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Cross-listed in Governance

Babur

aka: Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad
borndied
1483, Feb 141530, Dec 26
a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamurlane) from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mothe...
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Timeline (4)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

Vicente Bacallar

borndied
1669, Feb 61726, Jun 11
a nobleman, military officer, linguist, historian, politician and Spanish ambassador. He was born to a noble Sardinian family when the kingdom of Sardinia was part of the Spanish crown. He wrote the short poem Las Tobias (The Tobies, 1709), the poem El Palacio de Momo (Momo's Palace, 1714), the treaty Monarchia Hebrea (The Hebrew Monarch...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Felice Baciocchi

borndied
1762, May 181841, Apr 28
born at Ajaccio into a noble, but poor, Corsican family. He was second lieutenant in the French army in 1778, lieutenant in 1788, then Captain in 1794. Around 5 May 1797, he married Elisa Maria Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger sister, in Marseilles. Baciocchi was then promoted to colonel in 1802, to Brigadier General in 1804, and to Major General in 1809. He wa...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Astorre Baglioni

borndied
1526, Mar1571, Aug 4
an Italian condottiero and military commander. In 1540 he fought under the latter at Pest against the Turks. In 1550 he was on a frigate in a Christian fleet led by Carlo Sforza, to fight against the northern African raider Dragut. In August Baglioni was at the siege of Mahdia with Giordano Orsini. In 1556-1558 he was hired by the Republic of Venice, for whi...
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Links (1)


Anne Bailey

borndied
17421825, Nov 22
a story teller and frontier scout who served in the fights of the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. Her single-person ride in search of an urgently needed powder supply for the endangered Clendenin's Settlement (present-day Charleston, West Virginia) was used as the template for Charles Robb's 1861 poem "Anne Bailey's Ride". She is kno...
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Links (1)


Sir David Baird

aka: 1st Baronet
borndied
1757, Dec 61829, Aug 18
a British military leader. He was sent to India in 1779 with the 73rd (afterwards 71st) Highlanders, in which he was a captain. Immediately on his arrival, Baird was attached to the force commanded by Sir Hector Munro, which was sent forward to assist the detachment of Colonel Baillie, threatened by Hyder Ali. In the action which followed the whole force was...
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Cross-listed in Governance

Robert Barnwell

borndied
1761, Dec 211814, Oct 24
a South Carolina revolutionary and statesman who was a delegate to the Confederation Congress and a United States Congressman. His education was by a private tutor after he had exhausted the resources of the Beaufort common school. But he interrupted this and entered the revolutionary war at the age of 16 as a private in the militia. By the end of the war ha...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Francois Baron de Tott

aka: François Barbé-Marbois
borndied
1733, Aug 171793, Sep 24
an aristocrat and a French military officer of Hungarian origin. Born in Chamigny, a village in northern France, the descendant of a Hungarian nobleman, who had emigrated to the Ottoman Empire and then moved on to France with the cavalry of Count Miklós Bercsényi, and was later raised to the rank of baron. François Baron de Tott's Memoirs were published i...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Antoine Joseph Barruel-Beauvert

borndied
17561817
a French military officer and journalist. He was born Comte de Barruel-Beauvert, at the castle of Beauvert, in Languedoc, but was impoverished by the Revolution. He took part in some events of the French Revolution. He was also the first biographer of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. After the Bourbon Restoration, Barruel-Beauvert's disappointment at not receiving the...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Jean de Beaugue

aka: Beaugué
bornactivedied
unknown1540s-1550sunknown
a French soldier who served in Scotland in the 1540s during the war of the Rough Wooing. He wrote a memoir of the fighting which, first published in 1556, is still an important source for historians. Much of the book concerns the activities of the French commander in Scotland, André de Montalembert, who is often called d'Esse in British histories.
Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Francois-Joseph de Beaupoil de Sainte-Aulaire

aka: François-Joseph, marquis de Sainte-Aulaire
borndied
1643, Sep 61742, Dec 17
a French poet and army officer. After a botched education, St. Aulaire entered the army and distinguished himself by his bravery, which led him to Lieutenant General rank. He also frequently fought a duel over a restless youth. He left the military career and came to live in Paris. He was a man of pleasant manners, delicate and sharp. He was welcomed in livi...
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Cross-listed in GovernanceCommerce

William Becknell

borndied
1787/881865, Apr 30
an American soldier, politician, and freight operator who is credited with opening the Santa Fe Trail in 1821, which became an early major transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. It served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880. Beckn...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Francois-Marie Picote de Belestre

aka: François-Marie Picoté
borndied
1716, Nov 171793, Mar 30
a colonial soldier for both New France and Great Britain. As a soldier in the French troupes de la marine, Belestre fought against British and American colonial troops for 30 years, from Nova Scotia to the Mississippi River valley. Belestre became famous during the wars between France and Great Britain, serving in the North American theater of the Seven Year...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Legal

