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When you've got a lot of people together, it makes sense to pick someone to be in charge. As exploration expanded, individuals were chosen to oversee colonies and settlements. This section highlights those men (and some women), as well as the leaders and attendant ruling class -- nobles, peerage, wannabes and hangers-on --back home.
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Baron Francis van Aarssens

aka: François
borndied
1572, Sep 271641, Dec 27
He was born in Brussels, the son of Cornelis van Aarsens, also a statesman. His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court o...
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Abdallah of Morocco

aka: Moulay Abdullah, Mulay Abdallah, Abdellah,Abu Abbas Mulay Abdu'llah bin Ismail as-Samin
borndied
16941757, Nov 10
Sultan of Morocco in the years 1729–1734, 1736, 1740–1741, 1741–1742, 1743–1747 and 1748–1757. He was born after 1678 as a son of Ismail Ibn Sharif. He ascended the throne numerous times, fighting his brothers. Proclaimed respectively 5 March 1729 (deposed 28 September 1734), 14 February/23 May 1736 (deposed again 8 August 1736), February 1740, (de...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Abdulmecid I

aka: Abdülmecid, Abdulmejid
bornactivedied
1823, Apr 23/251839-18611861, Jun 25
the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1839 to 1861. Also Caliph (Islam) of the Ottoman Caliphate. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


George Abernethy

bornactivedied
1807, Oct 71839-18611877, Mar 2
an American politician, pioneer, notable entrepreneur, and first governor of Oregon under the provisional government based in the Willamette Valley, an area later a part of the American state of Oregon. He traveled to Oregon Country as a secular member of the Methodist mission, where he became involved in politics and helped found the first American newspape...
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Timeline (1)Links (4)


Abigail Adams

borndied
1744, Nov 111818, Oct 28
the closest advisor and wife of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. She is sometimes considered to have been a Founder of the United States. ...
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Timeline (6)Links (25)


Cross-listed in WritersLegal

John Adams [2]

bornactivedied
1735, Oct 301797-18011826, Jul 4
an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat. He served as the second President of the United States (1797–1801), the first Vice President (1789–1797), and as a Founding Father was a leader of American independence from Great Britain. Adams was a political theorist in the Age of Enlightenment who promoted republicanism and a strong central governm...
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Timeline (24)Links (33)Notes (4)


John Quincy Adams

bornactivedied
1767, Jul 111825-18291848, Feb 23
an American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He also served as a diplomat, a Senator and member of the House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties.
Timeline (13)Links (20)Notes (2)


Louisa Adams

borndied
1775, Feb 121852, May 15
wife of John Quincy Adams, was the First Lady of the United States from 1825 to 1829. Born in London, she was the first First Lady to be born outside the United States, or the preceding Thirteen Colonies—a distinction that would not be shared until 192 years later by Melania Trump. She met John Quincy Adams at her father's house in Cooper's Row, near Tower...
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Samuel Adams

bornactivedied
1734, Jan 201750-17981806, May 8
an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. He was a second cousin to...
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Timeline (3)Links (24)Notes (1)


Adolf Frederick

aka: Adolph Frederick
bornactivedied
1710, May 141751-17711771, Feb 12
King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. The first king from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolf Frederick was a weak monarch, instated as first in line of the throne following the parliamentary government's failure to reconquer the Baltic provinces in 1741–43. Aside from a few attempts, supported by pro-absolutist factions among the nobility, to reclaim...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Carl Fredrik af Wingard

aka: af Wingård
bornactivedied
1781, Sep 261839-18511851, Sep 19
a Swedish politician and Lutheran clergyman, and Archbishop of Uppsala for the Lutheran Swedish Church, 1839–1851. af Wingård studied at the Uppsala University and eventually became professor there in 1810. In 1818 he was ordained priest and on July 8, 1818 he became bishop of Gothenburg. From all reports, af Wingård seems to have been a humanistic teach...
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Afonso VI of Portugal

borndied
1643, Aug 211683, Sep 12
the second King of Portugal and the Algarves of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death. He was initially under the regency of his mother, Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, until 1662, when he removed her to a convent and took power with the help of his favourite, the Count of Castelo Melhor. Afonso's reign saw the end of the Restoration War (1640–68) and S...
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Cross-listed in Military

