Sixto and Elias; Cecilia and Barbara; Bonaventure and Thomas of Aquinus; John Chrisostom and Gregory Nazarene; Ambrosius and Nico...
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John William Casilear

borndied
1811, Jun 251893, Aug 17
an American landscape artist belonging to the Hudson River School. Casilear was born in New York City. His first professional training was under prominent New York engraver Peter Maverick in the 1820s, then with Asher Durand, himself an engraver at the time. Casilear and Durand became friends, and both worked as engravers in New York through the 1830s.
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Abdon Castaneda

aka: Abdón Castañeda
borndied
1580 ca1629, Sep 30
a Spanish Baroque painter. Little is known of Castañeda's life outside of his works. In 1607 he is mentioned as absent from a meeting of the Association of Artists of Valencia. No more news of him until 1616, which documented the date of his registration in the local Painters Association. By 1620 he moved to Segorbe (Province of Castellón) to work together...
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Gregorio Castaneda

borndied
unknown1629
Painter


Felix Castello

aka: Félix
borndied
1595, Jul 41651, Sep 12
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. Castello's style was very similar to the Carducci's, and therefore there have been challenges in identifying attributions. It seems likely he remained several years working as an officer in Carducci's workshop, because until 1633 there is no documentaion of his work as an independent painter. In 1627 he was called for...
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Fernando Castillo

borndied
17401777
Painter


Jose del Castillo

aka: José
borndied
1737, Oct 141793, Oct 5
a Spanish painter and a leader of the Spanish neoclassicist artistic movement. Many of his paintings were done on tapestries. Castillo made many attempts to become Royal Painter for the Spanish monarchy, but he was never successful. This was not due to a lack of talent, but rather because Castillo allied himself with the wrong nobleman. His patron, the Count...
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Juan Bautista Castillo

borndied
15001579
Painter


Cross-listed in SculptorsWriters

Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra

borndied
1616, Jul 101668, Feb 2
a Spanish Baroque painter, sculptor, and poet. He trained in painting under his father Agustín del Castillo, and after his death by a little-known religious painter named Ignacio Aedo Calderón from 1631 to 1634. Later he was taught in Seville by Francisco de Zurbarán and by his uncle Juan del Castillo, who was also teacher of Cano, Murillo and De Moya. In...
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Antonio Castrejon

borndied
16251690
Castrejon was born at Madrid. He was a pupil of Francisco Fernandez, and possessed more facility in colouring than skill in drawing. His best works are of small dimensions, but he sometimes painted large altar-pieces, as the Martyrdom of Santa Lucia, in the church of San Felipe el Real at Madrid, which was destroyed by fire in 1718. He painted figures in the...
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Cross-listed in Writers

George Catlin

bornactivedied
1796, Jul 261830-18721872, Dec 23
an American painter, author, and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. Travelling to the American West five times during the 1830s, Catlin was the first white man to depict Plains Indians in their native territory. His early work included engravings, drawn from nature, of sites along the route of the Erie Canal in New Yor...
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Jacob Cats [2]

borndied
17411799
an excellent draughtsman, who also etched and painted, was born at Altona in 1741. He studied under Abraham Starre and Pieter Louw. He was celebrated for drawing landscapes with animal accessories, his works having a distinct originality, and being marked by a poetical rendering of the features of nature, as well as by careful manipulation. They are often su...
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Peter Caulitz

borndied
1650 ca1719
a German painter of landscapes and animals, especially domestic fowl. Born in Berlin, he studied in Italy, and was a court painter to Frederick the Great. His work consists of landscapes, including views of Prussian royal castles, and pictures of animals, especially hens and turkeys. His animal paintings show the influence of the Dutch artists more
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Louis de Caullery

borndied
1580 ca1621
one of the pioneers of the art genre of courtly gatherings in Flemish painting of the 17th century. In 1594 he became the pupil of Joos de Momper. In 1621 his death duties were paid by the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke, where he had become a master in 1602. He was a follower of Paul Vredeman de Vries known for his architectural pieces. The RKD does not mention a...
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Bartolomeo Cavarozzi

borndied
1587, Feb 151625, Sep 21
an Italian caravaggisti painter of the Baroque period active in Spain, alongside his master Giovanni Battista Crescenzi. Bartolomeo Cavarozzi was born at Viterbo, he traveled to Spain with his teacher to help paint and build the Pantheon at the Escorial. He adopted the style of Cristofano Roncalli. He painted a St Ursula and Her Companions with Pope Ciriacus...
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Eugenio Caxes

aka: Caxés
borndied
15751634
a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. Caxés was commissioned by the administration of King Philip III to decorate the room for royal audiences in Madrid, where he painted a Judgment of Solomon in the vault. He was appointed Painter to the King in August 1612. Most of his works were completed in Madrid. Along with Vincenzo Carducci he painted the chapel o...
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Patricio Caxes

aka: Caxés, Caxesi, Caxete
borndied
unknown1612
an Italian painter who primarily lived and worked in Spain. His exact date of birth is not known. Caxés was a native of Arezzo. It is not known by whom he was instructed, but he became an artist of sufficient celebrity to be invited to Spain by Philip II, who employed him in the palaces of Madrid. He was commanded to paint the gallery of the queen in the Pa...
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Cross-listed in ComposersWriters

Charlotta Cederstrom

aka: Cederström
borndied
1760, Mar 201832, Feb 22
a Swedish dilettante artist, salon hostess, and baroness. She was an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, as well as an honorary member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts. During her first marriage, she spent her days on her husband's estate in the countryside. Bored, she developed her artistic talents in various genres. She wrote poems ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in SculptorsWriters

Benvenuto Cellini

bornactivedied
1500, Nov 31519-1560s1571, Feb 13
an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism. Besides his works in gold and silver, Cellini executed sculptures of a grander scale.
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Cornelis Cels

borndied
1778, Jun 101859, Mar 3
a Belgian painter of portraits and historical subjects. He studied under A. Lens at Brussels, and then visited Paris and Italy, where he became a professor of the Academy of St. Luke. He went to Antwerp in 1807, and was appointed in 1820 to the professorship of drawing at Tournai, a post which he resigned in 1827. He subsequently settled at Brussels, where h...
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Jean-Michel Cels

borndied
18191894
a Belgian landscape painter. He was born in the Hague as the son of the painter Cornelis Cels, who taught him to paint. He was the brother of the architect Josse Cels.