Richard Bellingham

borndied
1592 ca1672, Dec 7
a colonial magistrate, lawyer, and several-time governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the last surviving signatory of the colonial charter at his death. A wealthy lawyer in Lincolnshire prior to his departure for the New World in 1634, he was a liberal political opponent of the moderate John Winthrop, arguing for expansive views on suffrage and lawma...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in PiratesExplorersWriters

Maurycy Beniowski

aka: Baron Maurice de Benyowski, Móric Benyovszky, Móric Benyovszky
bornactivedied
1746, Sep 201762-17861786, May 23
a Hungarian nobleman of Polish and Hungarian ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, the self-declared King of Madagascar, and a military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. He is considered a national hero in Hungary, Slovakia and Poland.
Links (1)


William Beresford

aka: 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior
borndied
1768, Oct 21854, Jan 8
an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. A general in the British Army and a Marshal in the Portuguese Army, he fought alongside The Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and held the office of Master-General of the Ordnance in 1828 in Wellington's first ministry. Beresford entered the British Army in 1785 as an ensign in the 6th Regiment of Foot and the ne...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


John Berkeley

aka: 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton
borndied
16021678, Aug 26
an English royalist soldier, of the Bruton branch of the Berkeley family. From 1648 he was closely associated with James, Duke of York, and rose to prominence, fortune, and fame. He and Sir George Carteret were the founders of the Province of New Jersey, a British colony in North America that would eventually become the U.S. state of New Jersey.
Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Gillis van Berlaymont

borndied
1545 ca1579, Jun 18
stadtholder for the Spanish Crown of Drenthe, Friesland, Groningen and Overijssel (1572-1573), stadtholder of Guelders (1572-1577), substitute stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht (1574-1577), stadtholder of Namur and Artois (after 1578) and baron of Hierges. In 1567 Gilles commanded the Siege of Valenciennes, the first siege of the Eighty Years' War....
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Pierre-Joseph Bernard

aka: Gentil-Bernard
borndied
1708, Aug 261775, Nov 1
a French military man and salon poet with the reputation of a rake, the author of several libretti for Rameau. Mme de Pompadour arranged to have him appointed a royal librarian, at the château de Choisy, where she had a little pavilion built for him. He received a Jesuit education at Lyon and joined the staff of Marshal François de Franquetot de Coigny, ri...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in WritersScientists

Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

aka: Bernardin de St. Pierre
borndied
1737, Jan 191814, Jan 21
a French writer and botanist. He is best known for his 1788 novel Paul et Virginie, now largely forgotten, but in the 19th century a very popular children's book. He was educated as an engineer at the École des Ponts ParisTech. Then he joined the French Army and was involved in the Seven Years' War against Prussia and England. In 1768 he traveled to Mauriti...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Ali Bey al-Abbasi

aka: Domingo Francisco Jorge Badía y Leblich
borndied
17671818
a Spanish explorer, soldier, and spy in the early 19th century. He supported the French occupation of Spain and worked for the Bonapartist administration, but he is principally known for his travels in North Africa and the Middle East. He witnessed the Saudi conquest of Mecca in 1807. In 1814, he published a French account of his travels in three volumes. An...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in AstronomersWriters

Wilhelm Freiherr von Biela

bornactivedied
1782, Mar 191802-1840s1856, Feb 18
a German-Austrian military officer and amateur astronomer. In the field of astronomy, he specialized in observing and calculating the orbits of comets. He also did some sunspot observations and published a series of articles, mostly in the Astronomische Nachrichten, on subjects such as comets, the theoretical considerations of comets "falling into the Sun," ...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Timothy Bigelow

borndied
1739, Aug 21790, Mar 31
a Patriot in the American revolution. Timothy Bigelow plays an important part in the well-known story concerning the visit of the two British spies at the tavern of "Tory" Jones which once stood on Main Street, opposite Chatham in Worcester. It seems that British General Gage, about a month before the battles of Lexington and Concord, concluded that it would...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Colonel Thomas Blood

borndied
16181680, Aug 24
an Anglo-Irish officer and self-styled colonel best known for his attempt to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671. Described in an American source as a "noted bravo and desperado," he was known for his attempt to kidnap and, later, to kill, his enemy, the Duke of Ormonde. He had switched allegiances from Royalist to Roundhead du...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Joseph Bloomfield

bornactivedied
1753, Oct 181775-18231823, Oct 3
the fourth Governor of New Jersey. The township of Bloomfield, New Jersey is named for him. He attained the rank of major on November 28, 1776, and was appointed judge advocate of the northern army. He was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777. He resigned from the Continental Army on October 28, 1778, after he was elected clerk of the New Je...
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Timeline (3)Links (12)