Sultan Agung of Mataram

aka: Adi Prabu Hanyakrakusuma
bornactivedied
15931613-16451645
A skilled soldier, he conquered neighbouring states and expanded and consolidated his kingdom to its greatest territorial and military power. Sultan Agung (literally, "Great Sultan" or "Majestic Sultan") is subject of a substantial amount of literature due to his legacy as a Javanese ruler, a fighter against the incursions of the Dutch East India Company, a ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Francisco Antonio de Agurto

aka: Francisco Antonio de Agurto y Salcedo, I Marqués de Gastañaga
borndied
16401702, Nov 2
aristocrat, viceroy and Spanish governor. Invested Marques de Gastañaga in 1676, was governor of the Netherlands of the Habsburg house , from 1685 to 1692, where he was at the head of the Spanish troops at the Battle of Fleurus, 1690. He was unsuccessful in defending Mons against the attack French. He promoted the construction of a royal chapel dedicated to...
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Timeline (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Ahmed II

bornactivedied
1643, Feb 251691-16951695, Feb 6
the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Caliphate from 1691 to 1695. During his short reign, Sultan Ahmed II devoted most of his attention to the wars against the Habsburgs and related foreign policy, governmental and economic issues. Of these, the most important were the tax reforms and the introduction of the lifelong tax f...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Ahmed III

bornactivedied
1673, Dec 30/311703-17301736, Jul 1
the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Caliphate from 1703 to 1730. He succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II. Ahmed III cultivated good relations with France, doubtless in view of Russia's menacing attitude; in fact, both his wives were Frenchwomen. Forced against his will into war with Russia, ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Kopruluzade Fazil Ahmed Pasha

aka: Köprülüzade
borndied
16351676, Nov 3
a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire. He served as a grand vizier from 1661 to 1676 after he inherited the title from his father, Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, the founder of the Köprülü political family. Prior to this appointment, he served as the Ottoman governor of the Da...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Clergy

Ahmed I

bornactivedied
1590, Apr 181603-16171617, Nov 22
the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph (Sunni Islam) of the Ottoman Caliphate from 1603 until his death in 1617. In the earlier part of his reign Ahmed I showed decision and vigor, which were belied by his subsequent conduct. The wars which attended his accession both in Hungary and in Persia terminated unfavourably for the empire, and its prestige rece...
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John Aislabie

aka: Aslabie
borndied
1670, Dec 41742, Jun 18
a British politician, notable for his involvement in the South Sea Bubble and for creating the water garden at Studley Royal. Aislabie was elected as a member of parliament for Ripon in 1695, apparently on the assumption he was a Tory, though his political views were somewhat fluid. He became more active in politics from 1704, especially on the economy. He e...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Lucas Alaman

aka: Alamán
borndied
1792, Oct 181853, Jun 2
a Mexican scientist, politician, historian and writer. He frequently traveled on his credentials as a scientist and diplomat, becoming one of the most educated men in Mexico. For most of the 1840s, he devoted himself primarily to writing the history of Mexico from the perspective of a conservative.
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Cross-listed in Writers

Luigi Alamanni

borndied
14951556
an Italian poet and statesman. He was regarded as a prolific and versatile poet. He was credited with introducing the epigram into Italian poetry. He wrote a large number of poems, distinguished by the purity and excellence of their style.
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Albert

aka: Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
borndied
1819, Feb 101861, Dec 14
the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, with whom he would ultimately have nine children. Initial...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Albert III of Saxony

aka: Duke of Saxony, Albert the Bold, Albert the Courageous
borndied
1443, Jan 271500, Sep 12
a Duke of Saxony. He founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. Regarded as a capable soldier by the emperor, Albert took a prominent part in the campaign against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1487 led an expedition against Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, which failed owing to lack of support on the part of the emperor. In 1488 he wa...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Albert of Prussia [1]

aka: Duke of Prussia
borndied
1490, May 171568, Mar 20
the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Albert was the first European ruler to establish Lutheranism, and thus Protestantism, as the official state religion of his lands. He pro...
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Albert VII

aka: Archduke of Austria
bornactivedied
1559, Nov 131598-16211621, Jul 13
the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621. Prior to this, he had been a cardinal, archbishop of Toledo, viceroy of Portugal and Governor General of the Habsburg Netherlands. He succeeded his brother Matthias as reigning archduke of Lo...
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Timeline (6)Links (1)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in ExplorersMilitary