Mateo Cerezo

borndied
1637, Apr 191666, Jun 29
a Baroque Spanish painter. Cerezo was born in Burgos to his father Mateo Cerezo the Elder. In 1654 he moved to Madrid and studied with Juan Carreno de Miranda and possibly with Antonio de Pereda. He died young at age forty years, and much of his work is at the Prado Museum in Madrid, as well as at the Museo de Burgos.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersArchitects

Pablo de Cespedes

aka: Céspedes
borndied
15381608, Jul 26
a Spanish painter, poet, and architect. He was in Rome in February 1559, engaged in conducting certain negotiations for the Archbishop Carranza de Miranda, of Toledo, who then stood charged with heresy before the Inquisition of Valladolid. He remained in Italy for over 20 years and built a reputation as an artist. His only surviving works from that period ar...
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Jean Baptiste de Champaigne

borndied
1631, Dec 101681, Oct 27
a Flemish Baroque painter and teacher. Born in Brussels; died in Paris. He was the nephew of Philippe de Champaigne who moved to Paris to become his pupil in 1643. In 1658 he undertook a trip to Italy to copy the works of Raphael and Titian. When he returned he became a member of the Brussels Guild of Saint Luke, and in 1671 he accepted a post as teacher in ...
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Philippe de Champaigne

borndied
1602, May 261674, Aug 12
a Brabançon-born French Baroque era painter, a major exponent of the French school. He was a founding member of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture. Champaigne produced a very large number of paintings, mainly religious works and portraits. Influenced by Rubens at the beginning of his career, his style later became more austere. Philippe de Champaigne...
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Benjamin Champney

bornactivedied
1817, Nov 201848-19001907, Dec 11
a painter whose name has become synonymous with White Mountain art of the 19th century. He began his training as a lithographer under celebrated marine artist Fitz Henry Lane at Pendleton's Lithography shop in Boston. Most art historians consider him the founder of the "North Conway Colony" of painters who came to North Conway, New Hampshire and the surround...
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Winthrop Chandler

borndied
1747, Apr 61790, Jul 9
an American artist known for his portraits, mainly of family members and neighbors, and a few landscapes. He also worked as an ornamental artist. In 1785 Chandler moved to Worcester, Massachusetts, where he remained for five years. He likely made this move to look for new patrons as he was constantly experiencing financial difficulties. Here he also worked a...
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John Gadsby Chapman

bornactivedied
1808, Dec 31830s-1860s1889, Nov 28
an American artist famous for Baptism of Pocahontas, which was commissioned by the United States Congress and hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda. Besides historical paintings and portraits, Chapman also produced wood engravings and etchings, and frequent...
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Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin

aka: Jean-Baptiste-Siméon
borndied
1699, Nov 21779, Dec 6
an 18th-century French painter. He is considered a master of still life, and is also noted for his genre paintings which depict kitchen maids, children, and domestic activities. Carefully balanced composition, soft diffusion of light, and granular impasto characterize his work. Chardin worked very slowly and painted only slightly more than 200 pictures (abou...
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Eugenie Charen

aka: Eugénie
borndied
17861855, Mar 20
a French painter. Sometimes known as Mme de Servières, she trained under Lethière and specialized in genre period paintings, and was awarded medals by the Paris Salon of 1808 and 1817 for her work. Her Matilda makes Malek Abdel promise to become a Christian (1812) was engraved by Mme Soyer, whilst the evocative Inez de Castro and her Children at the feet o...
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Claude Charles

borndied
16611747
a French historical and decorative painter. There is not much available information about the details of his personal life. Charles was born at Nancy in 1661. He studied under Gérard, and became herald at arms and painter to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine. He painted numerous pictures for the churches of Nancy, and died in that city.
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Nicolas Toussaint Charlet

borndied
1792, Dec 201845, Oct 30
French designer and painter, more especially of military subjects, was born in Paris. His first employment was a minor post in the Paris city administration, where he had to register recruits: he served in the National Guard in 1814, fought bravely at the Barrière de Clichy, and, being thus unacceptable to the Bourbon party, was dismissed from the city adm...
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Theodore Chasseriau

aka: Théodore Chassériau
borndied
1819, Sep 201856, Oct 8
a French Romantic painter noted for his portraits, historical and religious paintings, allegorical murals, and Orientalist images inspired by his travels to Algeria. After Ingres left Paris in 1834 to become director of the French Academy in Rome, Chassériau fell under the influence of Eugène Delacroix, whose brand of painterly colorism was anathema to Ing...
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George Chinnery

bornactivedied
1774, Jan 51796-1840s1852, May 30
Born in London, studied at the Royal Academy Schools. Moved to Ireland in 1796, where he established himself as an artist. Married Marianne Vigne in 1799 and then left her (and two infant children) in 1801. He went to London for a year and then to India, becoming the leading artist of the British community. By 1813 he joined the freemasons. In 1825 he moved ...
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Antoine Chintreuil

borndied
1814, May 151873, Aug 8
a French landscape painter. He was born in Pont-de-Vaux, Ain and grew up in Bresse. In 1838 he moved to Paris, where he began studying under Paul Delaroche in 1842. The following year he met Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, who influenced him profoundl...
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Daniel Chodowiecki

borndied
1726, Oct 161801, Feb 7
a Polish—and later German—painter and printmaker with Huguenot ancestry, who is most famous as an etcher. He spent most of his life in Berlin, and became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art. He was admitted to the Berlin Academy in 1764 and became vice-director under more
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Philipp Christfeld

aka: Kristfeld
borndied
1796/971874, Jan 6
a German porcelain painter. There is very little information available about the details of his life. Christfeld was born in Frankenthal. He is recorded as living at Lerchen Straße 42 in Munich in around 1850. Christfeld died in Munich.
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Frederic Edwin Church