Cross-listed in Governance

Charles Blount [2]

aka: 8th Baron Mountjoy, 1st Earl of Devonshire
borndied
15631606, Apr 3
an English nobleman and soldier who served as Lord Deputy of Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I, then as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under King James I. He succeeded to the family title of Baron Mountjoy in 1594, before commanding the Crown's forces during the final years of Tyrone's Rebellion. He was able to defeat Tyrone at the Battle of Kinsale, and captured ...
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Timeline (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Mountjoy Blount

aka: 1st Earl of Newport
borndied
1597 ca1666
created Baron Mountjoy in the Irish peerage (1617), baron Mountjoy of Thurveston in the English peerage (1627) and Earl of Newport (1628) was appointed master of ordnance to Charles I of England (1634) and played an ambiguous part in the early years of the English Civil War. When the Civil War broke out, however, Newport served in the royalist army, and took...
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Links (1)


Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher

aka: Blücher
borndied
1742, Dec 161819, Sep 12
a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal). He earned his greatest recognition after leading his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Blücher was born in Rostock, the son of a retired army captain. His military career began in 1758 as a hussar in the Swedish Army. He was captured by...
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Timeline (2)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Simon Bolivar

aka: Simón Bolívar
borndied
1783, Jul 241830, Dec 17
a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and, like others of his day, was educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and...
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Timeline (9)Links (5)


Cross-listed in Governance

Napoleon Bonaparte

aka: Napoleon I
bornactivedied
1769, Aug 151799-18151821, May 5
a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coali...
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Timeline (78)Links (21)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Benjamin Bonneville

borndied
1796, Apr 141878, Jun 12
a French-born officer in the United States Army, fur trapper, and explorer in the American West. He is noted for his expeditions to the Oregon Country and the Great Basin, and in particular for blazing portions of the Oregon Trail. During his lifetime, Bonneville was made famous by an account of his explorations in the West written by Washington Irving.
Timeline (1)Links (1)


Henry Bouquet

borndied
17191765, Sep 2
a prominent British Army officer in the French and Indian War and Pontiac's War. Bouquet is best known for his victory over a Native American force at the Battle of Bushy Run, lifting the siege of Fort Pitt during Pontiac's War. Like many military officers of his day, Bouquet traveled between countries serving as a professional soldier. He began his military...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Armand de Bourbon

aka: Prince of Conti
borndied
1629, Oct 111666, Feb 26
a French nobleman, the younger son of Henri, Prince of Condé and brother of le Grand Condé and Anne Geneviève, Duchess of Longueville. He played a conspicuous part in the intrigues and fighting of the Fronde, became in 1648 commander-in-chief of the rebel army, and in 1650 was with his brother (Condé) and brother-in-law (Longueville) imprisoned at Vincen...
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Henry Bourchier

aka: 2nd Earl of Essex, 6th Baron Bourchier, 3rd Count of Eu and 2nd Viscount Bourchier
borndied
unknown1540, Mar 13
an English soldier, peer and courtier at the courts of Henry VII and Henry VIII. He married Mary Say, by whom he had one daughter, Anne, who became his heir. Bourchier was a member of Henry VII's privy council and was present at the siege of Boulogne in 1492. Five years later he led a detachment against the rebels at Blackheath. When Henry VIII became king, ...
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Cross-listed in Writers

John Bourchier

aka: 2nd Baron Berners
bornactivedied
14671520-15331533, Mar 19
an English soldier, statesman and translator. He was educated at Oxford University. Bourchier held various offices of state, including Lieutenant of Calais from 28 November 1520 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 14 July 1524 that of to King Henry VIII. He translated, at the King's desire, Froissart's Chronicles (1523–1525), in such a manner as to make a...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Pierre de Bourdeille

aka: seigneur de Brantôme, abbé de Brantôme
borndied
1540 ca1614, Jul 15
a French historian, soldier and biographer. He was given several benefices, the most important of which was the abbey of Brantôme, but had no inclination for an ecclesiastical career. He became a soldier and came into contact with many of the great leaders of the continental wars. A fall from his horse compelled him to retire into private life about 1589, a...
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James Bowie

aka: Jim
borndied
1796, Apr 101836, Mar 6
a 19th-century American pioneer, who played a prominent role in the Texas Revolution, culminating in his death at the Battle of the Alamo. Stories of him as a fighter and frontiersman, both real and fictitious, have made him a legendary figure in Texas history and a folk hero of American culture.
Timeline (1)Links (8)