Afonso de Albuquerque

aka: Aphonso, Duke of Goa
bornactivedied
1453 ca1471-15151515, Dec 16
a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror," a statesman, and an empire builder. He is generally considered a military genius, and "probably the greatest naval commander of the age" given his successful strategy. During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Sofia Alekseyevna

borndied
1657, Sep 171704, Jul 3
ruled as regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689. She allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Golitsyn, to install herself during the minority of her brother Ivan V and half-brother Peter I. She carried out her regency with a firm and heavy hand, not hesitating to use violent tactics to promote her agenda. The activity of t...
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Czar Alexander I of Russia

borndied
1777, Dec 121825, Nov 19
reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the first Russian King of Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland. He was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the c...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Alexander II of Russia

borndied
1818, Apr 171881, Mar 1
the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland. Alexander's most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator. The tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganizing the judicial syst...
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Cross-listed in Legal

James Alexander

borndied
1691, May 271756, Apr 2
a lawyer and statesman in colonial New York. He served in the Colonial Assembly and as attorney general of the colony in 1721–23. His son William was later a major general in the Continental Army during the American revolution. Alexandria Township, New Jersey was named after James Alexander. In 1721, Alexander was appointed to the Governor's Council in New...
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Alexis of Russia

aka: Aleksey Mikhailovich
borndied
1629, Mar 191676, Jan 29
the Russian Tsar during some of Russia's most eventful decades in the mid-17th century. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church and the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. On the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres.
Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Alfonso II

aka: Alfonso of Aragon
borndied
1448, Nov 41495, Dec 18
King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem. As Duke of Calabria he was a patron of Renaissance poets and builders during his tenure as the heir to the throne of Naples. In 1463, when Alfonso was fifteen, his great-uncle Giovanni Antonio del Balzo Orsini, Prince of Taranto, died, and he obtained some l...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Muhammad Ali

aka: Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, Mehmet Ali Pasha, Kavalal Mehmet Ali Pasa
borndied
1769, Mar 41849, Aug 2
an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wali, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted....
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Cross-listed in MilitaryWritersCommerce

Ethan Allen

bornactivedied
1737, Jan 101757-17891789, Feb 12
a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with more
Timeline (4)Links (7)


Cross-listed in WritersInventorsScientistsCommerceLegal

Zachariah Allen

borndied
1795, Sep 151882, Mar 17
an American textile manufacturer, scientist, lawyer, writer, inventor and civil leader from Providence, Rhode Island. He was educated at Phillips Exeter Academy and at Brown University where he graduated in 1813. Allen became a textile manufacturer and in 1822 constructed a woolen mill in which he incorporated innovative fire-safety features and his own mech...
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Theodosia Burr Alston

borndied
1783, Jun 211813, Jan
the daughter of U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr and Theodosia Bartow Prevost. Her husband, Joseph Alston, was governor of South Carolina during the War of 1812. She was lost at sea at age 29. Alston was raised mostly in New York City. Her education was closely supe...
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Willem Arnold Alting

borndied
1724, Nov 111800, Jun 7
a Dutch colonial administrator who served as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1780 to 1797. Born in Groningen, Alting studied in his hometown and graduated in law. He left on 18 October 1750 for the East Indies on board the De Middelburg as an onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant) for the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He spent the rest of h...
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Cross-listed in Explorers

Pedro de Alvarado

bornactivedied
1485 ca1510s-15411541, Jul 4
a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. He is considered the conquistador of much of Central America, including Guatemala and El Salvador. Although renowned ...
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Cross-listed in Military

Fadrique Alvarez de Toledo [1]

aka: Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba
borndied
1460 ca1531, Oct 19
a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician. He participated in the conquest of Granada, and already as Duke, he led the Spanish army against the French in Roussillon in 1503. When Ferdinand II as regent of Castilla, decided to invade and conquer the Kingdom of Navarre, supported by a Papal bull, he put the Duke of Alva at the head of his army. Fadriq...
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Cross-listed in Military

Fernando Alvarez de Toledo

aka: Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Grand Duke of Alba, Iron Duke
borndied
1507, Oct 291582, Dec 11
a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquis of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. His motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He...
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Timeline (14)Links (1)