borndied
1826, May 41900, Apr 7
an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters, perhaps best known for painting large panoramic landscapes, often depicting mountains, waterfalls, and sunsets, but also sometimes depicting dramatic natural phenomena that he saw during his travels to the Arctic and...
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Pieter Claesz

borndied
1597 ca1660, Jan 1
a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lives. He was born in Berchem, Belgium, near Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in 1620. He moved to Haarlem in 1621, where his son, the landscape painter Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem was born. He and Willem Claeszoon Heda, who also worked in Haarlem, were the most important exponents of the "ontbij...
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Jacques de Claeuw

aka: Grieff
borndied
1623, May1694, Nov 7
a Dutch Golden Age painter. According to Houbraken, together with Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, Isaac van Hasselt, and Cornelis Tegelberg, he helped separate the Dordrecht Guild of Saint Luke from the old Gild van de vyf Neringen (guild of five trades) in 1642. According to the RKD he was a member of the Dordrecht guild in 1642-46, and in 1646 he became a member of t...
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Charles Othon Frederic Jean-Baptiste de Clarac

aka: Frédéric
borndied
1777, Jun 241847, Jan 20
a French artist, scholar and archaeologist. He published a catalogue of the Musée du Louvre, and a Manuel de l'Histoire de l'art and also that which is considered his best work the Musée de sculpture antique et moderne, 1826-1852, completed after his death. Having served for some time in the army of prince Conde, and afterward entered a Russian regiment. A...
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Cross-listed in AstronomersInventors

Alvan Clark

bornactivedied
1804, Mar 81830s-18871887, Aug 19
an American astronomer and telescope maker. He was a portrait painter and engraver (c.1830s-1850s), and at the age of 40 became involved in telescope making. Using glass blanks made by Chance Brothers of Birmingham and Feil-Mantois of Paris, his firm Alvan Clark & Sons ground lenses for refracting telescopes, including the largest in the world at the time.
Timeline (1)Links (8)


Francis Cleyn

aka: Francesco Clean, Clein, Frantz, Franz Klein
borndied
1582 ca1658
a German-born painter and tapestry designer who lived and worked in England. Francis Cleyn was born in Rostock in Germany, and while a youth displayed such abilities that he was retained in the service of Christian IV of Denmark. During this time he painted, in 1611, a half-length portrait of Christian, now in the gallery of Copenhagen, and executed decorati...
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Penelope Cleyn

aka: Clein, Klein
bornactivedied
unknown1668-1677unknown
a miniature painter active in London. Her exact birth and death dates are not known. She was trained by her father along with her older three brothers Francis, John, and Charles, and two sisters Sarah and Magdalen, who took up their father's profession and became draughtsmen and miniature painters as well. They continued his workshop after their father died...
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John Closterman

aka: Cloosterman, Klosterman
borndied
16601711, May
a portrait-painter. In 1679 Closterman went to Paris, accompanied by his countryman Tiburen, and there worked under François de Troy. In 1681 he came to England and painted draperies for John Riley, at whose death, in 1691, Closterman finished several of his portraits. This recommended him to the Duke of Somerset, but he lost the Duke's favour on account of...
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Francois Clouet

aka: François
borndied
1510 ca1572, Dec 22
a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family. Clouet was born in Tours. The earliest reference to him is a document dated December 1541 (see Jean Clouet), in which the king renounces for the benefit of François his father's estate, which had escheated to the crown as the estate of a ...
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Jean Clouet

aka: Janet
borndied
14801541
a miniaturist and painter who worked in France during the High Renaissance. He was the father of François Clouet. The authentic presence of this artist at the French court is first mentioned in 1516, the second year of the reign of Francis I. By a deed of gift made by the king to the artist's son of his father's estate, which had escheated to the crown, we ...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Antonio Vela Cobo

bornactivedied
16291654-16751675
a Spanish Baroque painter, sculptor and gilder. Cobo was the son of the painter and gilder Cristóbal Vela. He primarily produced religious-themed works on commission for various churches and convents in and around Córdoba, Andalusia. After his father's death in 1654, Cobo took over his father's workshop and continued working until his death in 1675.
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Hieronymus Cock

aka: Wellens de Cock
borndied
15181570, Oct 3
a Southern Netherlandish painter and etcher as well as a publisher and distributor of prints. Cock was the most important print publisher of his time in northern Europe and played a key role in the transformation of printmaking from an activity of individual artists and craftsmen into an industry based on division of labour.
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Louis Bernard Coclers

borndied
17401817, Apr 20
a Southern Netherlandish portrait painter and engraver who worked mainly in Liège, Maastricht, Leiden and Amsterdam. He was instructed by his father, Jean-Baptiste Coclers. He spent three years in Italy, and after his return he settled in Maastricht, later in Nijmegen, Dordrecht and Leiden (from 1769 onwards). Compromised politically, he left Holland in 178...
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Pieter Codde

borndied
1599, Dec 111678, Oct 12
a Dutch painter of genre works, guardroom scenes and portraits. His earliest known work is a piece from 1626, Portrait of a Young Man, now in the Ashmolean. Most of his best-remembered works were executed in Amsterdam and are small-scale paintings. They are distinctive in their silvery-gray tonalities, and many are musically themed, such as his first known g...
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Charles Codman

borndied
18001842, Sep 11
a noted American painter. Codman, who lived his entire life in Portland, Maine, was known for his landscape and marine paintings. Codman was apprenticed to the ornamental painter, John Ritto Penniman, where he began as a decorative painter with no formal training. He is classified as a limner. He eventually produced more mature works of romanticized landscap...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Wenceslas Coebergher

aka: Wenzel
borndied
15601634, Nov 23
a Flemish Renaissance architect, engineer, painter, antiquarian, numismatist and economist. Faded somewhat into the background as a painter, he is chiefly remembered today as the man responsible for the draining of the Moëres on the Franco-Belgian border. He is also one of the fathers of the Flemish Baroque style of architecture in the Southern Netherlands.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersArchitects

Pieter Coecke van Aelst

borndied
1502, Aug 141550, Dec 6
a Flemish painter, sculptor, architect, author and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. His principal subjects were Christian religious themes. He worked in Antwerp and Brussels and was appointed court painter to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Coecke van Aelst was a polyglot. He published translations of Ancient Roman and modern Italian archit...
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Alonso Sanchez Coello

aka: Sánchez
borndied
15311588, Aug 8
a Spanish portrait painter, of Portuguese origin, of the Spanish Renaissance and one of the pioneers of the great tradition of Spanish portrait painting. Sánchez Coello produced both portraits and religious paintings. The religious works, many of which were created for El Escorial, are conventional and undistinguished. It is for his portraits that he is rem...
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Claudio Coello

borndied
1642, Mar 21693, Apr 20
a Spanish Baroque painter. Coello is considered the last great Spanish painter of the 17th century. Coello was the last Spanish painter of eminence for some years, as from the time that Luca Giordano was summoned to Spain, the art sank gradually to its decay. Many excellent examples of his work are to be seen in the churches and convents in Madrid, Saragossa...
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Isabel Coello

borndied
unknown1590
Painter


Constantinus Fidelio Coene

borndied
17801841
a painter of history, genre, and landscape, was born at Vilvoorden. He first studied under Hendrik van Assche, and in 1809 removed to Amsterdam and became the pupil of Barbiers. He then went to Brussels, and in 1820 was made Professor at the Academy. His picture of 'Rubens receiving from Charles I. the sword with which he had been knighted ' gained for him t...
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Hannah Cohoon

bornactivedied
1788, Feb 11844-18561864, Jan 7
an American painter born in Williamstown, Massachusetts. Cohoon began creating her drawings and art in the year of 1845. She adopted a unique approach for her drawings as compared to other Shaker works. She used thick paint in primary or secondary colors that created an impasto texture, using bold, expressive brushstrokes. Her compositions were dedicated to ...
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Gillis Coignet

aka: Congnet, Quiniet
borndied
1542 ca1599
a Flemish Renaissance painter, who was strongly influenced by the Italian style. He painted historical and mythological subjects of an easel size, but was more successful in landscapes, in candlelight subjects, and moonlight. He was a Lutheran, which probably influenced his moves from Antwerp to Amsterdam and then Hamburg. He spent most of the 1560s in Italy...
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Gillis II Coignet

borndied
1586, Sep1645 ca
a Flemish history and landscape painter. Gillis II was the son of Jacob Coignet (III) and Hester van Beringen. He married Magdalena van der Beken on 29 September 1609. He had at least nine children: Jacob, Joanna, Anna, Egidius, Hester, Barbara, Michiel, Maria, Gulielmus. He joined the Guild of St. Luke in 1607 as a master's son. He was active until at least...
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Michiel II Coignet

borndied
16181663 ca
a Flemish painter specialized in small paintings for cabinets. He was also very active making paintings for cabinets and received many orders from the cabinet maker Forchondt. Subjects of these plates usually were the lives of saints. He also restored damaged paintings and despite the fact that we know that he had many of these commissions few of these small...
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Thomas Cole [2]

borndied
1801, Feb 11848, Feb 11
an American artist known for his landscape and history paintings. He is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century. Cole's work is known for its romantic portrayal of the American wilderness. In New York, Cole sold five paintings to George W. Bruen, who financed a summer trip to the Hu...
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Jan Collaert

aka: Johannes
borndied
1525/301580
an early Flemish engraver, father of the engravers Jan Collaert II (Antwerp 1561 - 1620/1628) and Adrian Collaert (Antwerp c1555/65 - 1618). The sons would later work in the workshop of Philip Galle and marry Galle's daughters. The workshops of the Collaert and Galle families were close together and their works are hard to distinguish. Hans Collaert was born...
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Francisco Collantes

borndied
15991656
a Spanish Baroque era painter. Collantes was born in Madrid but sought influence from Jusepe de Ribera and the Neapolitan School. He was also influenced by 16th century Venetian painters and was renowned for his landscapes and biblical scenes. His works included The Burning Bush (c. 1634) which is now at the Louvre, Agar and Ishmael which is now at the Provi...
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John Collett

bornactivedied
1725 ca1761-17751780, Aug 6
an English satirical artist. He first exhibited at the exhibition of the Free Society of Artists in 1761, to which he sent three landscapes. In 1762, he exhibited with the same society "A Gipsy telling some Country Girls their Fortune." From this time, though he occasionally exhibited landscapes, portraits, animals, and other subjects, his pictures are mainl...
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Evert Collier

aka: Edward, Edwaert, Eduwaert, Edwart, Colyer, Kollier
borndied
1642, Jan 261708, Sep
a Dutch Golden Age still-life painter known for vanitas and trompe-l'œil paintings. By 1667, Collier had moved to Leiden, where he became a member of the Leiden Guild of St. Luke in 1673. He moved to Amsterdam by 1686 and to London in 1693. He returned to Leiden in the years 1702-1706, based on signed and dated works there, but was back in London at the end...
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Ferdinand Collmann

borndied
1762, Oct 91837, Aug 28
a German painter and professor, and between 1821 and 1837 he was a member of the Preußische Akademie der Künste. He was born in Berlin. After initial studies in theology he went in March 1787 to Berlin to study at the academy. In 1789 he became a teacher of the art school, in 1794 Professor of the same. He traveled in 1804 to Italy , returned in the fall o...
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Links (1)


Samuel Colman [1]

borndied
17801845
an English painter, based in Bristol for most of his career. In about 1815 Colman moved from Yeovil to Bristol, where he lived until around 1840. He worked as a portrait painter and drawing-master in the city, as well as painting minutely detailed Romantic, Biblical and genre scenes. He was a religious Nonconformist who worshipped at the Castle Green Indepen...
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Links (1)