Cross-listed in Governance

David Brearley

aka: Brearly
bornactivedied
1745, Jun 111776-17901790, Aug 16
a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signed the U.S. Constitution on behalf of New Jersey. With the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Brearley was at first a captain in the Monmouth County militia after having spent many years speaking out against the Parliamentary absolutism. He eventually rose to the rank of colonel in Nathaniel H...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

John C. Breckinridge

borndied
1821, Jan 161875, May 17
a lawyer, politician, and soldier from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861. After non-combat service during the Mexican–American War, Breckinridge was elected as a Democrat to the Kentucky House of Representatives...
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Links (9)Notes (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Abbott Hall Brisbane

borndied
1804, Dec 41861, Sep 28
a prominent South Carolinian whose accomplishments included an extensive military career, engineering work, a professorship, authorship of a major Roman Catholic inspirational novel, and eventually, in retirement, a slave-holding plantation owner before the U.S. Civil War. He authored what on expert described as "the only Catholic [inspirational] novel from ...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernancePhysicians

John Brooks

borndied
1752, May1825, Mar 1
a doctor, military officer, and politician from Massachusetts. He served as the 11th Governor of Massachusetts from 1816 to 1823, and was one of the last Federalist officials elected in the United States. Trained as a doctor, Brooks was an officer of the Reading, Massachusetts militia when the American Revolutionary War broke out, and led his troops in the B...
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Cross-listed in Writers

Thomas Duer Broughton

borndied
17781835
an English soldier and writer on India. In 1802 he was appointed military resident with the Mahrattas. He published his experiences in a book entitled Letters Written in a Mahratta Camp During the Year 1809, descriptive of the character, manners, domestic habits, and religious ceremonies of the Mahrattas (1813). During this period he also collected Hindi poe...
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Cross-listed in Commerce

John Brown [3]

bornactivedied
1800, May 91820-18591859, Dec 2
an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. Brown first gained attention when he led small groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis of 1856. Dissatisfied with the pacifism of the organized abolitionist movement, he said, "These men are al...
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Timeline (5)Links (18)


William Brown

borndied
17591808
was a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He was born in Stamford and enlisted in the 5th Connecticut Regiment as a corporal on 23 May 1775, and re-enlisted as a private on 9 April 1777, for the duration of the war in the 8th Connecticut Regiment. He was promoted to corporal on 8 May 1779, and to sergeant on 1 August 1780,...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceLegal

Archibald Bulloch

borndied
1730, Jan 11777, Feb 22
a lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Georgia during the American Revolution. He was also the great-grandfather of Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, and the great-great-grandfather of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States. In 1776, Bulloch fought under the command of Colonel Lachlan McIntosh in the Battle of the Rice Boats and the Battle of Tyb...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in GovernanceWriters

John Burgoyne

borndied
1722, Feb 241792, Aug 4
a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, most notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762. John Burgoyne is best known for his role in the American Revolutionary War. He designed an invasion scheme and was appointed to command a force moving south from Canada t...
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Timeline (5)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Explorers

Robert O'Hara Burke

bornactivedied
1821, May 61841-18611861, Jun 28 ca
an Irish soldier and police officer, who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the leader of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The expedition party was well equipped, but ...
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Links (12)Notes (3)


Cross-listed in ExplorersWritersCartographers

Richard Burton

aka: Richard Francis
bornactivedied
1821, Mar 191842-18901890, Oct 20
a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African la...
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Timeline (1)Links (1)


Cross-listed in Governance

Pierce Butler

borndied
1744, Jul 111822, Feb 15
recognized as one of United States' Founding Fathers and was a soldier, planter, and statesman. He represented South Carolina in the Continental Congress, the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and the U.S. Senate. One of the largest slaveholders in the United States, Butler defended American slavery for both political and personal motives even though he had p...
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Walter Butler

aka: of Ballinakill Castle, Roscrea
borndied
1600 ca1634, Dec 25
a military officer, who served as a Colonel (Oberst) in the Imperial Army under Albrecht von Wallenstein and was involved in Wallenstein's murder in 1634. When his family estates in Roscrea, County Tipperary were confiscated in 1616, Walter became a soldier of fortune. He entered the armed forces of the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II and served with distincti...
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Links (1)


Cross-listed in Writers

Juan Guillen Buzaran

aka: Juan Guillén Buzarán
borndied
1819, Sep 291892, Jan 8
a Spanish military officer, writer and literary collaborator in the press of the time. Author of Historia anecdótica de la corte de Felipe III, Fray Pablo de Salamanca, and La torre de los espíritus. He moved to Madrid in 1833, where he studied at San Fulgencio de Murcia, joining the Spanish army from 1839 until 1859.
Links (1)

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