Amalia of Solms-Braunfels

borndied
1602, Aug 311675, Sep 8
Princess consort of Orange by marriage to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. She acted as the political adviser of her spouse during his reign, and acted as his de facto deputy and regent during his infirmity from 1640–47. She also served as chair of the regency council during the minority of her grandson William III, Prince of Orange from 1650 until 1672....
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Amangkurat I

aka: Amangkurat Agung
bornactivedied
unknown1646-1677unknown
the sultan of Mataram from 1646 to 1677. He was the son of the powerful Sultan Agung. Upon taking the throne, he tried to bring long-term stability to the Sultanate of Mataram's realm, which was considerable in area but marred by continual rebellions. He murdered local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him, including the still-powerful noble f...
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Amangkurat II

aka: Pangeran Adipati Anom
bornactivedied
unknown1677-1703unknown
the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom. Amangkurat II became monarch in 1677 at the height of the Trunajaya rebellion. He succeeded his father, Amangkurat I, who died in Tegal after being expelled from Plered, his capital by Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura ...
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Amangkurat III

aka: Amangkurat Mas
bornactivedied
unknown1703-1704unknown
a short-lived ruler of Sultan in Java. His father Amangkurat II of Mataram had been killed, and he soon lost to his uncle Pakubuwono I in the First Javanese War of Succession, which lasted on for five years until the Dutch managed to install Pakubuwana. Amangkurat was deposed, but not caught until 1707. He was subsequently exiled to Ceylon, where he later di...
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Fisher Ames

bornactivedied
1758, Apr 91774-18001808, Jul 4
a Representative in the United States Congress from the 1st Congressional District of Massachusetts. He was an important leader of the Federalist Party in the House, and was noted for his oratorical skill. In 1788, he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He became a member of the Massachusetts convention that ratified the United States Const...
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Cross-listed in Military

Jeffery Amherst

aka: 1st Baron Amherst
borndied
1717, Jan 291797, Aug 3
an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. Amherst is best known as the architect of Britain's successful campaign to conquer the territory of New France during the Seven Years' War. Under his command, British forces captured the cities of Louisbourg, Quebec City and Montreal, as well as several major fortresses. He was also the...
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Count Gyula Andrassy

aka: Andrássy
borndied
1823, Mar 81890, Feb 18
a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879). Andrássy was a conservative; his foreign policies looked to expanding the Empire into Southeast Europe, preferably with British and German support, and without alienating Turkey. He saw Russia as the main advers...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Pirates

Angora

borndied
unknownunknown
Angora was the Sultan of Timor and refused to allow the British East India Company to station garrisons on Timor. Of course, when he turned them down they decided to take what they wanted by force. He was driven out of the whole of his island except the chief town, also called Angora. Deciding to take revenge, he turned pirate and went to sea in command of ...
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Anna of Bohemia and Hungary

aka: Anna Jagellonica
borndied
1503, Jul 231547, Jan 27
Queen of the Romans (Germany), Bohemia and Hungary as the wife of King Ferdinand I, later Holy Roman Emperor. Anna married Ferdinand on 26 May 1521 in Linz, Austria. At the time Ferdinand was governing the Habsburg hereditary lands on behalf of his older brother Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It was stipulated that Ferdinand should succeed Anne's brother in ...
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Anna of Russia

aka: Anna Ioannovna, Ivanovna
borndied
1693, Jan 281740, Oct 17
regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Anna was born in Moscow as the daughter of Tsar Ivan V by his wife Praskovia Saltykova. Although Anna's father was himself Tsar of Russia and co-ruler with his half-brother Peter I, he was mentally disabled and incapable of administering the country.
Timeline (2)Links (1)


Anna of Saxony

borndied
1544, Dec 231577, Dec 18
the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. Maurice's only son, Albert, died in infancy. Anna was the second wife of William the Silent. Anna was born and died in Dresden. Her wealth drew many suitors; before the proposal of Orange in 1560, there were negotiations with the Swedish royal house. She ac...
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Cross-listed in Clergy

Queen Anne

bornactivedied
1665, Feb 61702-17141714, Aug 1
the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland and Supreme Governor of the Church of England from 1702 to 1714. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death.
Timeline (6)Links (1)Notes (1)