Samuel Colman [2]

borndied
1832, Mar 41920, Mar 26
an American painter, interior designer, and writer, probably best remembered for his paintings of the Hudson River. Born in Portland, Maine, Colman moved to New York City with his family as a child. His father opened a bookstore, attracting a literate clientele that may have influenced Colman's artistic development. He is believed to have studied briefly und...
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Vincent Colyer

borndied
18251888, Jul 12
an American artist noted for his images of the American West. He was a humanitarian who worked with philanthropic and Christian groups; he founded the United States Christian Commission during the American Civil War. He also worked with the U.S. government to try to help freedmen and Native Americans.
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Francisco de Comontes

bornactivedied
unknown1524-15651565
a Spanish Renaissance painter. In 1545-7, he painted for the winter chapter room portraits of Cardinal Archbishop Tavera and Archbishop Siliceo; in the latter year he was appointed painter to the cathedral, which office he retained until his death in 1565. Pictures on panel of the 'Virgin and St. Bartholomew,' placed in 1659 in a retablo gilt by his own hand...
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Cima da Conegliano

aka: Giovanni Battista Cima
borndied
1459 ca1517 ca
an Italian Renaissance painter, who mostly worked in Venice. He can be considered part of the Venetian school, though he was also influenced by Antonello da Messina, in the emphasis he gives to landscape backgrounds and the tranquil atmosphere of his works. Once formed his style did not change greatly. He mostly painted religious subjects, often on a small ...
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David de Coninck

aka: Coninck, Rammelaer
borndied
1644 ca1701+
a Flemish painter who specialised in still lifes and landscapes with animals and hunting scenes. Recognised as a leading animal painter, de Coninck was able to develop an international career which caused him to work for extended periods in Paris, Rome and Vienna. He moved to Paris where he worked with the prominent Flemish animal painter Nicasius Bernaerts ...
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Gillis van Coninxloo

borndied
1544, Jan 241607, Jan
a Flemish painter of landscapes who played an important role in the development of Northern landscape art at the turn of the 17th century. He spent the last 20 years of his life abroad, first in Germany and later in the Dutch Republic. Coninxloo ranks as one of the most important Flemish landscape painters of around the turn of the 17th century. He exercised...
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Carl Conjola

borndied
17731831
a German landscape painter in water colours and oil. He was born in Mannheim, and died in Munich. He painted mainly views of the mountains of Bavaria and the Tyrol. He devoted himself to landscape painting, and studied in the Gallery at Munich under the supervision of the local Deputy Director, Hofkammerraths Jakob Dorner. He used at first the beautiful area...
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Carl Emanuel Conrad

borndied
1810, Mar 201873, Jul 12
an architectural painter. He instructed first in Berlin and afterwards at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, which he attended from 1835 till 1839. Both in this institution and at the Realschule he gave instruction in perspective to young artists, and received the title of professor, the Order of the Red Eagle, and a medal from the Pope. He painted buildings of...
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John Constable [2]

borndied
1776, Jun 111837, Mar 31
an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection. Constable painted many full-scale preliminary sketches of his landscapes to test the composition in advance of finished pictures....
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Antonio de Contreras

borndied
15871654 ca
a Spanish Baroque painter. According to Antonio Palomino , whom the most complete biography of the painter is due, he was born in Cordoba in the midst of a very illustrious family and trained with Pablo de Céspedes . On the death of Céspedes he went to Granada to continue his artistic training before settling in Bujalance, where his wife had any hacienda, ...
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Alexander Cooper

borndied
1609, Dec 111660
an English Baroque miniature painter. He learned painting from Peter Oliver (painter) and was active in London from 1633–1642, whereupon he traveled to The Hague. He is registered there as a member of The Hague Guild of Saint Luke from 1644 - 1646. After a short stay in Amsterdam, he travelled to Sweden in 1646 to work as court painter for Queen regnant Ch...
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Samuel Cooper

aka: Cowper
borndied
16091672, May 5
an English miniature painter, and younger brother of Alexander Cooper. In 1668 he was instructed by Pepys to paint a portrait of Mrs Pepys, for which he charged £30. He is known to have painted also the portrait of John Aubrey, which was presented in 1691 to the Ashmolean Museum. From his correspondence with John Ray, the naturalist. Evelyn refers to him in...
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Thomas Sidney Cooper

borndied
1803, Sep 261902, Feb 7
an English landscape painter noted for his images of cattle and farm animals. Thomas Sidney Cooper was born at Canterbury, Kent, and as a small child he began to show strong artistic inclinations, but the circumstances of his family did not allow him to receive any systematic training. By the time he was twelve years old, he was working in the shop of a coac...
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Adriaen Coorte

borndied
1665 ca1707+
a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, who signed works between 1683 and 1707. He painted small and unpretentious still lifes in a style more typical of the first half of the century, and was "one of the last practitioners of this intimate category". Very little is known of his life, but he is assumed to have been born and died in Middelburg. He became ...
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Alexander Coosemans

borndied
16271689
a Flemish Baroque painter specialized in still lifes of flower pieces, fruit, and inanimate subjects. He painted vanitas still lifes, pronkstillevens and game pieces. Alexander Coosemans painted mainly flower pieces, fruit, and inanimate subjects. He was in Italy between 1649 and 1651. Here he worked on commissions for the Doria-Pamphili-Landi and reportedly...
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John Singleton Copley

bornactivedied
17381752-18151815, Sep 9
an American painter, active in both colonial America and England. He was probably born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Richard and Mary Singleton Copley, both Anglo-Irish. He is famous for his portrait paintings of important figures in colonial New England, depicting in particular middle-class subjects. His paintings were innovative in their tendency to depict ...
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Gonzales Coques

borndied
1616 ca1684, Apr 18
a Flemish painter of portraits and history paintings. Because of his artistic proximity to and emulation with Anthony van Dyck he received the nickname de kleine van Dyck (the little van Dyck). Coques also worked as an art dealer. Gonzales Coques is primarily known as a painter of individual and family portraits, which he typically executed on a smaller scal...
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Michele Felice Corne

aka: Cornè
borndied
17521845
an artist born in Elba who settled in the United States. He lived in Salem and Boston, Massachusetts; and in Newport, Rhode Island. He painted marine scenes, portraits, and interior decorations such as fireboards and murals. In 1806 he created a large "panorama" or panoramic painting, 10 feet high by 60 feet long, of the Bombardment of Tripoli, commem...
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Cornelis Cornelisz

aka: Cornelis van Haarlem, Cornelis Corneliszoon
borndied
15621638, Nov 11
a Dutch Golden Age painter and draughtsman, was one of the leading Northern Mannerist artists in the Netherlands, and an important forerunner of Frans Hals as a portraitist. He painted mainly portraits as well as mythological and Biblical subjects. Initially Cornelis Cornelisz painted large-size, highly stylized works with Italianate nudes in twisted poses w...
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Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen

borndied
1470 ca1533
a Northern Netherlandish designer of woodcuts and painter. He was one of the first important artists working in Amsterdam, at a time when it was a flourishing provincial town. The painting patterns of his earlier works suggest he was trained as a woodcut designer or goldsmith. One of his first works was Christ as a gardener. There are about 200 known woodcut...
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Peter von Cornelius

borndied
1784, Sep 231867, Mar 6
a German painter. His earliest major work was the decoration of the choir of the church of St Quirinus at Neuss, commissioned by Canon Wallraff of Cologne in 1803. In 1809 he began a series of drawings illustrating Goethe's Faust, the first part of which had been published the previous year. For these Cornelius employed a linear style much influenced by a fa...
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Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

borndied
1796, Jul 161875, Feb 22
a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism. His work simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations ...
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Juan Correa de Vivar

borndied
1510 ca1566, Apr 16
a Spanish painter. Juan was a well-regarded painter during his life, but many records were lost. His works and life were brought to light again when the researcher and art historian Ceán Bermudez in 1800 published a dictionary of famous artists and included a brief article about his works and Italian influences. Juan was heavily influenced by Raphael. One o...
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Antonio da Correggio

borndied
14891534
the foremost painter of the Parma school of the Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the 16th century. In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Rococo art of the 18th century. He is considered a master of chiaroscuro.
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Erich Correns

borndied
18211877
a German portrait painter and lithographer. Correns was born at Cologne in 1821, and after studying jurisprudence at Bonn, went to the Academy at Munich, and became an accomplished portrait painter and lithographer. He was well known for the elegance of his portraits, his subjects including King Maximilian of Bavaria and his consort Queen Maria. He died at M...
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Gabriel de la Corte

borndied
16481694, Aug 6
a Spanish painter with little success who lived in poverty, specializing in the painting of vases, baskets, garlands and signboards, that he had learned to paint without help of any teacher. The painting of flowers acquired a prestigious category during the last decades of the 17th century, taking such a distinguished position away from the painting of fruit...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Pietro da Cortona

bornactivedied
1596/97, Nov 11620s-16601669, May 16
was the leading Italian Baroque painter of his time and, along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations.
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Piero di Cosimo

aka: Piero di Lorenzo
borndied
1462, Jan 21521, Apr 12
a Florentine painter of the Italian Renaissance. He is most famous for the mythological and allegorical subjects he painted in the late Quattrocento; he is said to have abandoned these to return to religious subjects under the influence of Savonarola, the preacher who exercised a huge sway in Florence in the 1490s, and had a similar effect on Botticelli. The...
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Jan Cossiers

borndied
1600, Jul 151670, Jul 4
a Flemish painter and draughtsman. Cossiers’ earliest works were Caravaggesque genre works depicting low life scenes. Later in his career he painted mostly history and religious subjects as well as portraits. Cossiers was one of the leading painters in Antwerp after Rubens’ death in 1640 and one of the most original colorists in 17th-century Flanders. Ja...
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Lorenzo Costa

borndied
14601535, Mar 5
an Italian painter of the Renaissance. He was born at Ferrara, but moved to Bologna by his early twenties, and was probably influenced by the Bolognese School. However, many artists worked in both cities, and thus some consider him a product of the School of Ferrara. It is possible that he trained with Cosimo Tura. In 1509 he moved to Mantua to become the co...
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Cross-listed in Educators

Maria Cosway

borndied
1760, Jun 111838, Jan 5
an Italian-English artist and educationalist.[clarification needed] She worked in England, in France, and later in Italy, cultivating a large circle of friends and clients. She exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts, and commissioned the first portrait of Napoleon to be seen in England. Her paintings and engravings are held by the British Museum, the British...
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Richard Cosway

bornactivedied
1742, Nov 51754-17911821, Jul 4
a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse. His wife was the Italian-born painter Maria Cosway, a close friend of Thomas Jefferson. ...
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Juan Sanchez Cotan

aka: Juan Sánchez Cotán
borndied
1560, Jun 251627, Sep 8
a Spanish Baroque painter, a pioneer of realism in Spain. His still lifes—also called bodegones—were painted in an austere style, especially when compared to similar works in the Netherlands and Italy. Cotán was a prolific religious painter whose work, carried out exclusively for his monastery, reached its peak about 1617 in the cycle of eight great nar...
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Colijn de Coter

aka: Colijn van Brusele
borndied
1443 ca1527 ca
an early Netherlandish painter who produced mainly altarpieces. He worked primarily in Brussels and Antwerp. Although unproven, art historians believe Colijn de Coter headed an influential workshop with a number of pupils. This conclusion is based on the diversity in style and quality of the work attributed to him. His work was particularly indebted to the M...
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Francis Cotes

borndied
1726, May 201770, Jul 16
an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768. An admirer of the pastel drawings of Rosalba Carriera, Cotes concentrated on works in pastel and crayon (some of which became well known as engravings). After pushing crayon to its limit as a medium—although he was never to abandon it ent...
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John Sell Cotman

borndied
1782, May 161842, Jul 24
an English marine and landscape painter, etcher, illustrator, author and a leading member of the Norwich school of artists. Cotman worked in oils, watercolour, pencil and chalk, and produced many hundreds of etchings. His work can be found in the United Kingdom at the Castle Museum and Art Gallery in Norwich (well over 2000 pieces), Leeds Art Gallery, the Ta...
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Ludwig des Coudres

borndied
18201878
a German historical, portrait, and genre painter. He travelled in Italy in 1844–1845, and placed himself in 1848–1849 under Karl Sohn at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. In 1855, he was appointed professor in the School of Arts at Carlsruhe, in which city he died.
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Gustave Courbet

borndied
1819, Jun 101877, Dec 31
a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. Committed to painting only what he could see, he rejected academic convention and the Romanticism of the previous generation of visual artists. His independence set an example that was important to later artists, such as the Impressionists and the Cubists. Courbet occupies an impo...
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Guillaume Courtois