Anne of Austria

borndied
1601, Sep 221666, Jan 20
a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Anne of Cleves

bornactivedied
1515, Sep 221539-15541557, Jul 16
Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared never consummated and, as a result, she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment, she was given a generous settlement by the King, and t...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Marie Antoinette

borndied
1755, Nov 21793, Oct 16
the last Queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. In April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. On 10 May 1774, when her husband ascend...
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Timeline (3)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Juan Bautista de Anza

bornactivedied
1736, Jul 6/71752-17881788, Dec 19
a New-Spanish explorer of Basque descent, and Governor of New Mexico for the Spanish Empire. In 1772, Anza proposed an expedition to Alta California to the Viceroy of New Spain. This was approved by the King of Spain and on January 8, 1774, with 3 padres, 20 soldiers, 11 servants, 35 mules, 65 cattle, and 140 horses, Anza set forth from Tubac Presidio, south...
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Timeline (1)Links (15)


Cross-listed in Military

Manuel Jose Arce

aka: Manuel José
borndied
1787, Jan 11847, Dec 14
a decorated General and president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1825 to 1829, followed by Francisco Morazán. He strongly opposed the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide. In April 1822 Manuel Arzú, in command of Guatemalan troops supporting Mexico, occupied the cities of Santa Ana, El Salvador, and Sonsonate. On June 3, 1822, Arzú ente...
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Cross-listed in Military

Hernando Arias de Saavedra

aka: Hernandarias
borndied
1561, Sep 101634
a soldier and politician of criollo ancestry. He was the first person born in the Americas to become a governor of a European colony in the New World, serving two terms as governor of Governorate of the Río de la Plata, 1597–1599 and 1602–1609, and one of the Governorate of Paraguay 1615–1617.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

Mariano Arista

aka: José Mariano Martín Buenaventura Ignacio Nepomuceno García de Arista Nuez
borndied
1802, Jul 261855, Aug 7
a noted veteran of many of Mexico's nineteenth-century wars. He served as president of Mexico from 15 January 1851 to 6 January 1853. In 1846, Arista was given command of the Army of the North and sent to expel American troops from territory claimed by Mexico in Texas. The resulting engagement ignited the bloody Mexican-American War of 1846–1848. Arista wa...
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Arthur

aka: Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall
borndied
1486, Sep 201502, Apr 2
Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall. As the eldest son and heir apparent of Henry VII of England, Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor. His mother, Elizabeth of York, was the daughter of Edward IV, and his birth cemented the union between the House of Tudor and the House of York. Plan...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Military

David Atchison

borndied
1807, Aug 111886, Jan 26
a mid-19th century Democratic United States Senator from Missouri. He served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate for six years. Atchison served as a Major General in the Missouri State Militia in 1838 during Missouri's Mormon War and as a Confederate Brigadier General during the Civil War under Major General Sterling Price in the Missouri Ho...
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Attakullakulla

aka: Little Carpenter
borndied
1708 ca1777 ca
an influential Cherokee leader and the tribe's First Beloved Man, serving from 1761 to around 1775. His son was Dragging Canoe, a leader of the Chickamauga Cherokee. He was captured as an infant during a raid in which his parents were killed, and brought back to Tennessee to be adopted by a Cherokee family, where he was raised as Cherokee. He was a member of...
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Karl August

aka: Charles Augustus, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
borndied
1757, Sep 31828, Jun 14
the sovereign Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of Saxe-Eisenach from 1758, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation (as a political union) in 1809, and grand duke from 1815 until his death. He is noted for the intellectual brilliance of his court. One of the first acts of the young duke was to summon Goethe to Weimar, and in 1776 he was made a member of the pri...
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Augustus II

aka: Augustus the Strong, Frederick Augustus I
borndied
1670, May 121733, Feb 1
of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and became King of Poland (as August II) and Grand Duke of Lithuania (as Augustas II). Augustus' great physical strength earned him the nicknames "the Strong", "the Saxon Hercules" and "Iron-Hand". He liked to show that he lived up to his name by brea...
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Ernest Augustus

aka: Ernst August
borndied
1629, Nov 201698, Jan23
a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. He was also the Prince-Bishop of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück. Ernest Augustus inherited part of his father's territories in 1679, Calenberg, with the Principality of Göttingen included; thus, he succeeded to the title of Duk...
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Cross-listed in Military

Aurangzeb

aka: Alamgir, Abu'l Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad
borndied
1618, Nov 31707, Mar 3
the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal Emperor. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign, which lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. During his lifetime, victories in t...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

Stephen F. Austin

borndied
1793, Nov 31836, Dec 27
an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", and the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825. After Moses Austin's death in 1821, Stephen Austin won recognition of the empresario grant from the newly-independent state of Mex...
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