aka: Guglielmo Cortese, Il Borgognone, Le Bourguignon
borndied
16281679, Jun 15
a French-Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was mainly active in Rome as a history and staffage painter and enjoyed high-level patronage. He was the brother of the painters Jacques Courtois (Giacomo Cortese) and Jean-François Courtois. Guillaume Courtois was mainly a history painter of Christian religious and mythological scenes. He was also in dem...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Jean Cousin the Elder

borndied
15001590 ca
a French painter, sculptor, etcher, engraver, and geometrician. In Paris Cousin continued his career as a glass-painter, and created his best-known work, the windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Vincennes. He subsequently devoted himself to painting in oil, and has been claimed as the first Frenchman to use that new medium. Pictures attributed to him, all of mu...
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Jean Cousin the Younger

borndied
1522 ca1595
the son of the famous painter and sculptor Jean Cousin the Elder who was often compared to his noted contemporary, Albrecht Dürer. Having trained to become an artist under his father, Jean the Younger showed as much talent as his father, and their work is nearly indistinguishable even to the expert. Just before his death, Jean the Elder published his noted ...
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Thomas Couture

borndied
1815, Dec 211879, Mar 30
an influential French history painter and teacher. He failed the prestigious Prix de Rome competition at the École six times, but he felt the problem was with the École, not himself. Couture finally did win the prize in 1837. In 1840, he began exhibiting historical and genre pictures at the Paris Salon, earning several medals for his works, in particular f...
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Christiaen van Couwenbergh

borndied
1604, Jul 81667, Jul 4
a Dutch Golden Age painter. Couwenbergh was born in Delft. His father Gillis was a silversmith, engraver, and art dealer from Mechelen. Gillis had moved to Delft before 1604 where he married Adriaantje Vosmaer, the sister of the flower painter Jacob Vosmaer. Christiaen learned to paint from Johan van Nes, and then entered the Guild of St. Luke in Delft in 16...
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David Cox

borndied
1783, Apr 291859, Jun 7
an English landscape painter, one of the most important members of the Birmingham School of landscape artists and an early precursor of impressionism. He is considered one of the greatest English landscape painters, and a major figure of the Golden age of English watercolor. Although most popularly known for his works in watercolour, he also painted over 300...
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Jan Anthonie Coxie

borndied
1660 ca1720
a Flemish painter and draughtsman mainly known for his portrait and history paintings. After starting his career in Flanders he moved abroad and worked in Amsterdam, Berlin, Mainz and Milan where he worked for an elite clientele. Jan Anthonie commenced his career in Mechelen around the year 1691. That year he was commissioned by the city of Mechelen to make ...
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Michiel Coxie

aka: Coxcie, Coxien
borndied
14991592, Mar 3
a Flemish painter who studied under Bernard van Orley, who probably induced him to visit the Italian peninsula. Coxie was born in 1499 in Mechelen in the Duchy of Brabant. At Rome in 1532 he painted the chapel of Cardinal Enckenvoirt in the church of Santa Maria dell'Anima; and more
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Raphael Coxie

borndied
1540 ca1616
a Flemish Renaissance painter mainly known for his portrait and history paintings. His works are painted in the Italianate style that his father introduced in Flanders after his return from a study period in Italy. As his style was close to that of his father, a number of his works have in the past been attributed to his father. He remained faithful to this ...
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Antoine Coypel

bornactivedied
1661, Apr 111679-17211722, Jan 7
a history painter, the more famous son of the French painter Noël Coypel. Antoine Coypel was born in Paris. He studied under his father, with whom he spent four years at Rome. At the age of eighteen he was admitted into the Académie de peinture et de sculpture, of which he became professor and rector in 1707, and director in 1714. In 1716 he was appointed ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Charles-Antoine Coypel

borndied
1694, Jul 111752, Jun 15
a French painter, art commentator, and playwright. He lived in Paris. He was the son of the artist Antoine Coypel and grandson of Noël Coypel. Charles-Antoine inherited his father’s design and painting duties as premier peintre du roi (First Painter to the King) at the French court when his father died in 1722. He became premier peintre du roi and directo...
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Noel Coypel

aka: Noël, Coypel le Poussin
borndied
1628, Dec 251707, Dec 24
a French painter. Coypel was born in Paris, the son of an unsuccessful artist. Having been employed by Charles Errard to paint some of the pictures required for the Louvre, and having afterwards gained considerable fame by other pictures produced at the command of the king, in 1672 he was appointed director of the French Academy at Rome. After four years he ...
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Alexander Cozens

borndied
17171786
a British landscape painter in watercolours, born in Russia. He taught drawing and wrote treatises on the subject, evolving a method in which imaginative drawings of landscapes could be worked up from abstract blots on paper. His son was the artist John Robert Cozens. The style used by Cozens before he finally settled in Britain can be seen in a collection o...
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John Robert Cozens

borndied
17521797, Dec 14
a British draftsman and painter of romantic watercolour landscapes. Cozens executed watercolors in curious atmospherical effects and illusions which had some influence on Thomas Girtin and J. M. W. Turner. Indeed, his work is full of poetry. There is a solemn grandeur in his Alpine views and a sense of vastness, a tender tranquility and a kind of mystery in ...
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Frans Crabbe van Espleghem

borndied
1480 ca1553
a Flemish artist. Frans Crabbe began exploring printmaking after Albrecht Dürer's visit to the Netherlands in 1521. Crabbe was known for doing engravings, etchings and woodcuts. Crabbe was initially known as "Master of the Crayfish". This was based on a crayfish type logo in his prints.
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Joos van Craesbeeck

borndied
1605 ca1660 ca
a Flemish baker and a painter who played an important role in the development of Flemish genre painting in the mid 17th-century through his tavern scenes and dissolute portraits. He created a few religiously themed compositions. Joos van Craesbeeck painted mainly genre scenes and a few religiously themed compositions. His genre scenes depict low-life figures...
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Lucas Cranach the Elder

borndied
1472 ca1553, Oct 16
a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of more
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Gaspar de Crayer

aka: Jasper
borndied
1582, Nov 181669, Jan 27
a Flemish painter known for his many Counter-Reformation altarpieces and portraits. He was a court painter to the governors of the Southern Netherlands and worked in the principal cities of Flanders where he helped spread the Rubens style. Gaspar de Crayer mainly painted portraits of the elite and Counter Reformation altarpieces for local and foreign churche...
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Cross-listed in Sculptors

Lorenzo di Credi

bornactivedied
1459 ca1493-1530s1537, Jan 12
an Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor. He first influenced Leonardo da Vinci and then was greatly influenced by him. For Pistoia Cathedral he completed the painting of the Madonna Enthroned between John the Baptist and St. Donatus which had been parti...
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Cross-listed in Architects

Giovanni Battista Crescenzi

bornactivedied
15771610s-16351635
an Italian painter and architect of the early-Baroque period, active in Rome and Spain, where he helped decorate the pantheon of the Spanish kings at El Escorial.
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Giuseppe Crespi

aka: Lo Spagnuolo
borndied
1665, Mar 141747, Jul 16
an Italian late Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. His eclectic output includes religious paintings and portraits, but he is now most famous for his genre paintings. Giuseppe Crespi, together with Giambattista Pittoni, Giovan Battista Tiepolo, Giovan Battista Piazzetta, Canaletto and Francesco Guardi forms the traditional great Old Masters painters of ...
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Joshua Cristall

borndied
17671847
an English painter. Cristall's usual subjects in his early years were classical figures with landscapes, such as his Lycidas, Judgment of Paris, Hylas and the Nymphs, and Diana and Endymion, but he afterwards produced genre subjects and rustic groups. Around 1813, he tried portrait painting, generally small full-lengths with landscape backgrounds, in which h...
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John Crome

aka: Old Crome
borndied
1768, Dec 221821, Apr 22
an English landscape artist of the Romantic era, one of the principal artists of the Norwich School art movement. He lived in Norwich for all his life, and most of his works are Norfolk landscapes. His work is in the collections of major galleries including the Tate Gallery and the Royal Academy. He is particularly well represented at Norwich Castle Museum. ...
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Ignatius Croon

aka: Ignaz Cronò, Ignaz Croon, Gaudtvinck, Goudtvinck
borndied
16391667
a Flemish Baroque painter who after training in Mechelen moved to Rome where he died at a young age. No known works by his hand are known. A portrait of his brother Peter Croon, now in the Municipal Museum of Mechelen, is attributed to him. He possibly left for Rome immediately after completing his training in 1657. In Rome he lived at the home of Pieter Mul...
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Anthonie Jansz van der Croos

bornactivedied
16061627-16621662/63
a Dutch painter, draughtsman and poet. Though probably born and raised in Alkmaar, from 1634 on Croos lived and worked mostly in The Hague. He primarily painted landscapes. He was influenced by Jan van Goyen. He died in The Hague between 8 March 1662 and 14 September 1663. A co-founder of the Confrérie Pictura in 1656, apllied for the position of secretary;...
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Jasper Francis Cropsey

borndied
18231900
an important American landscape artist of the Hudson River School. Trained as an architect, he set up his own office in 1843. Cropsey studied watercolor and life drawing at the National Academy of Design under the instruction of Edward Maury and first exhibited there in 1844. A year later he was elected an associate member and turned exclusively to landscape...
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Thomas Cross

bornactivedied
unknown1683-1732unknown
an English engraver and printmaking artist who worked extensively with music printing in the latter half of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century. He is mainly known for his exquisite music engravings and for being the first to issue sheet music from plates. His first known work in the field of music was for Purcell's Twelve Sonatas ...
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Richard Crosse

borndied
1742, Apr 24unknown
a leading English painter of portrait miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, Richard Cosway and William Wood. Crosse began painting as a hobby, as was the fashion amongst the gentry. At the age of 16 he won a premium at the newly created 'Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce' (the Society of Arts) in L...
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Pedro de las Cuevas

borndied
15681635
a Spanish painter, was born at Madrid. According to Palomino, he painted several pictures for private collections, for which he was more employed than for public edifices. He gained, however, more celebrity by his academy than by his own works. Some of the most distinguished painters of the time, such as Josef Leonardo, Antonio Pereda, Antonio Anias, and Jua...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Seir Cummings

borndied
18041894
an American miniature painter and author, born at Bath, England. He came to New York early in life and studied there with Henry Inman. He painted miniatures in water color, and many of his sitters were well-known contemporaries of the artist. In 1826 he helped to found the National Academy of Design, was its treasurer for many years and one of its early vice...
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Nathaniel Currier

borndied
1813, Mar 271888, Nov 20
an American lithographer, who headed the company Currier & Ives with James Ives. In 1835, Currier started his own lithographic business as an eponymous sole proprietorship. He initially engaged in standard lithographic business of printing sheet music, letterheads, handbills, etc. However, he soon took his work in a new direction, creating pictures of curren...
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Aelbert Cuyp

borndied
1620, Oct 201691, Nov 15
one of the leading Dutch landscape painters of the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century. The most famous of a family of painters, the pupil of his father Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp (1594–1651/52), he is especially known for his large views of the Dutch countryside in early morning or late afternoon light.
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Benjamin Gerritsz Cuyp

borndied
1612, Dec1652, Aug 28
a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. Benjamin learned to paint from his older half-brother, Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp. He was therefore the uncle, not the cousin, of the much more famous Aelbert Cuyp. He is known for allegorical pieces, genre works, beach scenes, military scenes, and landscapes.
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Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp

borndied
1594, Dec1652
a portrait and landscape painter, best known for his portraits. He was born and died in Dordrecht, and was the son of the stained glass designer Gerrit Gerritsz Cuyp, who moved to Dordrecht from Venlo. He was the half-brother of Benjamin Gerritsz Cuyp and the father of the much more famous Aelbert Cuyp. He first painted still lifes, interiors with figures, a...
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Mathias Czwiczek

borndied
16011654
a Bohemian painter active in Brandenburg-Prussia. According to the RKD he was court painter to Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and made many trips in his company to the Netherlands and France. He is known for paintings of interiors with figures. In 1628 he entered into service of George William, Elector of Brandenburg. Paintings in the so-called Ch...
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